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Samson Occom, sermon, Habakkuk 2:15.
Unidentified author, notes for sermon.

ms-number: 003219

abstract: Occom’s undated sermon, “Woe unto him who gives his neighbor drink,” is accompanied by notes for a sermon in an unidentified hand.

handwriting: Occom's handwriting is clear and legible. The unidentified hand is looser and less formal, but largely clear and legible.

paper: Several small sheets are folded into a booklet that was, at one time, bound with thread or twine. Paper is heavily worn, with significant loss of text.

ink: Brown ink is heavily faded in spots.

noteworthy: Beginning on seven recto, the document is written in a different, unidentified hand. There is a small pin in the inside seam holding the booklet together. An editor, likely 19th-century, has added notes on several pages in black ink. These notes have not been transcribed.


[gap: worn_edge][guess: c]k [gap: faded]
[gap: worn_edge][guess: W]o unto him that gives [gap: worn_edge]
Neighbour Drink! that [gap: worn_edge][guess: p]
thy Bottle to him, and makeſt
him Drunken alſo, that thou
mayeſt look on their Nakedneſs!
Isai. V. 11. Wo unto them, that
riſe up early in the Morning, that
they may follow Strong Drink,
that Continue untill Night, till
Wine inflaim them. — verſe. 22
Wo unto them that are mighty to
drink wine, and men of Strength
to mingle Strong Drink. — —
God, the Eternal Benefacent
Father of all — Saw fit to Cre
ate this World, and he fill’d it
with veriety of every thing, both
Animate and Inanimate Creatures
The moving Creatures upon the
Face of the earth are innu[gap: worn_edge][guess: me]
rable and various, both great
and Small, — And the feather’d are
Without Number, and of all sort
and the productions of the earth
amazing in their veriety, both [gap: faded]
[gap: worn_edge] the Juſt, [gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge]efferent vertues [gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge] in the things to grow o[gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge] Earth — And veriety of Fruits
upon the Face of the Earth, — And
the Lord, ma[illegible]de a Garden alſo, and
we muſt Conclude [illegible] that it Containd
the Very Choice and the moſt excel
lent things in the World. — And the
Sea the Lakes and all Streams were
all full of every kind of Fiſh,
great and Small. — and the Luma
naries alſo were fixt in the Hea
vens, Like Lanthorns, The Sun the
Moon and the Stars, were made
to give Light to this wWorld. —
and when the Lord God, had Boun
tifully and Richly furniſhd, this
World, with every neceſsary of Life —
Then last of all, he made man
for whom he made this World, —
he was the Crown, the Glory, and
the Excellency and the Beauty
of the whole Creation. For God
made [illegible]him in his own Image
and Likeneſs, Breathed in to
him the Breath of Life and he
became a living and Imortal
Soul, — and the Lord formed
Wo[gap: hole][guess: ma]n alſo out of the [gap: worn_edge] Neig[illegible]
[gap: hole]d they two were th[gap: hole]
[gap: hole]ir that ever was, they w[gap: worn_edge][guess: er]e
little lower the Angels — and
the Lord gave the whole World —, placed in the garden
and freely gave it to them, and
every ꞈ in it except one Tree
which was in the midſt of the
garden, and they were not to
eat of that, for in the Day, that
they Shou’d of it they Shoud die —
and we muſt Conclude, that [illegible]whilſt
they stood in their Inocency, they
they uſd every Creature Comfort
agreable to gods mind, they
Glorified god in all things —
and they fully Engagd God, &
that was their supream Hap
pineſs, — and had they Continued
in that State of holyneſs, they
might hence been happy to endleſs
ages — But alas we find a ma
loncholy account, of them; when
the Tempter Came to our Mother
with a lie; She put forth her Hand
Stold the forbiden Fruit and
eat of it, and gave unto her
Huſband alſo, and he eat of it
[gap: worn_edge][guess: w]hich they loſt all, they l[gap: hole][guess: oſ]t
[gap: worn_edge][guess: B][gap: hole][guess: l]e[gap: hole][guess: ſ]ſed Enjoyment of god, [gap: hole][guess: t]hey
Loſt the Image of god, and all
their Holineſs and Inocency, all
Light and Comfort, — They plungd
themſelves and all their Poſterity
into Sin and Darkneſs, and all
manner of Miſery, To Death. Tempo
ral Spiritual and Eternal —
This is the Miſeralble Situation of
mankind, he is now prone to all
manner of Sin, — alas, where is man
and what is man? The most Noble
Creature is become the most Igno
ble Creature. from being almoſt
an Angel, is become a Devil. —
He is now practicing all manner
of Sins, — and amongſt the vari
ous Commited, Drunkeneſs is one
of the worſt, yet it is growing a
mongſt all Nations. — — —
I Shall now Say Something from
the Texts I have read; Some may
think it Strange, that I Shoud take
so many Texts to make one Diſcourſe
upon; I aim to Speak to two sorts
of People in particular —
I shall now take notice of the
firſt —
Wo unto him that giveth his Neigh
[gap: hole][guess: bo]ur Drintk &c — There is [gap: hole]
ful uſe of all Creature Comforts,
they were made for our Support
and Comfort in Life — but when
we uſe them beyound the bounds
of Temperance we uſe them un
lawfully, and Sin againſt God
the Giver of all theſe Comforts —
and there is Sin, both in Commu
nicateing and receiving thoſe Com
forts, as we See in our Text. —
A dreadful is Denouncd, againſt
him that gives Drink to his Neigh
bour, a bad intention —
Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.
2.d Directions how to come [gap: worn_edge]
as helpleſs Creatures.
Hoſea. 13. 9. Pſa. 89. 19. we muſt
go to X as the only way. John. 14. 6.
we muſt go to Chriſt as the only Saviour.
Acts. 4. 12.
we muſt go to Chriſt as the all Sufficia[illegible]
Saviour. — Heb. 7. 25.
we muſt go to Jeſus to ſave us from our
Sins. Matt. 1. 21. —
we muſt go to X to free us from the Curſe
of the Law. gall 3. 10. — 13.
we muſt go to X to obtain Pardon.
S.t. Luke. 24. 46. 47. Acts. 10. 40. 43.
we muſt go to X to give us grace.
S.t. John. 1. 19. 17. 2 Cor. 12. 9.
we muſt go to X to obtain Et.l Life
John. 10. 10. John. 20. 31. John
[illegible][guess: M] 3. 19. laſtly we muſt go to X
caſting our Burdens on him, and
recieve him o[illegible] our P. P. & K.
yea our all. —
3dly. the Priviledges. &c..
the Sons of god. John. 1. 12. [illegible]
if sons then heirs. &c: gall. 4. [gap: worn_edge][guess: 7]
Rom. 8. 14. 17. to what they [gap: worn_edge]
heirs to. 1. [below]2. Tim. 4. 8. 1 Pet[gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge] Ch. verſes. fulfilled
[gap: worn_edge] 61. 1 — 3 Luke. 4. 16 - 2[gap: worn_edge]
the [gap: worn_edge][guess: T]ext. Matt. 11. 28. 1fulfilled.
Method of Diſcourſe. [illegible][guess: from] the Text.
1st. Place. I ſhall endeavour to deſcribe
thoſe Perſons, to whom this gracious
call, or invitation is addreſsed. —
2d place. I ſhall give few directions
how they muſt Come.
3dly. I ſhall put the com[illegible][guess: pl]iers of
this invitation in mind of the great
Privildges they intitle themſelves to.
4thly. addreſs myſelf to the dispiſers
of this call or invitation of Jeſus
Chriſt the Eternal ſon of god.
5thly. conclude the whole with [illegible]
few words of Exhortation. —
1st. Place. the Call is to the sons of
men. not devils. to thoſe that are
now in the Land of the Living. not the
Damne[illegible]d Spirits. — the call is to the
wonders, that are going poſt haſt
to endleſs miſery. —
[gap: worn_edge][guess: b]ut more particularly. to thoſe [illegible]that [illegible]
[gap: worn_edge]abous. and are heavy laden. [illegible][guess: Sent]]
[gap: worn_edge] invitation is to thoſe that pull themſelves
[gap: worn_edge] Matt. 18. 11. the invitation is to
[gap: worn_edge] Matt. 9. [illegible]. 13. yea the Chief of
[gap: worn_edge] Tim. 1. 15. and the call is gen[illegible]
[gap: worn_edge] [illegible][guess: Sert] of the Children of men!
[gap: worn_edge][guess: 2]6. 27. 28. &c..
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

HomeSamson Occom, sermon, Habakkuk 2:15. Unidentified author, notes for sermon.
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