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Samson Occom, Journal, 1761 May 30 to July 7

ms-number: 761330.1

abstract: Occom records events on his journey to Oneida country.

handwriting: Handwriting is clear and legible.

paper: Small sheets folded into a booklet and bound with thread or twine are in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear. Pages 13 verso through 16 recto, 18 verso through 19 recto, and 21 verso through 22 recto are uncut at the top and thus have not been scanned.

ink: Brown ink is faded in spots.

noteworthy: There are red pencil marks throughtout. On one recto, an editor, likely 19th-century, has added the note “Journey to oneida.” This note has not been included in the transcription. People and places whose names are illegible have been left untagged.

events: Occom’s First Mission to the Oneidas

A Journal 1761

Blank page.

Montauk May ye 30: 1761

After repeated Invitations
from the Revd David Boſtwick
of New-York, to go and make
a Viſet to the Onoyda Indians
This Day took leave of my Poor
Family, and Friends with tender
Affection, about 12, Sot out for
Eaſthampton Got there after Sun
Set, Lodg'd at the Revd Samuel
's —

Sabbath May ye 31

Spent the Day at Eaſthamton,
Mr Buell Preacht in the fore
part of the Day, In the after
Noon I Preachd, from Eph 5:20

Monday June ye 1

taried at
Mr Buell's on account of his
his only Son's Dangerous Sickneſs

Tueſday June ye 2

As the
Day Appeard, the Child
Dyed, and was Buried Wed‐
Juſt before Sun Set,

Thirdsday Morning June

took leave of my Good Friends
at Eaſthampton, and went
Down to Northweſt, and a
bout 12 went aboard of Mr
at Cedar Point, we
had Favourable wind, we
Sail'd Strait to Sea Brook
Landed a Capt Harris's about
9 at Ninght and Lodg'd there,

Fryday June ye 5

Sot out
Early in the Morning for
Mohegan, Stopt at N[illegible][guess: a]h[illegible][guess: an]
about two Hours, then Sot
off again,
got to Mothers about 9 at
Night found My Relations
and Friends well in general
here I taried the Sabbath over

Monday June 8

took leave of my Relations and
Friends at Mohegan, Sot
out for Lebanon, abou 9 in
Morning, got there before
Sun Set, found them all
well as uſual at Mr Wheelock[illegible]
But it was very Sickly and
Dying Times in the Pariſh

Wedneſday June ye 10

bout 3 PM, Brother David
and I took Leave of Mr
Wheelock and his Family
and Sot out on our Journey
for Onoyda by way of New
— Reach'd Heartford
about 9 at Night, Lodgd
Capt Daniel Bulls, and were
very Kindly Treated — the Man
and Seem to be Truely Religious
keep very dgood orders in his
Houſe —

Thirdſday June ye 11

about 9
in the Morning we Sot out on
our Journey, and got about
6 Miles weſtward of N. Haven
and Lodg'd at one Woodroffs —

Fryday June ye 12:

Early in the Moring, godt to
Stanford at Night Lodgd
at a Certain Tavern — —

Saturday June ye 13

on our [illegible]way, godt within
5 Miles of the City of New
, and turn'd to in one
Mr Goldſmith's —

Sabbath June ye 14

at Goldſmiths, we did not go
to the City to Publick worſhip
for fear of the Small Pox, being
Informed, very Brief there —
But I never Saw a Sabbath
Spent So by any Criſtian
People in my Life as ſome
Spent it here, Some were
Riding in Chairs Some upon
Horſe Back orthers traveting
foot, Paſsing and Repaſsing
all Day long, and all Sorts
of Evil Noiſes Caried on by 'em
Drunkards were Realing and
Stagaring in the Streets, others
tumbling off their Horses, there
were others at work in their
farms, and ever any People,
under the Heavens Spoke Hells
Language, theſe People did, for
their Mouths were full of Curſ‐
ings, Prophaning gods Holy
Holy Name — I am greatly
Miſtake if theſe are not the Sons
and Daughters of Belial,
O thou God of Heaven, thou yt
Hast all the Hearts of the Children
of men in thine Hands, Leave me not
to Pratice the works of theſe
People, but help me, o Lord,
to take warning, and to
to take heed to my Self acord
ing to thy Ho[illegible]ly word, and
have mercy upon the Wicked
Convince and Convert them to
thy Self, for thine own glory
I have thought there was
no Heathen but the wild
Indians, but I th[illegible]ink [illegible]now there
is Some Engliſh Heathen,
where they Enjoy the Goſpel
of Jeſus Chriſt too, Yea I be‐
lieve they are worſe than ye
Savage Heathens of the wilder
wilderneſs, — I have thou[illegible]ght
that I had rather Go with the
meaneſt and moſt Diſpiſ'd Crea
ture on Earth to Heaven, than
to Go with the greateſt Monarch
Down to Hell, after a Short
Enjoyment of Sinful Pleaſures
with them in this World —
I am Glad there is one defect
in the EIndian Language and
I believe in all their Languages,
i:e they Can't Curſe or ſware
or take god's Name in vain
in their own Toungue —

Monday June ye 15

to the
City, and were Conducted to
Mr Well's at freſh waters
and were Very Kindly re
ceiv'd by him and by all
his Family, I believe the
Fear of god in their Houſe
and this was our Home as
long as we Stay'd in the pl[illegible][guess: a][illegible]
The People of the City were
Extreamly Kind to us, there
was not a Day Scarſly, but
that I was Invited to Dine
with one Gentleman or other,
The Miniſters of all Sects
and Denominations were un‐
commonly Kind to me — my
Friends Increaced Daily
while I Stayd at New York

Thirdsday June ye 25

we left New York and went
on our Journey, Reach'd
Peekskills at Night —

Fryday June 26

Sot out
very Early in the Morning
and we made it Night, [illegible][guess: be]
[illegible][guess: tween Claverack & Kinder]
[illegible][guess: hook] at Rynbeck
Sabbath June 2

Saturday June ye 27

out very Early, and made
it Night between Claverack
and Kinderhook, —

Sabbath June ye 28

to Kinderhook about five
Miles, and there Stopt all
Day, — but did not go to Pub‐
lick Worſhip, Becauſe the
People were Barbarians
to us wand we to them, in our
To[illegible]nugs, they were Dutch

Monday June ye 29

the Place very Early, and
got to Albany about 12 O:C
and were Conducted to one
Mr Staats Vn Santvoord &
taried there, and the People
in Albany were very kind
to us, I went to wait upon
his Excellency GGen.[illegible][guess: ll] Amherſt
the [illegible]After Noon after Iwe
got to Al[illegible]bany, but he was
buſy and I Coud not See him
one of his waiters Came out
to me, and told me I Shoud
have the Generals Asſiſtance
and I Shoud make my Ap
pearance about 10 in the
Morning, Tueſday June
ye the 30
I made my Appea
rence before his Excellency
at the Time Apointed ac‐
cording to orders, his Excel
wMet me at the Door
and told me he had [illegible]wrote
a Paſs for me, and he un
folded it and Read it to
me, and when he had
Read it, he Detivered
it to me, and gave me
good Advice and Counſel
and wiſh'd me Succeſs in
my undertaking & I returnd
unfeigned Thanks to him
and then took my leave
of him &c — The Paſs which
he gave me was very good one in
deed, which I will Coppy
Down here —
By his Excellency
Jeffery Amherſt & Esqr:
Major EGeneral, and Com‐
mander in Chief of all His
's Forces in North
&c &c &c —
To All Whom it may
Whereas the Correſpondents
of the Society in Scotland for
for Propagating Chriſtian
, have Acquainted
me that the Bearer hereof, the
Revd Mr Occom, is Sent by
by them, as a Miſsionary to
Reside Amongſt the Indians
about the onoyda Lake, Theſe
are to order and direct the
officers Commanding at the
Several posts, to give him
any Aid or Aſsistance he
may Stand in need of to
forward him on his Journey
And on his Arival at ye
Onoyda Lake, the officer
Commanding there will
Grant him all the Protection
and Countenance he may
want, in the Execution
of his Duty &c
given under my Hand
& Seal at Head Quarters
in Albany, this 29th Day
of June 1761
Jeff. Amherſt
by his Excellencys
Arthur Mair

Wedneſday Junely ye 1.

Albaney about 10 in the
Morning; Got to Scenectady
about 3 in the after Noon
Stayed there one Night, —

Thirdsday July 2

went from
Senectady, In Company with
Colol Whiting and Dr Rod‐
, they Seemed to be Quite
Friendly Gentlemen to
us, we got about Seven miles
weſtward of Sir William
's —

Fryday July ye 3

went to
See Sir William at his
Farm Seven Miles out off the
Road, in the Wilderneſs,
Got there about 9 in the
Morning, and were very
Kindly Entertaind by his
his Honor, I Showed him
my Recommendatory Let
ters, and a Paſs from Genl
, he Promiſed
me his Aſsistance as Need
Shold Require, he was ex‐
ceeding free with me in Con
verſation — But we Stayd there
but about two Hours, for
he was geting in Readines
to go [illegible][guess: ing] on our way on the
Next Day towards Tetroit
with five Battows laden
with Preſents for the Indians
he Said he wou'd overtake
us on the Morrow before Night
— we took Leave of his Honor
and went our way, after we had
got to the Main Road, we
Call'd in at Certain Houſe —
and there we were Detaind
one Night, by a Storm —

Saturday July ye 4

went on our Journey and
Reach'd the German flats
at Night, and we Turn'd
in at one Mr Frank's
a Tavern Keeper —

Sabbath July ye 5

we Stayd
at Mr Franks, but did
not go to Publick worſhip
with the People, becauſe they
Spoke unknown Tonugue
to us, But it did Seem
like Sabbath by the Ap‐
pearance of the People —

July the 6

[illegible]Sir William Came to
us at Mr Frank's —

Tueſday July ye 7

Sir William
and the Chiefs of the Onoyda
Indians Met at this Place, to
make up a Breach, which [illegible][guess: ,]
one of the Indians made late
ly, by Killing a Dutch man
they talkd about an Hour at
this Time, and then Brok up
Towards Night they Met together
again, and talkd together a
bout 3 quarters of an Hour. Then
finaly Brock up, without be‐
ing fully Satiſfied on both Sides
for the Indians Inſisted upon
an d old agreement that was
Settled between them and the
Engliſh formerly, that if any
Such Acident Shou'd ever hap
pen between them in Peacea‐
ble Times, they Shou'd make
it up in an Amicable man‐
ner without Sheding of Blood
But Sir William told them
it was the Comand of general
, that the murderer Shod
be deliverd up to Juſtice — but
the Indians Said that murderer
was gone off nobody Knows
where &c
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Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Occom, Sarah

Sarah Occom was Samson Occom's mother. There is some evidence that she was a member of the Groton Pequots, a remnant of the once powerful Pequot Tribe that was decimated by the war with the Puritans in 1636-37. (The Pequots and Mohegans were once a unified people until the Mohegan chief Uncas and a band of followers split off after a dispute with Sassacus, who became sachem of the Pequots.) One genealogy gives Sarah's birthdate as 1694, her maiden name as Wauby Sampson, her father as Sabientouset II (known as General Samson) and her mother as Hannah Wequot Uncas, of the line of the Mohegan's first sachem. Sarah married Joshua Occom (or Tomockham), a Mohegan, and they may have had up to five children: Joshua Jr., Samson, Jonathan, Lucy, and Sarah. In Samson's "Short Narrative" of his life, he notes that his parents "led a wandering Life up and down in the Wilderness" around Uncas Hill. Sarah was an early convert to Christianity during the revivals that swept the area, and Occom recounts that when he told her he wanted education in order to serve his Tribe, she went to Wheelock in nearby Lebanon, CT, because she heard "he had a Number of English youth under his Tuition," to request he take in her son. By 1743, Sarah was a widow, and Samson continued to visit and stay at his mother's house in Mohegan through the 1760s, though one source gives her death as 1782.

Amherst, Jeffery

General Amherst was a major figure in eighteenth-century British military politics, especially for his role in conquering Canada. He began his career during the War of Austrian Succession. In 1758, he was stationed in North America and successfully seized Louisbourg, a French fort on an island off of Nova Scotia. As a result of his success, he was promoted to Commander-in-chief of British forces in North America. Amherst invaded Canada and, in 1760, he captured Montreal. Despite his success in North America, Amherst never enjoyed working with American colonists, and constantly requested a new post. In 1763 this wish was granted, primarily because Amherst had failed to prevent or quell the Pontiac War. He returned home to Kent where he lived out his life as a high-ranking domestic military official. He is significant here because his endorsement of Occom gave Occom a connection to Sir William Johnson and enabled Occom to go among the Six Nations.

Johnson, William

Sir William Johnson was a powerful British colonial official who amassed wealth and influence by integrating into the Mohawk tribe. For a brief window of time (1761-1768), he provided support for Wheelock’s missionary efforts among the Six Nations. He also helped the Brothertown Nation of Indians procure land from the Oneidas. Johnson was born in Ireland in 1715. His family had been part of the Catholic elite, but after William of Orange’s 1690 victory at the Battle of the Boyne, they at least nominally converted to the Episcopalian Church. In 1738, Johnson emigrated to America to manage his uncle Peter Warren’s estate in Mohawk territory. Over the next decade, Johnson became wealthy in his own right through trade and land sales, acquiring a vast estate crowned by his manor house, Johnson Hall, which became the central location for British and Indian treaty making. In 1745, Johnson began collecting official British titles and positions. He played an important military role in the French and Indian War and was named Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1756 and first baronet of New York in 1757. Much of Johnson’s success was due to his influence among the Mohawks, which he obtained by learning their language and customs and integrating himself into their society. He participated in Mohawk rituals and entered into a common-law marriage with a powerful Mohawk woman, Molly Brant (also called Mary Brant). Because Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) society is matrilineal, this marriage was an essential element of his participation in Indian affairs. Wheelock desperately wanted to wield missionary influence among the Six Nations, and sought to obtain Johnson as an ally in his endeavors. At first, the two found grounds for cooperation. Wheelock sent Occom as a missionary to the Oneidas in 1761 and again in 1762, and sent a substantially larger group of missionaries and schoolmasters in 1765, 1766, and 1767. Johnson, meanwhile, encouraged Haudenosaunee children, including his brother-in-law Joseph Brant, to attend Moor’s. Johnson’s support proved indispensible to missionaries in the field; he helped with supplies, language skills, and relations with the Mohawks and Oneidas. Wheelock also valued Johnson for his influence in Britain, and drew on him for recommendations and public statements of support numerous times. From 1763 on, however, Johnson found himself decidedly uncomfortable with Wheelock’s missionary efforts, and by 1769, their relationship had dissolved completely. In 1766, Johnson was invited to join the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), the largest and most influential Anglican missionary society in the 18th-century British-Atlantic world. He began working to place Anglican missionaries, rather than Congregationalist and Presbyterian ones, among the Six Nations, which alarmed Wheelock. Johnson was generally supportive of Native American tribes’ efforts to maintain their land and sovereignty. As the historian Linford Fisher has noted, “virtually every major Native group in southeastern New England successfully petitioned Johnson to act on their behalf during the late 1760s and early 1770s.” Among these groups was the Brothertown Nation, a Christian composite tribe formed by Southern New England Algonquian Moor’s alumni. Johnson helped them negotiate with the Oneidas, which proved essential to their successful land purchase and relocation to central New York.

Frank, Lawrence

Lawrence Frank, also identified in histories of Frankfort as "Lewis," was one of the earliest settlers of the town of Frankfort (originally Frank's Ford), located east of present-day Utica, which was named in his honor. He was the son of Henry Frank (c 1725-1790) and Maria Catharine. Henry immigrated to Pennsylvania from Germany, probably Bavaria, with his brother Christopher in 1740 and was a trader between the Mohawk and Lehigh Valleys in the 1740s and 50s. He settled in German Flatts, an area originally belonging to the Mohawk Nation but populated with German immigrants who bought up the fertile river lands. Lawrence married Mary Myers in 1769 and they helped found the new town of Frankfort on land originally bought from the Mohawks by Dutch settlers. The land was set off as a separate town from German Flatts by an act of the NY Legislature on February 5, 1796. Lawrence Frank owned a large tract of land, and town history reflects that he actively promoted the industrial and agricultural progress of Frankfort, which was severely damaged in the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. In fact, Frank and a group of other patriots were taken as prisoners of war during the Revolution and housed in Quebec from August 31 1778 until May 15 1781, when he was released and made his way back home. His popularity is reflected in the fact that the village of Howard's Bush was renamed Frankfort Center and McGowansville was renamed East Frankfort. Later in life, Frank moved with some of his family to a new settlement called Busti in Chautauqua County, NY, which is where he died. On his first journey to the Oneidas in 1761, Occom records paying for lodging at Mr. Franks, a tavern keeper in German Flatts. Although there is no historical record of such a place, Occom returned to this tavern many times on his preaching tours of the area between 1786 and 1790. Frank's Tavern must have been a major establishment because in early July of 1761, Occom notes that William Johnson met him and David Fowler there, and that the next day Johnson met with chiefs of the Oneidas to work out an agreement about an Oneida who killed a Dutchman. In June 1789, Occom records preaching in Esquire Frank's barn to "a vast number of people."

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Bostwick, David

David Bostwick was a popular Presbyterian minister in New York—so popular, in fact, that two congregations fought over him and the New York Synod had to intervene. He was the president of the New York Board of Commissioners for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowlege. Bostwick encouraged Occom's mission to the Oneidas; took up a collection at his church for Occom, which reached over 60 pounds; and lent his name to a recommendation for Occom to Sir William Johnson. When Samuel Buell published his sermon from Occom's ordination, it was prefixed with a letter addressed to David Bostwick outlining Occom's character.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Buell, Samuel

Buell was a popular Presbyterian minister during the second half of the 18th century in Long Island, as well as a close friend of Samson Occom. He was ordained in November 1743, and was a popular itinerant minister before settling at Easthampton. He preached at Occom's ordination, published the sermon in 1761 to raise funds for Occom (he also wrote the letter addressed to Bostwick prefacing his publication), and stayed in close contact with Occom even after Occom's public break from Wheelock. Occom's diary is full of references to visiting Buell and to their close friendship. During the Revolution, Buell was the only minister on Long Island for 40 miles, and was very active in assisting the American cause. He also founded Clinton Academy on Long Island in 1785, which was the first private school chartered by the New York Board of Regents. This academy was also remarkable in that it admitted women. Multiple historical sources have misconstrued Samuel Buell as Sol or Solomon Buell, likely because Buell sometimes signed his name Sa.l, a creative abbreviation of Samuel. However, there was no Reverend Solomon Buell in Easthampton, or, it seems, Long Island, in the second half of the 18th century: Samuel had no brothers, and were there to be two Reverend S. Buell's within 10 miles of one another during the same period, related or not, doubtlessly someone would have commented on it. In addition, the handwriting in letters ascribed to "Sol" and those assigned to Samuel is identical. Lastly, the only source besides collection manuscript 765530.3 describing a "Solomon Buell" is an anthology of letters from the Revolution, which contain letters from a Rev. Sol. Buell, or S. Buell, about aiding the American cause. These letters correspond well with descriptions of Samuel's life in an 1809 biography of his life, and, as he was the only Reverend but one for 40 miles during the Revolution, it is likely that these letters belong to him.

Mair, Arthur
Bull, Daniel

Daniel Bull was a longtime resident of Hartford, CT, with whom Eleazar Wheelock, Samson Occom, and David Fowler all lodged between at least 1761 and 1765. He was a deacon of the South Church as well as a captain in Connecticut's 1st Regiment. In three letters between 1764 and 1765, Wheelock instructs recipients to direct their replies to the care of Bull in Hartford. Bull appears twice on lists of donations to Yale College for funding construction projects between 1756 and 1761. He may have also been a member of "The Company of Military Adventurers," a group of Englishmen who assembled in Hartford beginning 1763 to obtain grants of land from the Crown following their service in the French and Indian War. He died in Hartford in November 1776.

Frederick, George William

George William Frederick (King George III) became heir to the throne of England in 1751 upon the death of his father Frederick, Prince of Wales. He became King George III of England in the fall of 1760 at age 22, following the death of his grandfather King George II. George III passed many important edicts during his reign including that of the Royal Marriage Act of 1772; the Treaty of Paris in 1762, which ended the Seven Years War; the Stamp Act of 1765; and the Townshend Duties of 1767. However, he is most well-known for being the reigning monarch during the Revolutionary War. After the surrender of British forces to the Americans in 1782, George III considered abdicating the throne, but chose not to do so because he felt it would be too detrimental to Britain. The last 30 years of George's life were plagued with illness. In 1788 he had the first of many attacks of insanity, now believed to have been caused by an inherited disease known as porphyria. With George III unfit to rule, it was decided that his son George would become regent, an arrangement which was made permanent in 1810. King George III died on January 29, 1820 at the age of 81 after a reign of nearly 60 years (the third longest in British history). He was succeeded by his son George IV.

Van Santvoord, Staats
Occom’s First Mission to the Oneidas
HomeSamson Occom, Journal, 1761 May 30 to July 7
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