Canajoharie

Variant name of place:

Kanajuharee; Kanajoharry; Kanajoharry Castle; Upper Castle; Mohawk Castle; Castle; Canajohare

Geographic position:

42.9031° N, 74.5711° W

All related documents: retrieve them
Sources:

Swinehart, Kirk Davis. “Fort Johnson, Johnson Hall, and the Anglo-Mohawk Alliance.” American Indian Places: A Historical Guidebook. Ed. Frances H. Kennedy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2008. Web. http://indiancastle.com/ICNHL.htm. Andrews, Edward E. Native Apostles: Black and Indian Missionaries in the British Atlantic World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013. Print. Tiro, Karin M. “James Dean in Iroquoia.” New York History. 80.4 (1994) 391-422. Web. Silverman, David J. Red Brethren: The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and the Problem of Race in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell, 2010. Web.

General note:

The historical Mohawk village of Canajoharie was located about 50 miles northwest of Albany, New York, in the central part of the state. Today, both a town and village in the same vicinity of the Mohawk village of Canajoharie have taken the Mohawk name, but the location of the present-day village is slightly east of the historical village. Because the village’s name was similar to the Oneida village of Kanawalohale, where David Fowler established a school in 1765, many sources conflate the two villages. Canajoharie, which in English means a washed kettle, was also known by the names Indian Castle and Upper Castle, which refers to the late 17th-century Mohawk fortifications that were built around the town following a series of French attacks during King William’s War. The term Upper Castle served to differentiate Canajoharie from Lower Mohawk Castle located in the Mohawk village of Tionondoroge near Fort Hunter. Canajoharie contained the Indian Castle church, which still stands today and was built in 1769 by the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Sir William Johnson, with help from the Mohawk siblings Molly and Joseph Brant, who donated land to the cause. Throughout the span of the 18th century, war, disease, and emigration severely reduced the Mohawk population in Canajoharie, and an influx of both white and non-Mohawk Native Americans resulted in a diverse and ethnically mixed culture. Wheelock's missionary work in this village in the 1760s was headed by Theophilus Chamberlain, while Abraham major, Abraham minor, and Peter (Mohawk) maintained missionary schools near Canajoharie.