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    Geographical Items on North Greenland

    Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General




    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0466                                                                                                                  

    GEOGRAPHICAL ITEMS ON NORTH GREENLAND

    (in alphabetical order)

           

    by

           

    Felizia Seyd

    001      |      Vol_XIV-0467                                                                                                                  

    Adam Biering Land,

            a small ice free section in northeast Greenland, lies about 15 or 20

    miles west of the head of Independence Fjord. It is largely locked in

    by the Inland Ice, except in the nrotheast and east where it borders

    Etussuk Valley and Heilprin Land , respectively. Its rocky heights, which

    rise to about 3,500 ft. , are intersected by a number of a l.c. [ ?] valleys and deep

    ravines, some of which are surprisingly fertile. VALMUEDALEN, a broad and

    level valley, between Adam Biering - and Heilprin Land s , was found to

    have well-watered bottom land (clay plains and raised level beaches of gravel , ),

    producing a rich crop of grasses and yellow poppies; the gentle

    slopes show ed an abundance of arctic willow.

            Members of the First Thule Expedition, which stayed in Adam

    Biering Land from j J une 29, to July 12, 1912, termed the area ideal

    hunting country; they shot 17 musk oxen in Valmuedalen alone. Hares and

    lemmings were numerous, and birds, sighted with their young brood,

    included ptarmigan, turnstones, sanderlings, ringed plovers and the long–

    tailed skua.

            Guidebook 1306 MG 51, 305,410 Chart AAF Aer, Ch. (8) ( 0 9 ) 1944

            Indexer: list Valmuedalen.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0468                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 50 w

    Ad. Jensen Fjord,

            in northern Greenland, is one of three fjords leading from De

    Long Fjord. From its entrance at lat. 83° 10′N. Ad. Jensen Fjord trends about

    17 miles southeastward to the face of the large Tjalfes Glacier. A wide

    channel connects the middle portion of the fjord with Th.Thomsen Fjord

    to the westward.

            HO 76, 567



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0469                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Advance Bay,

            indents the coast of Inglefield Land, northern West Greenland, close

    northward of latitude 79° N. The bay, which penetrates the shore to a depth

    of about 3 miles, is entered between a point about 2 miles northeastward

    of Cape Scott and a northward projecting point, about 3-1/2 miles north–

    northeastward; the inner half of the bay has a width of less than 1 mile.

            H.O. 76, 528



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0470                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Agassiz,

            (79° 09′N., 65° 40′W.) in northern West Greenland, marks the

    west point of a small triangular peninsula which projects northwestward

    into Peabody Bay, close to the southern end of Humboldt Glacier.

    The inner portion of the peninsula is completely locked in by the Inland

    Ice. A group of islets (Mc Garry Islands) lies northward of the cape

    and close off the face of the southernmost end of Humboldt Glacier. Another

    chain of islets extends northwestward about 1 mile from the cape.

            The cape was named after the French zoologist Swiss-American naturalist Louis Agassiz.

            Guidebook 1214 H.O. 76, 528 MG 65, 287

            Indexer: list Mc Garry Islands (Peabody Bay)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0471                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 90 w

    Cape Shackleton (Agparssuit)

            (western extremity,73° 49′N., 56° 50′W.) is a small island in the Upernivik District of northwest Greenland,

    about 2 miles southwestward of the large island Kugdlikorssuit.

    A conspicuous headland, rising sheer from the sea to an elevation of over

    1,400 ft., forms the southern and southwestern side of the island.

    Thousands of guillemots breed in the cliffs, and fresh eggs may be obtained

    here in large quantities toward the end of June. The strait between Cape

    Shackleton and Kugdlikorssuit has been navigated by vessels proceeding

    northward by the inside route.

            HO 76 447 SD VI 8 3 4



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0472                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Alexander (Uvdlerssuak; Safarlik)

            (78° 10′N., 73° 09′W.), the westernmost point of Greenland, forms the

    southeastern entrance point of Sm o i th Sound at the northern end of Baffin Bay.

    The large cape, which projects westward for about 5 miles, rises to over

    1,100 ft., its rock presenting a striking m a i xture of light yellow sandstone

    and dark columnar basalt. Two enormous glaciers separate the cape from the

    mainland to the eastward. The coast in this vicinity is generally free o f ice in August

    and September, and stretches of open water occur throughout the winter

    because of frequent storms; the ice-foot, when it exists, is generally usually

    impassable, owing to huge iceblocks pressed onto this coast by the waves.

            Cape Alexander was named by John Ross in 1818. It was William

    Baffin, however, who first sailed within sight of the cape on July 4th,

    1616. His farthest north record , of about 77° 45′N., in the offing of

    A S mith Sound, was to remain unbroken for two hundred and thirty-six years.

            Guidebook 757, H.O. 76, 483. Arctic Pilot III, 120, MG 65, 398

            AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943 Greely, Handbook pp. 20, 185



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0473                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Allison Bay

            indents the coast of northern West Greenland approximately at

    lat 74° 30′N. It is entered between Holm s Island, at the southeastern S

    end of Melville Bay, and the mainland shore to the northeastward. In the

    outer part of Allison Bay the mainland shore consists principally of glaciers,

    but the inner end of this shore is formed is formed by a partly ice-free,

    table-like mountain, known as Wandel s Land, which rises to a height of over S

    3,000 ft. In the bay and its approaches are many small islands, including

    the conspicuous Devils Thumb.

            H.O. 76, 455

            Indexer: List Wandels Land (Melville Bay)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0474                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 55

    Cape Atnoll (Kangarssuk)

            (76° 23′N., 69° 32′W.) , in the Thule District of northeast Greenland,

    lies about 4 miles south-southwest of the southern entrance

    point of Wolstenholme Fjord. The cape is at the western end of the

    wide Pingorssuit plateau which rises to almost 1,000 ft. and is

    diversified by valleys, streams and lakes.

            Guidebook 705 H.O. 76, 466 AAF Aer, Cn (20) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0475                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 120 w.

    Augpilagtok (Augpa lartok)

            (72° 5 3′N., 55° 38′W.), an outpost in the Upernivik District

    of northern West Greenland, with a population of 66 (1930), is on the

    northwestern side of Augpilagtok Island, in a position of about

    13 miles northeastward of Upernivik Colony. The outpost has a manager's

    house and store combined, a chapel-school, two warehouses and about 16

    Greenlander dwellings. Sealing and halibut fishing are the main source

    of livelihood of the natives. Supply ships anchor in the small bay

    directly off the settlement. A closed bay, south of the outpost, offers

    shelter during the summer months, but the narrow entrance freezes over

    as early as The end of September and remains frozen until July.

            Guidebook 596 H.O. 76 ,442



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0476                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 600 w.

    Baffin Bay,

            a body of water covering about 230,000 square miles and attaining maximum

    depths of nearly 3,000 fathoms, is bounded on its eastern side by the west

    coast of Greenland, and on its western (American) side by Baffin , -, Devon , -,

    Ellesmere , -, and other smaller islands. At its southern end, in about lat. 69° N.,

    Baffin Bay connects with Davis Strait, and at its northern end, in about lat.

    78° N., with Smith Sound. The latter, together w o i th Kennedy and Robeson

    Channels, forms a passage to the Arctic Sea. There is also communication

    with the Arctic Sea through Lancaster and Jones Sounds, which lead from the

    western side of Baffin Bay.

            The pack-ice is normally believed to cover about four-fifths of

    Baffin Bay, and in occasional winters the sea ice is said to fill the bay

    solidly from shore to shore. The Baffin Bay pack has its greatest extent

    in arch, and its least in August and September. NORTH WATER, the most

    persistent ice-free area, located at the head of Baffin Bay, off Smith Sound,

    is one of the most widely discussed features of the bay. Although a number of

    theories have been advanced to explain the existence of open water her e , recent

    opinion inclines to the view that the ice in Smith Sound is so strong that it

    resists the current, while the ice formed just to the southward is weaker and

    is swept away, leaving open water behind it. The break-up of the fast ice

    in Smith Sound temporarily chokes North Water, but eventually the area clears,

    and its extent is greatest in late summer.

            The circulation of the waters of Baffin Bay is known only in a general

    way, but it seems established that a general cyclonic circulation prevails,

    so that the western and most ice -encumbered zone evacuates through Davis

    Strait, while a compensating d raft indraft follows northward along the Greenland

    side.



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0477                                                                                                                  
    Baffin Bay cont.

            History. - The first of the great navigators to go on record for having

    entered the waters of what later was named Baffin Bay was John Davis, in 1587.

    Searching for a northwest passage he reached lat. 72° N. on the Greenland side,

    and lat. 73° N. on the American side, forcing his way through the middle icepack

    of the bay. In 1616, Baffin, in the tiny Disvovery , w o i th Robert Bylot as master,

    was the first to reach the bay's northern end, at lat. 77° 45′N. Barred by ice

    from entering Smith Sound, and with strong westerly winds preventing his venturing

    into Jones and Lancaster Sounds, the navigator returned southward along the

    Greenland coast. With the search for a northwest passage abandoned for nearly

    200 years, no further official attempt to traverse Baffin Bay was madeuntil 1818, when

    John Ross and W.E. Parry took their vessels, the Isabella and Alexander , to a

    point in lat. 76° 54′N., northwest of Cary Islands. Turning southwestward to

    the Canadian side, they reached and entered Lancaster Bay Sound which they explored to a distance of

    over 50 miles. Parry, in the sailing vessel Hecla , again forced a passage to entered

    Confusion of east-west & north-south crossings Lancaster Sound in 1819 and 1824, his 1819 expedition leading him as far westward

    as Melville Sound. In 1829 John Ross took the first steamer (the Victory )

    across Baffin Bay. The 150-ton craft reached Lancaster Sound without difficulty

    but on continuing turning southwestward through Prince Regent Inlet was beset

    off Boothia Peninsula and subsequently abandone . d . Nares, in 1875-76, and Peary,

    date ? in --- in the Windward pushed through Baffin Bay on their voyages to latitudes farther

    northward. Between 1898-1902, Sverdrup's Fram wintered first at Cape Sabine in Smith

    Sound and later in two neighboring places on the southern coast of Ellesmere

    Island. Peary's Roosevelt Roosevelt , on her famous voyages to Cape Sheridan, the northern

    entrance point of the Smith Sound Route, traversed Baffin Bay in 1905-6 and 1908-09.

    Re v c ent expedition vessels to effect a crossing of Baffin Bay include

    the Heimen Heimen , in 1934, the Morissey Mor r issey , in 1935, and the Isbjoern Isbjoern , 1937. (Uncounted are

    the whaling expeditions of all nations to these parts of the Arctic zone. (See also

    Mellville Bay.)

            H.O. 76, 404, 507 Greely, Handbook P. 16, 86 ff. A.P. III, wo ff.

    Breitfuss, Arktis, p. 149 [ ?]

            Indexer: list north Wales.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0478                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 74 w.

    Benedict Fjord,

            a six-mile wide indentation in the north coast of Greenland, is

    entered between Cape Washington (83° 36′N., 38° W.), and Cape Cannon,

    the northwestern extremity of Gerturde Rask Land. The fjord extends southward

    for about 10 miles, receiving the glow of the large A. Harmsworth Glacier

    at its head. A short arm trends southward from the inner southern side of the

    fjord. Both shore s are largely f or med by glaciers.

            H.O. 76, 568 MG 65, p. 323



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0479                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 50 w.

    Benton Bay ,

            in northwest Greenland, is a small open bight at the northern end

    of Humbold Glacier, between Cape Forbes (79° 55′N.) and Cape Clay ,

    about 9 miles to the northwestward. The coastal hills rise to nearly

    900 ft., with heights farther inland increasing to over 2,000 ft.(Mt.

    Nordlyset).

            Guidebook 1218 H.O. 76, 529

    Ch. AAF Aer. Ch (8) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0480                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Bessels Fjord,

            in northwest Greenland, leads from the eastern side of Kennedy

    Channel, where it is entered between Cape Bryan (81° 06′N., 64° 15′W.),

    and Cape Maynard, about 3 miles east-northeastward. The very narrow fjord, which

    receives the flow of numerous small active glaciers, trends south-south–

    eastward for about 28 miles. The surrounding mountains are steeply

    graded and rather high. Lauge Koch, who investigated the fjord in June 1922,

    found the middle and inner parts covered with very old ice. Several

    polar bears were observed near the head.

            The fjord was named by Hall (1871) after the German naturalist

    Emil Bessels, chief of the scientitic staff of Hall's Polaris Expedition.

            Guidebook 1227 H.O. 76, 544 Greely, Handbook 185



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0481                                                                                                                  

    Bowdoin Bugt Bay (in northwest Greenland)

            see Inglefield Gulf



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0482                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Inglef ie ld Bay cont.

            the period of July 26-29 at the head of Inglefield [ ?] Gulf. At this time

    the fast ice had broken up, except for some scattered pieces and bergs at

    the head, a most unusual condition for this time of the year.

            SD VI 144 ff. Guidebook738 ff.

            Indexer: list Academy Bay; Bowdoin Bay



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0483                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Brevoort

            (82°00′N., 60° 15′W.), in northwest Greenland, about 7 miles north of

    Cape Summer, is a high limestone cliff above which the land rises to about

    2,000 ft. The cape is the eastern extremity of Nyeboe Land, an ice-free area

    between Newman Bay and St. George Fjord. Lauge Koch, in June 1922, found

    huge ice-blocks pressing against this part of the coast and the ice-foot proper

    generally impossible to detect.

            The cape was discovered by Hall (1871) who named it after the

    American J. Carson Brevoort , ", " a strong friend of Arctic Discoveries."

            Guidebook 1237 H.O. 76, 554 MG [ ?] 5, 415 Nourse, American

    Explorations in the Ice Zones, 295



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0484                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 125

    Cape Bridg e man

            (83° 33′N., 27° 20′W.), the easternmost point of the north coast of

    Greenland (Peary Land),lies about 17 miles northeastward of the north–

    western entrance point of Fre de rick E. Hyde Fjord. From here the coast

    trends southeastward to Cape Eils Rasmussen, which is Peary Land's eastern–

    most extremity.
    The coast east and west of Cape Bridgeman the cape flattens

    down to a low shore covered with pebbles, chiefly granite. Six miles

    inland, however, a range of hills, called the Daly Mountains, rises

    steeply out of the plain. Altitudes here are over 4,500 ft. The area,

    according to the chart, is widely covered with Highland Ice.

            Cape Bridg e man, discovered and named by Peary in 1900, was the northern–

    most point reached by the Danish Expedition of 1906-08.

            Guidebook 1276 H.O. 75, 268 AAF Aer. Ch. (9) 1944

            Indexer: list Daly Mountains.

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0485                                                                                                                  
    Cape Bridgeman

    (83° 33′N., 27° 20′W.), in northern Greenland, lies about 17 miles

    northwestward



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0486                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Brönlund Fjord,

            a branch of Independence Fjord in northeast Greenland, is entered on the northern

    side of that fjord between Cape Harald Moltke (82° 09′N., 31° 03′W.) , and Cape

    Knud Rasmussen, about 2 1/2 miles southward. Brönlund Fjord trends northwestward

    and then due westward for about 12 miles to a large depression, named Wandel

    Valley which leads to the long and narrow Midsummer Lake to the westward.

    The northern shore is lined by a series of steeply sloping sandstone bluffs (about

    2,000 ft. high) which extend westward from the wide river delta north of the

    mouth to Wandel Valley and beyond. The southern shore is lower and broken

    by the mouths of several rivers, draining the ice cap in the interior of

    Heilprin Land. Both shores are fertile enough in stretches to su o p port musk oxen

    and an abundance of hares. The fjord itself was found by Freuchen of the

    First Thule Expedition (1912) to be filled with a great number of icebergs

    driven into it from the head of Independence Fjord. A great number of seals were see [ ?]

    seen all over the ice.

            ? Brönlund Fjord was, discovered and named for his traveling companion — Brönlund by Mylius-Erichsen,in 1907, and

    has since been surveyed by Rasmussen and Freuchen (1912) and by Lauge Koch(1921).

    Rasmussen reported finduing a number of Eskimo tent rings, evidence of previous

    occupation, on both sides of the entrance of to the fjord. (See also Independence

    Fjord; Wandel Valley.)

            H.O. 75, 262 Guidebook 1296 MG 70 p. 100 ff.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0487                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 72 w

    Cape Bryan

            (81° 06′N., 64° 15′W.), on the eastern side of Kennedy Channel in

    northwest Greenland, forms the western entrance point of Bessels Bay Fjord and the

    northernmost point of Washington Land. The cape rises to about 2,100 ft. The low

    Hannan Island, close off the northern extremity of Cape Bryan, appears to be

    the terminal moraine of a large glacier now extinct. A bank off the eastern

    side of the island se r v er ed as an anchoring place forthe Alert and Discovery .

            The cape was named after R.W.D. Bryan, A a stronomer of Hall's Polaris

    Expedition.

            Guidebook 1227 H.O. 76, 544

            Indexer: list Hannah Island



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0488                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 89 w

    Cape Bryant

            (82° 21′N., 54° 25′W.), is a projection at the northern extremity of

    Nyeboe Land in northwest Greenland. The coast here changes its direction to the

    southward to form the western shore of St. George Fjord. The edge of the

    polar pack, which generally lies close up to the coast westward of Cape Bryant,

    here turns in an approximately northeastern direction toward Beaumont

    Island, situated more than 45 miles to the northeastward. The mountain

    range south of Cape Bryant rises to over 3,200 ft.

            The cape was named after Henry G. Bryant, leader of the

    Peary Auxiliary Expedition of 1894.

            Guidebook 1242 H.O. 76, 559 AAF Aer. Ch (8) 1943

    MG 65, 194



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0489                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cairn Point

            (78° 31′N., 72° 31′W.), a sharply narrowing small headland with a square

    face of gneiss rock , o i n the Thule District coast of northern West Greenland,

    forms the southeastern entrance point of the northern end of Smith Sound.

    The point is the Pelham Point of Inglefield (1852) who reached his farthest

    north in this vicinity. Hayes renamed the point in 1876, after finding a

    cairn with records, left there in 1855 by Captain Hartstene, who commanded

    an expedition for the relief of Kane's party.

            Guidebook 1204 H.O . 76, 521 Greely, Handbook 185,197

            AAF Aer. Ch(20) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0490                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 100

    Camp Scott (72° 46′N 54° 47′W.),

            the scientific station of the University of Michigan G reenland Expedition,

    1930-31, was set up on the souther [ ?] shore of Natsiorsiorfik Island close off

    the head of Uperniviks Isfjord in the Uperniviks District of northern West

    Greenland. The site was admirably suited for meteorological work; close

    proximity to the continental glacier enhanced the possibilities of making extensive

    studies there and a prominent hill promised a location for making balloon

    ascensions. Aerological observations made afforded much needed information

    about the general information about the general circulation of the atmosphere

    in nrthern regions.

            Guidebook 606 ff. H.O. 76, 443



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0491                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cary (Carey) Islands

            ( a A pprox. at lat. 76° 35′N.), is a group of 6 islands and numberless

    islets and rocks in the northeastern part of Baffin Bay, about 50 to 65 miles

    due westward of Thule settlement in northern West Greenland. The islands vary

    in size from 2 miles in diameter downwards , and are characterized by terraced

    boulder beaches, rising stair - case like to a height of about 140 ft. Above

    thes e beaches tower steep, flat-topped cliffs, some of which rise to 1,000 ft.

    The ground among the islands is notoriously foul, but the surrounding waters

    are fairly open, even in winter, and seals, therefore, are probably common

    in the vicinity. J.M. Wordie, who explored some of the islands in 1937,

    found a comparatively luxuriant vegetation here; a large number of eider ducks

    and guillemots had breeding places in the cliffs.

            Lat. 76° 54′N., to the northwest of Cary Islands, was the farthest

    north established by the John Ross Expedition of 1818, but the islands have

    been known since the days of Baffin, who discovered and named them in 1616.

            Guidebook 725 H.O. 76, 470 ff. Greely, Handbook, 87 Bessels, Smith

    Sound and its Explorations, p. 334



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0492                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 96

    Cass Fjord,

            in northwest Greenland, indents the northern shore of Peabody Bay, between

    Cape Clay (79° 59′N., 64° 55′W.) and Cape Webster, about 9 miles west–

    northwestward. The fjord trends northeastward and then northward for over

    20 miles, terminating at a point named Bjørnehiet (Bear s Lair . ) . The inner

    end of the fjord is very narrow and runs between shores attaining elevations of

    from 800 to 1,700 ft. Numerous small rivers debouch along these inner shores.

            Lauge Koch, traveling up Cass Fjord in 1922, came upon several house

    ruins and fox traps. Seals were observed some distance in the fjord.

            Guidebook 1218 H.O. 76, 529 AAF Aer. Ch (8) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0493                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 90

    Cape Chalon (Pitorafik)

            (77° 58′N., 72° 17′W.), in the Thule District of northwest Greenland,

    is a kuge massive, snow-covered sandstone bluff rising to an elevation of from 1,000 to 1,200 ft.

    Alongside the southern foot of the bluff runs a black trap dyke, about

    2 miles long and 30 to 50 ft. thick, forming a natural retaining wall

    for the mass of soft rock towering above it. The waters in the vicinity

    are a favorite gathering place for walrus in spring, at which time Eskimos

    from all over t [ ?] e region come here for hunting. Pitorarfik, a small

    Eskimo settlement, stands back of the cape.

            Guidebook 756 H.O. 76, 482



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0494                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Chalon (Peterawik)

            (77° 58′N., 72° 17′W.), in the Thule District of northwest Greenland.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0495                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    J.C. Christensen Land,

            in northeast Greenland, forms the southern shore of Independence Fjord, between

    Cape Peter Henrik (82° 03′N., 25° 20′W.), the western entrance point of Hagen

    Fjord, and Astrup Fjord, about 50 miles to the westward. The section extends

    southward to , M ylius-Erichsen Land,but the boundary line between the two

    lands is only vaguely defined. From Cape Peter Henrik the coast line

    is a continuous range of sediment rock, increasing in height to the westward.

    Several small glaciers, issues of the Inland Ice, crop out among the rock

    formation close to the mouth of Astrup Fjord,where altitudes are over 2,200 ft.

    [ ?] . The interior of J.C. Christensen Land has

    elevations of over 5,000 ft. About half of the land is covered with Highland Ice.

            J.C. Christensen Land was discovered and named by the

    Mylius-Erichsen Expedition (1906-08.)

            H.O.75, 259 MG 130, 347 AAF Aer. Ch. 9 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0496                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Clarence Wyckoff,

            (82° 55′N., 22° 45′W.), on the east coast of Peary Land in north–

    east Greenland , projects about 12 miles northwestward of Cape Henry Paris . h.

    The cape forms a broad point of land, on which Mt. Clarence Wyckoff

    rises to about 2,800 ft.

            H.O. 75, 265



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0497                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Cleveland

            (77° 35′N., 70° 10′W.), forms the southern entrance point

    of Mc Cormick Bay in the Thule District of northern West Greenland.

    The ba s tionlike cape, which is composed of yellow sandstone, projects

    westward from the western extremity of Red Cliff Peninsula, a large, ice-covered

    promontory , on the northern side of Murchison Sound and Inglefield Gulf.

            H.O. 76, 477



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0498                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 60 w.

    Conger Inlet

            in northern Greenland, separates the two Lookwood Islands from a mainland

    projection to the eastward. It is entered between Cape Christiansen

    (83° 25′N., 39° 40 W.), on Lookwood Island, and Cape Kane,

    about 5 miles northeastwards whence it curves southeastward and

    then southward to connect with the inner end of We [ ?] precht Inlet.

            H.O. 76, 568



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0499                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 40

    Conical Rock (Iganak)

            (76° 03′N., 68° 30 ′W.), is the name of an islet on the Greenland side

    of Baffin Bay, about 2 miles southward of Parker Snow Point and about 1 1/2

    miles offshore. The sharply -pointed, ragged islet rises to about 1,000 ft.

    and forms a conspicuous landmark.

            H.O. 76, 464 Guidebook 700.



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0500                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Conical Rock (Iganak)

            is the name of an islet



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0501                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 130

    Cape Constitution

            (80° 34′N., 66° 4 5 ′W.), on the eastern side of Kennedy Channel ,

    in northwest Greenland, is formed by a steep mountain that rises

    to 1,500 ft. The cliff of the cape is black , a n d the crags are

    overhanging, hiding the top from sight when viewed close by.

    Franklin Island , ( 6 miles by 3), the largest of the islands in

    Kennedy Channel,lies about 3 miles north of Cape Constitution.

    Between the northwestern end of Franklin Island and the Ellesmere Island

    shore to the northwestward the fairway of Kennedy Channel is less than

    12 miles wide.

            Cape Constitution was the farthest north reached by W. Morton

    of the Kane Expedition in June, 1854.

            Guidebook 1225 H.O. 76, 542 Greely, Handbook of P.D. p. 185

    AAF Aer. Ch (8) 1944

            Indexer: list Franklin Island



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0502                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 200

    Crimson Cliffs (Sanerak),

            on the northwest coast of Greenland, between Cape York ((75° 54′N., 66° 28′W.),

    and Parker Snow point about 35 miles to the northwestward, is a concave

    shoreline of steep bluffs and precipitous brown cliffs interrupted

    by numerous small glaciers and surmounted by a succession of ice-domes with

    their connecting saddles. The cliffs, which rise to from 1,000 to 2,000 ft.,

    are favorite breeding grounds of millions of little auks. The fertilizing

    effect of these birds combined with the reddish tints of the sedimentary

    rock, give the cliffs in summer an unexpected warmth of color . However, the name,

    which originated with Sir John Ross, derives from other causes. In early

    summer, after the melting of the snow is well under way, large quantities

    of micricospic microscopic plants, feeding on the snow and air, produce the so-called

    "red" or "pink" snow which lends a crimson glow to the cliffs in daytime

    and may even cause pink reflections in the sky. The snow-free margin at the

    foot of the cliffs is narrow, but has traces of verdure. Ross reported the

    presence of black foxes and hares,

            In July 1940, the Mor r issey , observed abnormal magnetic variations while

    passing the cliffs.

            H.O. 76, 464, Guidebook 698 ff.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0503                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 60

    Dallas Bay,

            a large indentation in the coast of Inglefield Land in north ern West

    Greenland, is entered between Cape Kent (79° 05′N., 67° 55′W.)

    and Cape Scott, approximately 13 miles to the east-northeastward. The bay trends

    southeastward for about 4 miles. Sever l a l islets lie near the head of

    the bay, into which drains a river. Lauge Koch reported large lakes to

    the eastward.

            Guidebook 1214 H.O. 76, 527 AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0504                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Daugaard-Jensen Land

            see Washington Land



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0505                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 120

    Devil's Thumb (Kuvdlorssuak),

            (74° 35′N., 57° 11′W.), a conspicuous landmark off the eastern shore

    of Melville Bay in northwest Greenland, rises at the southern end of an island

    lying about 2 miles off the northern end of Holms Island. The Thumb, which figures

    more prominently in accounts of voyages up this coast than any other of the

    distinctive features here, is a high pillar looking like a gigantic thumb

    extending upward from a hand. In 1943, J. M. Wordie reported that the summit

    of Devil's Thumb is at an elevation of about 1,800 ft., the upper 600 ft.

    constituting the thumb proper. a A t the time of Wordie's visit, Kuvdlorssuak settlement, on the southern

    end of Devil's Thumb island, consisted at the time of Wordie's visit

    of about 10 houses of turf and stones and one or two summer tents.

            Guidebook 662 H.O. 76, 452



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0506                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Dudley Digges (Kaersok)

            (76° 08′N., 68° 35′W.), on the Greenland side of Baffin Bay, forms the

    northwestern entrance point of ParkerSnow Bay. The cape is a precipitous cliff,

    about 800 ft. high and clear of snow, with yellowish vegetation at the top.

    Baffin discovered it in 1616, naming it after Sir Dudley Digges, one of his

    sponsors. The early whalers and seamen steered by it. Since then it has been

    passed by many a Polar Expedition bound for Etah and the regions beyond.

            H.O. 76, 465



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0507                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Etah

            (78° 19′N., 72° 42′N.), on the northern shore of Foulke Fjord

    in the Thule District of northwest Greenland, was, until 1937, the northern–

    most settlement of the Polar , or Smith Sound Eskimos. It is the ulti–

    mate port of call in Smith Sound which a vessel can safely visit and

    leave the same season. The settlement, which consists of a few primitive

    habitations, is only sporadically occupied by the Eskimos. The harbor,

    with depths of from 15 to 20 fathoms, is open to southward, and is

    usually free of ice late in July and August . , but much exposed to winds from the Inland Ice. In winter, when the upper

    reaches of Smith Sound are frozen over, a bridge of ice permits the natives

    of the region to cross from Etah over into Ellesmere Island in Canada.

            Etah, well known as a port of call for many vessels bound for the

    regions farther north, was a winter base of Peary's "Windward" Windward Expedition

    in 1899-1900. O ther expeditions with prolonged bases at Etah included

    Mac Millan's Crocker Land Expedition (1913-17), the Oxford Univ se es rsity

    Ellesmere Island Expedition (1934-35), and the Mac Gregor Arctic

    Expedition (1937-38). Mac Millan considered Etah in many respects one of

    the finest wintering places along this stretch of coast, affording accessi–

    bility of hunting grounds both on land and at sea and an accessible

    gateway to the Inland Ice. Temperatures recorded here by his expedition for

    a period of four years showed an absolute M m aximum of 63° F. and an

    absolute minimum of-42° F. : t T he average maximum for that same period

    was 55.3° F., and the average minimum - 32° F., with the cold waters

    of Smith Sound and a continuous, extensive, prolonged ice-cover lowering

    the average temperature and retarding the advance of spring until May.

    Absolute humidity was found to be low throughout the year, and the number

    with clear days prevailing over cloudy and partly cloudy ones, although



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0508                                                                                                                  
    Etah contin ed Greenland

            wintertime brought a good deal of fog. Some rain occurred in June,July

    and August, and even in mdwinter, when the foehn was blowing. Mirages

    were frequent in early spring , while the sun still was low. The freeze-up

    began in August and the beark-up late in April.

            Additional meteorological observations and a series of upper-air

    observations were obtained by the American Meteorological Expedition

    (1937-38), led by C. J. Mac Gregor of the U.S.Weather Bureau, Newark Airport.

    Actual flying was done at Etah first by the Mac Millan Arctic Expedition of

    1934, where Commander Richard E. Byrd was in charge or aviation, and then

    by the Mac Gregor Expedition of 1937-38, with Lt. Commander I. Schlossbacn

    in charge.

            (For Etah's flora and fauna see FOULKE FJORD).,

            Guidebook 770 fr. H.O. 76, 518 ff. Greely, Handbook p.180

    AAF Aer. Ch. (20) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0509                                                                                                                  
    Greenland,

    Cape Forbes,

            (79° 55′N., 64° 05′W.), a cape in northwest Greenland, projects

    at the northeastern end of Peabody Bay, just north of Humboldt Glacier.

    Putlerssuak Island lies immediately off Cape Forbes. Various old

    Eskimo remains have been found on the island and in the vicinity of the

    cape.

            H.O. 76, 529 Guidebook 1218

            Indexer: list Putlerssuak Island (Peabody Bay)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0510                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Foulke Fjord

            lies in lat. 78° N., in northern West Greenland, where it leads

    from the head of Hartstene Bay on the eastern side of Smith Sound.

    The fjord is entered between Port Foulke and Reindeer Point, about 1-1/2

    mile to the northward, a dn nd terminates about 5 miles northeastward in a

    narrow passage that connects with Alida Lake, a glacial pool , into which

    dips the large Brother John Glacier. Depths within the fjord are almost everywhere

    over 15 fathoms except near the head , with the shores rising sheer from

    the water's edge. Etah, until 1937 the northernmost settlement of the Polar,

    or Smith Sound Eskimos, and ultimate port-of-call in Smith Sound, stands on the

    outer northern shore of the fjord. Foulke Fjord is usually free of ice in

    July and August.

            The land north and south of the fjord is unusually rich in vegetation,

    the most widely distributed plants here including purple saxifrage, Arctic [ ?]

    poppy, alpine chickweed, Kentucky blue grass, Arctic heather and mountain

    aven areas? . By the middle of July the grass stands strong and green. Thirty-five veb

    varieties of birds nest in the cliffs. Caribou find pasturage on the northern

    shore. Walrus, seal and polar bear are plentiful in the waters of Smith

    Sound outside the fjord.

            The mouth of Foulke Fjord was first viewed by Kane on August 7th, 1853

    after his ship, the Advance , had passed the southernmost point of Inglefield

    Land, but the first to enter the fjord was Lt. Hartstene, of the U.S. barque

    Release , who came here in August,1855, seeking news of Kane's Expedition.

    Hayes, in command of the schooner Un ii it ed States , entered Port Foulke in Septem–

    ber,1860, and established winter quarters here. Hayes, and after him Bessels,

    of the Hall Expedition , (1873) . , made [ ?] journeys to the Inland Ice

    and ascertained among other things, the rapid forward movement of the Brother



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0511                                                                                                                  
    Foulke Fjord cont.

            John Glacier, near the head of the fjord. A hunting party from the Discovery

    (Nares Expedition) visited Brother John Glacier in July, 1875, "crossing its

    face to the other side of the valley. The fjord and the surrounding lands have

    since been investigated by a number of parties, some of which wintered on its shores,

    such as Peary's Windward Expedition (1899-1900), Mac Millan's Crockerland Expedit–

    ion (1913-17), the Oxford University Ellesmere Island Expedition (1934-35), and the

    Mac Gregor Arctic Expedition (1937-38). In 1906, Peary's Roosevelt Roosevelt was tempo–

    rarily beached for repairs at the head of the fjord. Lauge Koch, in 1922,

    confirmed the constant forward movement of the Brother John Glacier. (For weather

    and temperature data see under ETAH).

            H.O. 76, 518 Guidebook 766 Greely, Handbook 199 MG 65, p 272

    MG 130, p. 30, 340 AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943

            Indexer: list B or ro ther John Glacier



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0512                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Frederick E. Hyde Fjord,

            in northern Greenland, enters the northeast coast of Peary Land close

    northward of Cape John Flagler (83° 15′N., 25° W.) and about 17 miles

    southeastward of Cape Bridgeman. The giant fjord, which is almost 100

    miles long and from 5 to 10 miles wide, trends west-southwestward and terminates

    at Nordpasset, a 10-mile valley, leading to O.B. Bøggild Fjord which cuts into

    Peary Land from the north. Four arms issue from the middle and inner fjord. Three

    of these - Freya, Thor and Odin Fjords - lead southward to the various glaciers

    at their head; the larger Frigg Fjord, branching in a position about 65 miles

    from Cape John Flagler, extends northward to a circular valley where four

    glaciers debouch.

            The coast both northward and southward of the fjord's entrance is made

    up of clay plains, with only a few stones , but numerous mussel shells, most

    likely old moraines re-deposited by the water. Inland the mountains rise to

    considerable altitudes, especially on the south side of the fjord, where

    a widely glacier-covered surface platea u attains elevations, of nearly 4,000 ft. Here,too, at

    some distance from the fjord, is also Peary Land's highest point - the widely

    visible, volcano-shaped Mount Vistas (6,500 ft. , ) whose large glacier tongues

    extend northward in the direction of Frederick E.Hyde Fjord and Freya Fjord.

    Glaciers from Hans Taussen Ice Cap to the westward drain into the heads of the

    innermost branch fjord or in the direction of Nordpasset. The wild alpine

    country to the north of the fjord is largely ice-free and furrowed by many short

    valleys and riverbeds.
    Little is known of ice-conditions inside the fjord. In May

    he found it 1921, Lauge Koch found the entrance filled with sea ice that was several years old; to the eastward

    the ice was pressed into high ridges.

            The fjord, which was discovered and named by Peary in 1900, was

    first entered by members of the Mylius-Er c i chsen Expedition who traced parts of its

    outer course, in 1907. Lauge Koch who visited the mouth of the fjord in 1917 and

    1921,viewed the whole of the fjord only in 1938 during an airplane expedition



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0513                                                                                                                  
    Frederick E. Hyde Fjord cont. Frederick E. Hyde Fjord cont. Greenland

            over Peary Land. Koch found that the fjord extended 50 miles farther westward

    than previously supposed. He ascertained

    that Nordpasset, at the head of the Fjord, connected with a branch of

    De Long Fjord (O.B. Bøggild Fjord,)and that northern Peary Land would

    be an island except for this connecting strip of land. Finally he traced the four

    branches issuing from the middle and inner fjord and the large valley at the

    head of the northward trending Frigg Fjord. This valley, which he named Drivhuset

    (The Hothouse) seemed to him well-protected against winds of all directions, and in

    his opinion deserved close investigation by botanists and zoologists. Koch, who

    in 1921, had seen musk oxen near the mouth of Frederick E. Hyde Fjord, found no

    trace of them here in 1938, nor did he discover any living thing during his

    whole flight over Peary Land.

            Guidebook 1229 ff. MG 130, pp. 318, 349 H.O. 75, 268

            Indexer list: Freya, Frigg, Odin, Thor Fjord; Drivhuset



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0514                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Freuchen Land,

            a high, mountainous and almost completely ice-covered peninsula

    of northern Greenland, separates Nordenskiøld Fjord from J.P. Koch Fjord to the

    eastward.
    From Cape Wegener (82° 45′N., 45° 35′W.) the western

    extremity of Freuchen Land, the coast extends about 12 miles southeastward to form the

    northeastern shore of Nordenskiøld Fjord and about 23 miles eastward, to from

    the southern shore of the outer part of J.P. Koch Fjord. Freuchen Land

    and Cape Wegener were named by Rasmussen's Second Thule Expedition.

            Guidebook 1528 H.O. 76, 563 MG 130, 351

            Indexer: list Cape Wegener



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0515                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 158 [ ?]

    G. B. Schley Fjord,

            in lat. 82° N. in northeast Greenland, enters the northeast coast

    of Peary Land between Peary's Cairn, on Wyckoff Land, and Cape

    Isaak Glueckstadt, about 8 miles northwestward. When Lauge Koch flew over

    this fjord, he found it shorter than previously supposed, extending

    about 23 miles west-southwestward. A short branch fjord, called Ormen,

    leads from about the middle of the northern shore. Altitudes along

    both sides of G.B. Schley Fjord are l m oderate and decrease in height toward

    the head. A number of rivers enter the inner end of the fjord, which is

    surrounded by very flat country.

            G. B. Schley Fjord was discovered and named by Peary (1900), who left

    a record of his visit in the cairn he built near the fjord's south–

    eastern entrance point. Peary did not believe that he was south of lat. 83° N.,

    but J. P. Koch, in 1907, on finding Peary's Cairn, in 1907, was able to show that

    the explorer had been farther south.

            Guidebook 1278 H.O. 75, 264 MG 130 pp. 127, 349

            Indexer: list Peary's Cairn.



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0516                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Clarence Wyckoff



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0517                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Gertrude Rask Land,

            one of Greenland's most northerly promontories, with a 7-mile frontage on

    the Polar Sea, projects between Benedict Fjord and an unnamed fjord to the

    eastward. Cape Cannon (83° 37′N., 37° 10′W.), about 1,500 ft. high, rises

    at the northwestern end of the peninsular. The rugged interior of Gertrud Rask

    Land attains maximum elevations of over 2,600 ft. and is partly covered with

    Highland Ice, with many of the valley glaciers meeting across the f d efiles. Along

    the northern shore three large glaciers, one of them fairly active, descends direct–

    ly into the sea. Lauge Koch, in 1921, found no musk oxen in this vicinity;

    he concluded that migrating animals found it difficult to cross this part of

    Peary Land and probably wandered along a more southerly route to reach the

    North Point and the regions along the east coast.

            H.O. 76, 569 MG 65, 325 ff. AAF Aer. Ch (8) corrected.

            Indexer: list Cape Cannon



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0518                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 150

    Gieseckes Icefjord,

            in lat. 73° N. in northern West Greenland, is entered between Tugtokortok

    Island and Cape Shackleton, about 8 miles north-northeastward. The

    fjord, which trends eastward and then southeastward for abou t 37 miles,

    is bounded on the southwestern side by a chain of islands, and on the

    northeastern side by Giesecke Glacier, which also occupies its head.

    The glacier is broken up by several nunataks and is said to be active mainly

    in its middle portion. Due to the strong current of the fjord

    the calved icebergs immediately drift away from the glacier front

    with the result that, bot h summer and winter,a large icefree basin

    exists at the head of the fjord. This open basin is frequented by numerous

    marine animals and much visit es ed by hunters. El ve ev ations on both sides

    of the fjord are moderate , but large cliffs (granitic gneiss) are common

    in the interior.

            The fjord was named after the German mineralogist K.L. Giesecke.

    Guidebook 625 H.O. 76, 447



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0519                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 95

    Granville Bay,

            in lat. 76° N. in northern West Greenland, is the next inlet northward

    of Wolstenholme Fjord and is entered between Manussak settlement and

    Uvdlisaitunguak, a point about 8 miles northwestward. The fjord, which is

    about 21 miles long and from 2 to 3 miles wide, has a north-northeastward

    trend . and is flanked by mountains with peaks covered by local glaciers.

    From the head of the fjord, which forms an oval basin at the edge of

    the Inland Ice, a good sledge route leads northward to Inglefield Gulf.

    Manussak settlement is only sporadically occupied.

            Guidebook 720 H.O. 76 472

            Indexer : list Manussak settlement



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0520                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hagen Fjord,

            one of the larger indentations in the coast of northeast Greenland, leads from

    the southern side of Independence Fjord, between Cape Ludovika (82° 02′N.,

    23° 40′W.), and Cape Peter Henrik, about 15 miles westward. Flanked in the east by

    Valdemar Glückstadt Land and in the west by J.P. Christensen Land, Hagen Fjord

    extends southward for about 14 miles and then southwestward for about 23 miles

    to a glacier at its head. The low hills of clay or rock, surrounding

    the outer portions of the fjord , give way in the interior to precipitous cliffs,

    behind which a partly ice-capped plateau-land rises to over 3,000 ft.

            Hagen Fjord was discovered and named by the Mylius Erichsen Expedition (1906-08 , ) ,

    and surveyed by Rasmussen and Freuchen of the First Thule Expedition (1912). .

    Freuchen reported a considerable number of icebergs and large floes of fresh

    water ice (sikossak) off the mouth of the fjord. No game was observed by

    his expedition.

            Guidebook 1318 H.O. 5, 259 MG 51, 357 CH: AAf Aer. Ch. 9, 1943

            Indexer: list Cape Ludovika; V C ape Peter Henrik



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0521                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Polaris Bay,

            on the Greenland side of Hall Basin, is formed by a recession of the

    west coast of Hall Land, between Cape Tyson (81° 19′N., 60° 55′W.), and a low point

    about 17 miles to the northward.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0522                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hakluyt Island,

            an island in Baffin Bay, less than 4 miles long,east and west, lies within the

    approaches of Inglefield Gulf, about 35 miles northwestward of Cape Parry, Greenland. A 2-miles

    strait separates it from the larger Northumberland Island to the eastward.

    Hakluyt Island, which attains an elevation s of over 1,300 ft. in its highest,northeastern part, slopes

    from west to east, and also from north to south. A large glacier flows down from the

    island's higher part, almost dividing it in two, but the table land in the

    interior has some fertile stretches, where grass and dlowers grow luxuriantly

    during the summer. Large numbers of guillemots, little auks and other birds

    breed in the steep eastern and western cliffs. Foxes and hares occur inland.

    The island was named by Baffin, whose tiny ship found d s helterhere in 1616.

    In August, 1891, members of Peary's Kite Expedition man e uvred their whaleboat

    Faith on to its di d ff icult shores. The part y found d f ew signs of habitations,

    but fox - and hare-traps were observed along the southwestern coast.

            Guidebook 733 H.O. 76, 473 Peary, Northward over the Great Ice, 82, 105,121



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0523                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hall Basin,

            a 37-mile waterway, lying between northwestern Greenland and the east coast of

    Ellesmere Island, forms part of the Smith Sound Route which leads northward

    from Baffin Bay to the Polar Sea. Hall Basin links Kennedy Channel with

    Robeson Channel, and has its southern entrance between Cape Morton (81° 12′N.,

    63° 40′W), Greenland, and Cape Baird, Ellesmere Island, about 23 miles

    north-northwestward. Its northern entrance is between Cape Lupton (81° 40′N.,

    61° 55′W.), Greenland, and Cape Murchison, Ellesmere Island, about 15 miles

    west-northwestward. Petermann Fjord extends southeastward from the basin's

    southeastern part, and Lady Franklin Bay leads southwestward from its northwestern

    part. The basin widens to over 40 miles in its central portion.

            Hall Basin is filled at all times with heavy polar pack ice, which even in

    summer, despite strong southward currents, may remain closely packed over

    wide areas. Peary, in August 1905, found open water along the east side of

    the basin. Rasmussen, who sledged along its east coast in May 1917, believed

    that the ice traveling south through the Smith Sound Route from the Polar Sea

    worked lose in August and September but that opening were local and temporary.

    According to Lauge Koch , all of Hall Basin had been ice-free in 1920, for in

    April 1921, he found the ice of the basin smooth, without hummocks.

            Only three V v essels, the Polaris of Hall, the Alert of Nares and the Roosevelt

    of Peary, have been able to push through Hall Basin to latitude farther north.

    Nares' Discovery and Greely's Proteus were stopped by ice off the entrance

    to Lady Franklin Bay and were forced to winter in Discovery Harbor (Fort Conger).

    The Hall Expedition (1871-72) and the Nares Expedition (1875-76) also supplied

    the first charts of the basin's coasts. Theirs and Greely's observations were

    later supplemented by surveys made by Peary, Rasmussen and Koch .

    Guidebook 1195,1229 H.O. 76, 545 Greely, Handbook 202 Peary, Nearest

    the Pole 39 Rasmussen, Greenland by the Polar Sea 73 AAF Aer. Ch 8,1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0524                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hall Land,

            a large, peninsula-like projection in northwest Greenland, has its approximate base

    at lat. 81° N., close to the northern entrance of Petermann Fjord, whence it extends

    60 miles north-northwestward, flanked on the west and north by Hall Basin and Robeson

    Channel, respectively, and on the east by Newman Bay. Its north point is Cape

    Sumner (81° 55′N., 60° 50′W.). Prominent points on the west coast are

    Cape Tyson (81° 19′N.), and Cape Lupton, about 25 miles to the northward.

    Between the two capes the coast reced es slightly to form the 17-miles wide

    Polaris Bay; the rest of the coastline is relatively even and marked only by

    minor irregularities.

            The broad, so uthernmost portion of Hall Land attains elevations of nearly

    4,000 ft. and is almost entirely covered with Highland Ice, except for narrow

    stretches near the coast. North of this ice-capped land is a low, ice-free plain,

    which extends clear through the middle of the peninsula and shows signs of being

    a raised marine plain. Polaris Promontory, the northernmost part of Hall

    Land, which has Cape Sumner at its extremity, is again mountainous and attains

    elevations of about 2,500 ft. The coast in the vicinity of the cape is very striking

    and, according to Rasmussen, stands like a steep wall of cliffs, with a beautiful design in brown and

    grey, the darker foreground forming a sharp contrast to the awl-pointed, snow–

    covered peaks farther inland.

            Hall Land was first explored by members of the Polaris Expedition (1871-72),

    who undertook extensive trips along its coasts and into the interior while their

    vessel, the Polaris , lay beset in Thank God Harbor, north of Polaris Bay.

    (For details of this expedition see Hall and Bessels.) Rasmussen, in 1917,

    and Lauge Koch, in 1921, rounded the coast of Hall Land by sledge. Both explorers

    found the ice-foot narrow in most parts and often impassable because



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0525                                                                                                                  
    Hall Land cont. Greenland

            of pressure ridges and stranded ice-blocks. Rasmussen and k K och found the

    interior poor in game, contrary to Bessels, of the Polaris Expedition, who reported

    the presence of musk-oxen,polar bears, foxes, hares, lemmings and numerous

    of land and seabirds. (See also Hall Basin).

            H.O. 76, 547. Guidebook 1232. MG 65, 402ff. MG 130, 343 Rasmussen,

    Greenland by the Polar Sea, 75 ff. Greenland I., 73 BesselsDie amerika–

    nische Nordpolexpedition, 247. AAF Aer. Ch (8) 1943

            Indexer: list Polaris Promontory; Cape Sumner.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0526                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hare Island (Kajok)

            (northern extremity 70° 29′N., 55° 02′W.) , lies off the coast of Umanak

    District in northern West Greenland, close to the entrance of Vaigat Sound.

    The island, which covers an area of about 66 square miles, is rather low, but

    the sea cliffs are steep, often inaccessible. The rock consists of basaltic

    and tufaceous layers, seamed, in some places, with coal. Harbors are

    lacking but vessels may find shelter under the coast.
    The barren island

    is uninhabited except in summer, when the people from the mainland nearby

    c ome here to hunt and fetch coal . It has frequently been visited by whalers

    and expedition vessels, and there are some English graves at Hare Island's

    northern end.

            H.O. 76, 285 Guidebook 510



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0527                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hartstene Bay

            indents Greenland's west coast in lat. 78° N., [ ?]

    between Cape Kenrick and Sunrise Point, about 6 miles northwestward. The bay

    which opens on Smith Sound, leads about 3 miles eastward to the entrance of Foulke

    Fjord, which has no direct outlet so to the sea. A number of minor inlets

    inside the much indented Hartstene Bay afford anchorage to small craft, but the bay, in general,

    is exposed to southwesterly winds, and any ice traveling up from the southward

    is certain to find its way into it. An ice-foot may from along the northern

    side of the bay. The southeastern side is more sheltered, and some of the hills

    along this coast are luxuriantly green in summer. Arctic hare and caribou are

    numerous in the surrounding land.

            The bay was named after Lt. Hartstene of the U.S. barque Release ,

    the first to enter Foulke Fjord , in August 1855.

            Guidebook 763 H.O. 76, 515 MG 65 268 AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0528                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 50

    Cape Hatherton (Naujat)

            (78° 27′N., 72° 35′W.), in northwest Greenland, is a bold

    mass of porphyric rock, that projects about 7 miles north-north–

    eastward of Cape Ohlsen, on the eastern side of Smith Sound.

    The coast to the northward is studded with islands which

    are breeding places of eider duck, glaucous gull and tern.

            H.O. 76 520.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0529                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hazen Land,

            an island in the Polar Sea, with a maximum diameter of about 12 miles, off-lies

    the northern coast of Greenland (Peary Land) between De Long Fjord and

    Weyprecht Inlet. Cape Hommock (83° 22′N., 40° 50′W.), a short, but sharply

    narrowing projection, lies at the extreme northern end of the island.

    The interior attains elevations of over 2,200 ft., with several glaciers extending

    across the central portion of Hazen Land.

            The island was named by Lockwood of the U.S."Lady Franklin" Expedition,

    who reached his farthest north, 83° 24′N. (on the nei g hboring Lockwood Island)

    in May 1882.

            Guidebook 1269 H.O. 76, 566. Greely, Handbook 185 AAF Aer. Ch(8) 1943

            Indexer: list Cape Hommock



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0530                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Heilprin Land,

            a narrow, mountainous tract of land, extends about 35 miles along

    the western side of the inner portion of Independence Fjord. The land's northern

    end is flanked by Brönlund Fjord, and its southern end by Sophie Marie

    Glacier. The central and greater part of Heilprin Land is occupied by

    the Chr. Erichsen Ice Cap, which rises to over 5,000 ft. The lower icefree

    coastal fringe consists of steep slopes of sediment formation which are very

    fertile and abound with game - musk oxe and hare.

            H.O. 75 Guidebook 1302 Chart : AAF Aer. Ch. (9) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0531                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hendrik Island

            lies off the northern coast of Greenland, between St George and Sherard Osborne

    Fjords. From Dragon Point, its low north point, at lat. 82° 18′N, long 53° W.,

    the island extends nearly 40 miles southeastward, its width averaging only about 7

    miles. Its greatest elevations occur in its southeastern part, where the chart

    indicates a small ice cap, about 4,000 ft. high. Elesewhere the land is icefree

    and slopes down to a level of about 1,000 ft. to increase again in altitude toward

    the island's northern end, where two sharply contoured peaks, Mt. Dragon and Mt.

    Windham Hornby, rise to 3,200 and 3,700 ft., respectively. Hares, ptarmigan and

    a number of wanderin wolves have been observed in the interior.

            Hendrik Island was named by Rasmussen after Hendrik the Eskimo, who rendered

    invaluable se v r vices to four major expeditions, those of Kane, Hayes, Hall and Nares.

    Rasmussen, who camped at Dragon Point in May 1917, discovered the record cached

    left there by Beaumont of the Nares Expedition in May,1876.

            H.O. 76,560 Guidebook 1248 Rasmussen, Greenland by the Polar Sea 94 ff.

    Mirsky, To the North 183 AAF Aer. Ch (8) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0532                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Herbert Island

            is the easternmost of the three islands lying within the approaches of

    Inglefield Bay, off the west coast of Greenland. Herbert Island, which is

    about 18 miles long, east and west, is a vertical-sided, flat-topped

    mass of variegated sandstone, with a small ice-cap; three glaciers

    descend from the island's northern side, but only one of them reaches

    sea level. Bastion Point (77° 24′N., 69° 51′W.), the east point of

    the island, is a bold cliff of dark red sandstone, with a cap, 100 to 150 ft.

    high, of lighter sandstone. It marks the northern entrance point at the eastern

    end of Whale Sound. The island was investigated by Peary, in April 1892. His

    party found several ruined stone igloos, two of which had been fixed up and made

    habitable.

            H.O. 76, 475 Guidebook 733 Peary, Northward over the Great Ice, 236, 237



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0533                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Herluftrolle s Land,

            in northeast Greenland, forms the southeastern coast portion ? of Peary Land, and lien between

    Independence Fjord and G.B. Schley Fjord to the northward. To the eastward the

    land faces the Mc Kinley and Wandel Sea s , which are parts of the Arctic Ocean Sea .

            The vaguely - defined tract of land, which has a diameter of 50 miles or more,

    is ice-free , except in the north, where a mountainous plateau rises to about 6,500 ft.;

    the chart here indicates two small ice-caps. Westward, southward and southeastward of

    of this plateauland are wide plains which are crossed by innumerable rivers,

    emptying southward into Independence Fjord or northward into the head of G.B.

    Schley Fjord. The northeastern portion of Herluftrolle the l L and is occupied by several

    low mountain ranges which follow the sweep of the coast down to Cape Eiler

    Rasmussen (82° 35′N., 20° W.), which forms Peary Land's eastern extremity.

    South of this point the coast recedes to form Wandel Sea.

            Cape Clarence Wyckoff, a broad point of land on the northeast coast of

    S Herluftrolle s Land, was reached by Peary in 1900. It was his r f a r thest east

    after rounding the northern end of Greenland . The coast south of this cape

    was explored by J.P. Koch of the 1906-08 Danmark Expedition, and by Lauge Koch,

    , of the Danish Bicentenary Jubilee Expedition, 1920-23. The latter found this

    part of the coast poor in game , but was able to secure 9 musk oxen on the slopes

    south of Cape Clarence Wyckoff. Species of birds along the shores of facing Independence

    Fjord included ringplovers, gulls, Brent geese, ptarmigans, snowy owls and

    snow buntings. Koch named the land, after re-surveying it by sea plane in 1938.

            MG 70, 87 MG 65, 376 Guidebook 1278 ff Geogr. Journ. LXii, 117 MG 130, 351

    AAF Aer. Ch 9,1943

            Indexer: list Cape Eiler Rasmussen; Cape Clarence Wyckoff



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0534                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Holm Island (Kiatagssuak)

            at the southern entrance of Melville Bay, forms the administrative boundary

    line between two of West Greenland's most northerly districts: Upernivik

    and Thule. The island , which is about 21 miles long, east and west, and about

    4 miles wide, has numerous valleys with rivers and lakes rich in salmon. Maximum

    altitudes in the interior are over 3,200 ft. Wilcox Head (Ungatdlek) (74° 35′N.,

    57° 11′W.), the west point of Holm Island, about 2,300 ft. high , . affords an excellent

    view of ice conditions in the eastern part of Melville Bay.

            H.O. 76, 452 Guidebook 661 Greenland I., 513 AAF Aer. Ch (38) 1943

            Indexer: list Wilcox Head



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0535                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Humboldt Glacier,

            the broadest known glacier in the world, occupies the head of Peabody

    Bay in northwest Greenland, where it extends between Cape Agassiz (79° 09′N.,

    65° 40′W.) and Cape Forbes, about 60 miles to the northward. The glacier, which

    is partly bounded by and rests upon a gneiss plain, slopes evenly into the sea,

    and when viewed from the top of an iceberg directly in front of it, appears as

    a great white plain, extending far into the interior. In most places the edge

    does not exceed 164 ft. in elevation, and in its southern portio b n it is often

    easily accessible from a boat. The bergs which now and then calve off

    Humboldt Glacier look like huge pieces of polar ice, but are never the height

    of those off the larger glaciers farther south. Currents are strong in the waters

    around the bergs in spring, and seals, in consequence are numerous offshore.

    A huge icebank extends off the the glacier's northern portion . of Humboldt Glacier.

            The first to discover and name the Humboldt g lacier were members of the Kane Expedition

    of 1853. Rasmussen who investigated the area in 1917, states that its

    is not correct to call this a glacier, but views the ice-stream as an even edge

    of the Inland Ice which here reaches down to the sea. Both Rasmussen and Lauge

    kKoch concur that the productivity of the glacier is ver t y low. Koch,in 1921,

    observed that the ice offshore remained in motion until Christmas.

            H.O. 76, 529. Guidebook 1216 Rasmussen, Greenland by the Polar Sea, 59

    MG 65, p. 281 ff. AAF Aer. V C n (20) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0536                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Hunt Fjord,

            in lat. 83 N. in northern Greenland, indents the northwest coast of

    Peary Land close eastward of Cape Lane and westward of Gertrud Rask Land.

    The fjord, which is about 5 miles wide and 7 miles long, trends east-south–

    eastward amidst a setting which is characteristic for this part of Peary

    Land : innumerable short, glacier-filled valleys flanked by dark, sharply

    pointed nunataks. The peaks close to the large Thomas Glacier at the head rise

    to nearly 5,000 ft. The fjord was named by Peary in 1900.

            H.O. 76, 568 MG 65, p. 322 MG 130, p. 349

            AAF Aer. Ch (8), 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0537                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Igdlorsuit

            (71° 14′N., 53° 31′W.), a productive outpost in the Umanak District of northern

    West Greenland, with a population of 163 Greenlanders and 2 Europeans (1937), lies

    on the eastern shore of the large Ubekyendt Island. Its official buildings

    include a chapel-school, a wooden warehouse, a store and a manager's residence.

    There is also a small pier at Igdlorsuit. The small, crescent-shaped bight

    in front of the settlement has a solid ice cover from January until May, and in

    summer is often filled with small, fast-moving icebergs.

            H.O. 76, 415 Guidebook 543



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0538                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Ikerasak

            (70° 30′N., 51° 19′W.), an outpost in the Umanak District of northern

    West Greenland, with a popu lation of 128 Greenlanders and 3 Danes (1930),

    lies close to the southeastern extremity of the small elongated Ikerasak Island

    in Karajak Icefjord. Official buildings include a church, school, manager's

    house, store and warehouse. Melted calf ice forms the winter water supply; in

    summer fresh water is secured from a spring near the settlement. The bay off

    the settlement provides anchorage with good holding ground in its southern

    and larger part; the northern part is often filled with calf ice from the

    Great Karajak Glacier at the head of Karajak Icefjord.

            H.O. 76, 413 Guidebook 530



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0539                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Independence Fjord or Bay,

            northeast Greenland's largest indentation, is entered between Cape Rigsdagen

    (82° 05′N., 21° 40′W.), and Cape Kjoebnhavn, Sp ? on Peary Land, about 23 miles

    to the northward. The giant fjord, which at one time was thought to be a strait,

    extends due westward for about 90 miles to Cape Harald Moltke, and then southwest–

    ward and southward for about 25 miles to the large Academy Glacier at its head. The

    width of the fjord varies from 8 to 20 miles. Three arms branch off Independence

    Fjord. The large Hagen Fjord leads southwestward from a point about 18 miles west of

    Cape Rigsdagen. The smaller Astrup and Brönlund Fjords are entered off Cape Harald

    Moltke, with Astrup Fjord leading 6 miles southward from the southern side of the

    main fjord, and Brönlund Fjord extending 12 miles westward from the opposite side. shore

    Brönlund Fjord terminates at the foot of Wandel Valley, which has Midsummer

    Lake at its western end. A number of low islets occupy the head of the fjord.

            Northern shore and

    Northwestern

    Independence Fjord

            The greater part of this shore, between Cape Kjoebnhavn and

    Cape Harald Moltke, is formed by stwo subdivisions of eastern

    SPeary Land: Herluftrolle s Land and Melville Land to the westward. The foreshores

    of Herluftrolle s Land, between Cape Kjobenhavn and Cape Caroline Marie, about 30

    miles westward, are clay plains, inter e s ected here and there by rows of low moraine

    hills and drained by a number of rivers. The shores of Melville Land present , on the contrary,

    a range of high sandstone cliffs inter e sected by ravines and riverbeds; the bluffs ,

    which have elevations up to 1,500 ft., extend to a broad, fertile river delta near

    the mouth of Brönlu d fjord, but they reced e somewhat from the coast near the

    western end of the line. The inner portion of Independence Fjord, between

    Brönlund Fjord (Cape Harald Moltke) and Academy Glacier at the head, is flanked

    by Heilprin and Vildt Land, two mountainous tracts of land, separated by the

    large Sophie Marie Glacier . The rocky coast of Heilprin Land, with its great slopes



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0540                                                                                                                  
    Independence Fjord cont.

            facing Independence Fjord , has elevations of from 1,900 to 3,500 ft. , but the ice–

    free fr a i nge is narrow in its more southerly part. Navy Cliff, at the eastern

    edge of Vildt Land, is a rocky plateau, rising precipitously to 3,800 ft.

    The large Academy Glacier at the head has a number of high nunataks and several

    shallow lakes. Its much crevassed floating tongue extends several miles

    into the fjord. Both Academy and Sophie Marie Glacier to the northward, discharge

    a number of icebergs into the fjord.

            Southern and southeastern side

    of Independence Fjord
    .

            The outer portion of this shore, between

    Cape Rigsdagen and Hagen Fjord (Cape Ludovika) ,

    is formed by the low, clayey foreshore of Valdemar Glückstadt Land. West of Hagen

    Fjord(Cape Peter Henrik) commences a continuous range of low sedimentary

    rock, which increases in height toward Astrup Fjord. Several small glaciers

    discharge into the fjord near the line's western end. The largely ice-covered

    land back of this range is called J.C. Christensen Land. The inner portion

    of the fjord, between Astrup and Academy Glacier at the head, is flanked

    by Ubberup - and Academy Land s , two mountainous and partly ice-capped sections

    with elevations of over 3,500 ft. An indentation in this coast forms a

    bay which leads to the fertile Saxifraga Valley. The river which flows

    through this valley , forms the boundary line between Ubberup-and Academy Land.

            Flora and Fauna . Much of the land area surrounding Independence Fjord

    is ice-free and well watered by rivers and creeks, the moisture, in many

    places, promoting a rich crop of flowering grasses and plants.

    Animal life is surprisingly varied, and includes musk oxen, wolves,

    foxes, hares, stoats and lemmings and a number of

    003      |      Vol_XIV-0541                                                                                                                  
    land- and seabirds, some of which brood on this land here in summer. Seals are plentiful

    off-shore , as soon as open leads occur.

            Ice.

            In early J H une, 1912, Freuchen , of the First Thule Expedition, found the

    ice in the entrance of Independence Fjord ground up and closely packed about 1 mile s

    of f Cape Rigsdagen. At the mouth of the fjord , as well as within it, were many icebergs

    from the glaciers at its head.Some paleocrystic ice (sea ice several years old)

    was found in the outer fjord; it increased in quantity near the head of the

    fjord. Large leads of open water occurred far inside the fjord. The ice foot was found

    to be broad and low in the outer part of the fjord, narrow in the interior, where

    the coastal mountains are steep. As elsewhere in Greenland, the boundary line

    between the ice foot and the sea ice is not conspicuous, the difference between

    high and low water in Independence Fjord being only about 20 inches.

            History . Peary and his companion Astrup discovered the head of Independence

    Fjord on their descent from the Inland Ice in 1892, and named it Independence

    Bay, in honor of the date, July 4th. Peary named Academy Glacier and Navy Cliff, the

    point form where which he viewed the fjord. He sighted the coast of Melville Land to the

    northeast and to the northwest a large depression, which he believed to be part

    of a giant channel , connecting Independence Fjord in the east with Nordenskiöld

    Fjord, far to the northwest, thereby severing Peary Land from the mainland of

    Greenland. On the basis of dotted lines on Peary's map, the channel, under the name

    of PEARY CHANNEL, was subsequently incorporated into maps of the region as a connecting

    link between Independence and Nordenskiöld Fjords; Peary Land thus appeared as

    an island. Great efforts were made by subsequent expeditions to Independence Fjord

    to trace the so-called PEARY CHANNEL. The Mylius-Erichsen Expedition, 1906-08,

    and the Alabama Expedition 1909-12, with Einar Mikkelsen in command, failed

    to find it. Freuchen of the first Thule Expedition (1912) made a sketch of the

    region west of Brönlund Fjord , through which the Peary Channel was supposed to run.

    His map indicated clearly that the great depression viewed by Peary , had no immediate

    connection with Independence Fjord. However , the insular nature of Peary Land was not

    004      |      Vol_XIV-0542                                                                                                                  
    Independence Fjord continued.

    disproved until Lauge Koch, in 1921, discovered Wandel Valley. Koch's survey

    nevertheless indicated that Peary's observation was largely correct. The depression

    does exist, although not in form of a channel, and it extends from Brönlund Fjord

    to J.P. Koch Fjord on Greenland's northwest coast. Koch viewed the valley not

    only from the summit of a mountain near the head of Brönlund Fjord, but also later

    from a position on the i I ce c C ap, approximately where Peary had stood prior to

    his visit to Navy Cliff. In 1938, during his airplane flight over Peary Land ,

    Koch checked on these observations and found them correct.

    ( See also Brönlund Fjord; Wandel Valley: and Melville- and other lands, listed

    under individual headings.)

            MG 130, vol I., pp 9.,277. Geogr. Journal LXII p. 113 ff. Peary "Northward

    over the Great Ice", pp. 345, 349 H.O. 75, p. 258 ff.

    Chart: AAF Aer. Ch (9) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0543                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 35

    Cape Ingersoll

            (78° 39′N., 71° 32′W.), a projection on the coast of Inglefield Land in

    northwest Greenland, forms the western entrance point of Rensselaer

    Bay. The cape, which extends north-northwestward, rises to over 1,000 ft.

            H.O. 76, 526 Guidebook 1207



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0544                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 135

    Cape Inglefield

            (78° 35′N., 72° 07′W.), a projection on the coast of Inglefield Land in

    northwest Greenland, lies about midway between Cairn Point and Cape Inger–

    soll. The cape which points sharply northward, rises to less than 300 ft.

    The surrounding mountains are gneiss-granite, undistinguished. ANORITOK

    (Place of Little Wind), a former Eskimo settlement, lies somewhat back of

    the cape. The coast here marks the beginning of the famous ice-foot, known

    to many expeditions, which extends northwestward along the coast of Inglefield

    Land. The ice-foot, which has a mean width of from 100 to 200 ft., forms

    an ideal traveling route, except at the mouths of bays, fjord or rivers,

    where it is likely to be interrupted for a longer or shorter stretch, especially

    after the break-up has begun.

            H.O. 76, 526 Guidebook 1207 MG 65, 400 ff.

            Indexer: list Anoritok



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0545                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Inglefield Gulf,

            largest of the indentations in the Thule District coast of northern West Greenland,

    is entered between Beaufort Bluf (Kangek) (77° 18′N., 68° 59′W.),

    and Kanak, the south point of Red Cliff Peninsula, about 13 miles north-north–

    eastward. The gulf trends eastward for about 45 miles, terminating at the foot

    of a huge amph o i theater of ice, formed mainly by Heilprin, Tracy, and

    Melville Glaciers, which flow down from the Ice Cap in frozen rapids and

    cascades. Fronting the face of the glaciers lies a small archipelago

    of ice-free islands.

            According to Peary , the wider circuit of the f g ulf is an " an almost continuous

    glittering glacier face " , rimmed in the foreground by a series of precipitous,

    isolated mountains, often of rather startling contour. At a number of places

    the ro a cky coastline is interrupted by fjordlike depressions through which

    short glaciers, flowing from the aurrounding "Great Ice", reach the water level

    and discharge a limited number of icebergs. Two larger indentations within the gulf

    are Bowdoin Bay and Academy Bay. The former leads from the northern side of

    outer Inglefield Gulf and terminates at the foot of Bowdoin Glacier. The latter

    extends from a point south of the head of the gulf and leads to Academy Glacier.

    Bow s d oin and Academy Bays as well as the outer southern shore of Inglefield Gulf

    have some fertile slopes which provide pasturage for caribou. In summer

    the waters of the bays abound in seals, white whales and narwhal, and provide

    good hunting for the Eskimos living along the shores of Inglefield Gulf. Open

    leads inside the gulf are said to exist throughout the winter, but unbroken ice

    may blocks its approaches as far as end of July. The freeze-up comes in November.

            The first to make a thorough examination of Inglefield Gulf was

    Peary, who had headquarters on Red Cliff Peninsula in 1 8 91-92, and 1893-1895.

    Peary named a number of points along the shores of Inglefield Gulf. Rasmussen

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0546                                                                                                                  
    Inglefield Gulf cont.

    and Lauge Koch investigated the gulf between 1917 and 1923. Koch, who entered

    it in the small schooner, Louise , on 11 September 1920, experienced a great

    deal of ice here. In 1935, the Morissey , with Captain Robert A. Bartlett in command,

    spent the period of July 25-29 at the head of Inglefield Gulf. At this time the

    fast ice had broken up, except for some scattered pieces and bergs at the head,

    a most unusual condition for this time of the year.

            H.O. 76, 478 Guidebook 739 ff. Peary, Northward over the Great Ice 69, 398

    MG Vol. 65, 230, 252. MG Vol 70, 25 AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943

            Indexer: list Academy Bay; Bowdoin Bay .



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0547                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Inglefield Land,

            a broad strip of ice-free land in northern West Greenland, extends along

    the eastern sides of Smith Sound and Kane Basin, between Etah Settlement

    (78° 19′N., 72° 42′W.) and Cape Agassiz, about 105 miles to the north–

    eastward. Eastward Inglefield Land extends from 10 to 32 miles to the

    edge of the Inland Ice.

            In general the shore is made up of steep, almost vertical cliffs, about

    500 to 1,000 ft. high. Clinging to the face of the cliff and following

    the sweep of the coast except at bays and river-mouths, is a platform of ice,

    sometimes 200 to 300 ft. wide. This famous ice-foot, which is particularly

    pronounced along the eastern side of Kane basin, provides a secure and level

    sledge route at almost all seasons. The interior of Inglefield Land forms

    a plain sloping to 1,000 to 2,000 ft. as it approaches the western edge of the

    Ice Cap. The surface is everywhere level except in the east where small

    elevations alternate with valleys. Drainage Irrigation is supplied by the large September

    Lakes in the northeast, into which flows the Hiawatha Glacier, and elsewhere

    by a number of rivers q w hich drain directly from the interior ice into the

    many bays of the coast. The climate of Inglefield Land is milder than elsewhere

    in these latitudes and the vegetation is rich enough to support game, although

    caribou, formerly abundant, have become almost extinct. Hares are numerous and

    bears are hunted in the northern portion of the land. Many salmon are caught

    in the rivers and lakes, and spring and summer brings seals, whales and occasional–

    ly walrus to the coast. There are a number of old winter houses on Inglefield

    Land . Recent archaeological expeditions have shown them to contain many obj ects

    of European type, some reminiscent of Norse finds farther south. The dwellings,

    therefore , may date back to the middleages, leaving open the question whether

    their builders were Eskimos, influenced by European culture, or Europeans, wh o i , in

    part, had adopted the Eskimo way of life.



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0548                                                                                                                  
    Inglefield Land cont.

            Inglefield Land, named after the famous British Admiral and Polar Explorer,

    was first explored by members of the Kane Expedition in 1853-55. It has since been

    investigated by a number of parties, including Rasmussen's Second Thule

    Expedition (1917), Lauge Koch's Danish Bicentenary Jubilee Expedition (1920-23),

    the Danish Archaeological and Ethnographical Expedition (1935-37, under E. Holtved,

    and the 1937-38 British Expedition,led by David Haig-Thomas. The latter

    expedition corrected Koch's position of the edge of the Ice Cap on Inglefield

    Land, placing it about 12 miles farther eastward.

            H.O. 76, 525 Guidebook 1197 MG 125, Nr. 3, p. 8ff (map)

    AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943

            Indexer: list September Lakes



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0549                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Ingnerit Peninsula,

            a large mainland projection in the Upernivik District of northern West Greenland,

    covering an area of over 400 sq. miles, extends due southwestward, flanked on the

    south by Umiarfik Fjord and on the north by Søndre Sound. A st r ip of land, only

    8 miles wide, part of which is occupied by a lake-filled valley, connects

    the peninsula with the mainland. On the west coast, about 6 miles from the

    northwestern extremity, is a small fjord, Ingnerit, where the coal-bearing beds

    reach the coast. The coal, not plentiful and of inferior quality, is used by the

    local population. Inside Ingnerit Fjord, close to its southern entrance point,

    is a dog quarantine station. This station has been established in accordance

    with the strict law of Greenland which forbids the importation or transfer

    of dogs from one district to another, in order to prevent the spread of hydro–

    phobia and other contagious diseases. The mountains in the interior of Ingnerit

    Peninsula attain elevations of over 3,000 ft. and are widely covered with snow

    which does not melt.

            Guidebook 572 H. O. 76, 426

            Indexer: list Ingnerit Fjord



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0550                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Inugsulik Bay (Ryders Bay) ,

            on the Greenland side of Baffin Bay, in lat. 74° N., lies between

    Nugssuak Peninsula and the large Holms Island, more than 23 miles to

    the northward. Two glaciers discharge into the head of the bay, but as the

    Greenland Ice Cap levels off in this vicinity, the icebergs which are produced

    are not very high. Igdluligssuak, the largest of several islands in the

    northern part of the bay, is used as a wintering place by the Greenlanders

    who make hunting trips of considerable length from here. Inugsulik Island,

    2 miles westward of Igdluligssuak, is slightly smaller, but exceptionally

    fertile; on its southern side is a house,named "Bjoerneborg", with provisions

    for travelers southbound from the Thule District; the high plateau in the

    interior has a cairn, erected by Captain C. Ryder, who mapped the district

    in 1886-87, claiming it for the Danish Crown.

            H.O. 76, 451 Guidebook 643 ff.

            Indexer: list Igdluligssuak Island (Inugsulik Bay); Inugsulik Island



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0551                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    J.P. Koch Fjord,

            in northern Greenland, is entered between Cape Wegener (82° 45′N., 45° 35′W.),

    the northwestern extremity of Freuchen Land, and Elison Islamd, about 7 miles

    to the northwestward. The fjord, which extends eastward and then largely

    south-eastward, terminates at the foot of Astrup Glacier. Due west of the

    fjord's head is a narrow strip of ice-free land, which forms the only

    connecting link between Peary Land and the main body of Greenland to the

    southward. (For a discussion of Peary Channel, which was shown on the old

    charts as severing Peary Land from the mainland see INDEPENDECNCE FJORD).

            The northern shore of the outer part of J.P. Koch Fjord is formed

    by Nansen Land and part of its off-lying archipelago, all of which are ice-free ,

    c onsisting of wild alpine country. On the southern side of the fjord and on both

    sides of the inner part the land is covered with glaciers, except for a small

    icefree margin along the shores. Rasmussen, who visited the fjord in June 1917,

    found open water in the outer part of the fjord, and a few seals were secured with

    difficult y. .

            J.P. Koch Fjord was discovered and named by Rasmussen's Second Thule

    Expedition and its outer portion revisited by Lauge Koch in 1921. In 1938,

    during an airplane flight to Peary Land, Koch checked up on his previous

    observations, and found the fjord to extend much farther inland than had been previously

    supposed.

            Guidebook 1259 H.O. 76, 562 MG 130, 324



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0552                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    J.P. Koch Land

            an ice-free peninsula, covering an area of about 390 square miles, projects

    in lat. 72° in northern West Greenland. Its outer shores are formed by

    the inner part of Lakse Fjord and by a series of sounds, sometimes called

    Northern Sound, which extend northward to the head of Upermivik Icefjord.

    To the eastward the land is bounded by the Inland Ice. The region has

    several fertile valleys and a few marginal lakes. Altitudes are moderate ,

    except in the north where Pingut, West Greenland's most northerly basalt

    mountain, rises to over 2,500 ft. It was in this vicinity that members

    of the J.P. Koch and Alfred Wegener Expedition (1912-13) descended to the

    coast after having crossed the Inland Ice.

            Guidebook 581 AAF Aer. Ch (38) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0553                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 72

    Cape Jackson

            (80° 00′N., 67° 2 5 ′W.), in northwest Greenland, projects southwestward

    at the junction of the eastern shores of Kane Basin (Peabody Bay) and

    Kennedy Channel. The low limestone hil [ ?] s of the coast slope up in the northeast

    to a small ice cap , but lose in height to the eastward along the northern

    shore of Peabody Bay. Rasmussen, in April, 1917, found the broad well-developed ice-foot

    along this stretch of the coast easy to travel on.

            Guidebook 1221 H.O. 76, 530



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0554                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    John Brown Coast

            is the name applied to that part of the Greenland coast, which extends

    along the eastern wide of Kennedy Channel, between Cape Constitution

    (80° 34′N., 66° 45′W), and Cape Bryan, about 46 miles north-northwestward.

    The ice-free southern part of the coast is marked by many minor irregularities –

    small bays and a short fjord - into which empty a number of streams. The

    mountains here are steep, but the foreshore is broad enough to permit the

    formation of smooth ice-foot, easy to travel on. Signs of ancient

    habitations have been found along this coast. The northern part of John

    Brown Coast is largely occupied by John Brown Ice Cap [ ?] except for a narrow

    strip of ice-free land along the shore. The ice-foot along this part of the

    coast is very narrow and encumbered with huge ice-blocks.

            H.O. 76, 543 MG 65, 462



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0555                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kaersorsuak,

            an island in lat. 72° N., off the coast of Upernivik District in northern

    West Greenland, covers an area of about 66 sq. miles. Its highest peak, a cone-shaped

    mountain, over 3,500 ft. high, is one of the noblest landmarks along this coast

    and visible at a distance of over 60 miles. Sanderson's Hope, the west point

    of the island, so named by Davis on his voyage in 1587, has steep and partly overhang–

    ing cliffs, rising abruptly to over 1,000 ft., where guillemots and auks congregate

    by the myriads. Kaersok, a native dwelling-place on the south coast of the island,

    is inhabited only in winter, when the population numbers about 40 persons.

    There is anchorage off Kaersok.

            Guidebook 584 H.O. 76, 432

            Indexer: list Sanderson's Hope



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0556                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kaffeklubben (Coffee Club)

            is a small island, at lat. 83° 36′N., off the northern coast

    of Greenland (Peary Land), about midway between Bliss Bay and Cape James

    Hill. The island was named by Lauge Koch in 1922.

            Guidebook 1275 H.O. 75, 269



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0557                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kagsserssuak

            (73° 05′N., 55° 42′W.), an outpost in the Upernivik District

    of northern West Greenland, forms the west point of Kagsserssuak

    Peninsula, an ice-free projection which juts about 12 miles westward into the

    Baffin Sea. The population,in 1921, was 27 Greenlanders. The official

    buildings, consisting of a chapel, a manager's house and a store, were then

    in a dilapidated condition. Thee is no harbor at the settlement, and during

    storms from the southeast and southwest it is necessary for vessels to

    anchor north of the peninsula, in shelte of the coast. The freeze-up

    comes end of September and the break-up some time in July.

            Guidebook 615 H.O. 76 443

            Indexer list : Kagsserssuak Peninsula



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0558                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kamarujuk (Quamarujuk),

            a fjord in the Umana i k District of northern West Greenland, leads from the

    northern side of Ignerit, one of the largest branches of Umanak Fjord

    in Nordost Bay. The position at the head of Kamarujuk is lat. 71° 09′N.,long.

    51° 14′W., and it was here that the German Greenland Expedition of 1930-31 ,

    commanded by Alfred Wegener, had one of its meteorological stations .

    The post carried on meteorological observations in conju n ction with a station

    at Umanak Colony and a station, named Scheide e, gg ,at the margin of the

    Inland Ice, several miles northeast of the head of Kamarujuk Fjord.

    The inner fjord has an abandoned marble quarry at Marmorilik.

            Guidebook 490, 536 ff.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0559                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kane Basin,

            a 125-mile waterway, passing between northwest Greenland and northeastern

    Canada (Ellesmere Island) forms part of the Smith Sound Route, which leads

    from Baffin Bay to the Polar Sea. The basin is entered north of Smith Sound,

    between Cairn Point (78° 31′N., 72° 25′W.), on the Greenland side, and

    Cape Sabine, Ellesmere Island, about 29 miles northwestward. Its approximate

    northern limit is defined by a line running from Cape Jackson (80° 00′N.,

    67° 25 ′W.), Greenland, to Cape Lawrence, Ellesmere Island, about 29 miles northwest–

    ward, north of which extends Kennedy Channel.

            Kane Basin widens in its inner parts and attains a breadth of nearly

    100 miles between Cape Agassiz, Greenland, and Cape Louis Napoleon, on the

    Canadian shore. Its western side is much indented, in contrast to its eastern

    side, which has a more or less regular coast line. The eastern side differs also

    by being bordered by a large area of relatively fertile, ice-free land, named

    Inglefield Land, which forms the basin's southeastern shore up to Cape Agassiz.

    North of this cape the basin is largely bounded by the 60-mile wide Humboldt

    Glacier. The coast here recedes slightly to form the large Peabody Bay, the north–

    eastern portion of Kane Basin, which extends from Cape Agassiz to Cape Jackson,

    over 60 miles northwestward. Soundings taken by pPeary at various points across

    Kane Basin, have established depths ranging from 101 to 139 fathoms, which

    are less than those in the neighboring waterways. The flood tidal current

    from the south meets the tidal current from the north in the vicinity of

    Cape Frazer on the Ellesmere Island side.

            Ice. - The wide area of Kane Basin is occupied at all times by

    large masses of heavy polar pack ice, that drift in from the Arctic Ocean through

    the narrow channels northward of the basin. During the wintermonths the basin freezes

    from shore to shore, the winter ice cementing the pack together, except for

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0560                                                                                                                  
    Kane Basin cont.

    short break-ups that occur under the influence of wind and current. Large leads are

    likely to occur in August, but even then the pack may extend almost unbroken

    across the basin's southern end.

            History. - The first of the modern explorers to take his vessel well

    into Kane Basin was Elisha K. Kane, in August 1853. His tiny brig, the Advance .

    pushed northward to lat. 78° 43′N., and then found her final moornings in Rensse–

    laer Harbor (78° 37′N.),whence the expedition explored the shores of Kane

    Basin by sledge. Humboldt Glacier was investigated by Mc Garry and Bonsalls and

    later by a party, led by Kane. Morton traveled north to Cape Constitution

    well inside Kennedy Channel. Hayes went westward to Elessmere Island and surveyed

    points in the vicinity of Cape Frazer. Hayes, in 1860, re-visited Humboldt

    Glacier and the Elesmere Island coast by sledge, without, however, producing much

    information. The farthest north of the Advance was not surpassed until 1871, when

    the Polaris , under Hall, steamed through all of Kane Basin on August 28. Meeting

    with relatively few obstacles the vessel continued northward through Kennedy Channel

    and Hall Basin and, on August 30, almost reached the open Polar Sea. Nares,

    in August 1875, managed to push both the Alert and the Discovery through Kane

    Basin, but his journey, contrary to that of Hall's, was a constant struggle

    with ice. Greely's Proteus Proteus , in Aug u st 1881, had relatively easy sailing while

    passing through Kane Basin, but later was stopped by ice off Cape Lieber in Hall

    Basin. Peary's Windward , in the summer of 1898, managed Kane Basin only as

    far as Cape d'Urville, but Peary's Roosevelt , in 1905-06 and in 1908-09, twice forced

    passage not only through Kane Basin but through all of the Smith Sound Route.

    The Roosevelt , like the Alert , ultimately found moorings off Cape Sheridan on the

    Polar Sea. (Insert): R. [ Bartlett ?] , Commander of Peary's Roosevelt in 1908,

    [ took ?] the [ Effie ?] Morrison like Kane Became [ ?] 780 450 in 1937 and again in 1940,

    Woodie’s in [ ?] Exp. 1937 mapped area on the [ beluciu ?] [ ?] southwestern side
    (See also Smith Sound Route).

    H.O. 76, 524 Guidebook 1190 ff. Greely, Handbook Peary, Nearest the Pole .

    Bessels, Smith Sound and its explorations. Mirsky, To the North AAF Aer. Ch. 8

    1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0561                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kangek Peninsula (Kangeks Halvø),

            in lat. 72° N. [ ?] of northern West Greenland,

    extends westward from the mainland, forming the southern side of the 30-mile long Laxe

    Fjord. The peninsula terminates at its western end in a large, bold promontory,

    with steep dark bluffs facing the sea. The promontory is marked by a number

    of peaks, the highest of which rises to over 2,400 ft.

            H.O. 76, 431



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0562                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kangerdluk ,

            in Nordost Bay in northern West Greenland, is a branch of Karrat f F jord and is

    entered between the large mainland projection Akuliarusek and the island

    Kekertarsuak to the northwest. The fjord extends about 17 miles northeastward

    to the 3-mile-wide face of Rink Glacier,one of the most productive glaciers

    in the vicinity, which calves every ten to twenty days accompanied by teemors

    and ear-splitting noise. After the calving Kangerdluk is completely filled with

    ice, which only a prolonged easterly wind will clear away. Umiamako Glacier,

    another active glacier, about 2 miles wide, discharges into Karrat Fjord close

    northward to the entrance of Kangerdluk. The combined output of Rink and Umiamako

    Umiako Glaciers constitutes the Karrat ice stream which drifts out through

    Karrat fFjord.

            The landscape around Kangerdluk is gneissic rock, largely covered with

    Inland Ice; maximum elevation on the nortern shore is 7,474 ft. Vegetation inside

    the fjord is almost extinct except for a few small areas where a flora of

    Arctic steppe has developed, but seals come up to the foot of the glacier and

    sea -gulls circle inmidst the turmoil of Rink Glacier's giant calvings.

            Depths in midfjord of Kangerdluk are over 600 fathoms; near the face of

    Rink Glacier soundings up to 385 fathoms have been obtained.

            Guidebook 552 S [ ?] H.O. 76, 423



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0563                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Karajak Ice Fjord (see Umanak Fjord)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0564                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Karrat (Karrats) Fjord,

            close northward of lat. 71° N. in northern West Greenland, f ro or ms

    the northern part of Nordost Bay, and is entered between the western

    extremity of Ubekyendt Island and the southern extremity of Svartenhuk

    peninsula, nearly 23 miles northwestward. The fjord extends northwestward for over

    29 miles to the large island Kekertarsuak where it branches, sending arms

    eastward, northeastward, and northward. Mighty glaciers discharge their

    icebergs into Karrat Fjord, making navigation of the fjord dangerous at

    any season. The mainland shore to the northward has maximum elevations of

    over 7,000 ft. The depths within Karrats Fjord are generally great. The

    break-up begins in June and the freeze-up in October.

            Guidebook 529 H.O. 76, 420



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0565                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kekertarsuak

            (southern extremity 72° 08′N., 55° 34′W.), an island about 19 miles

    long, southwest and northeast, and 7 miles at its broadest, lies in the

    Upernivik District of northern West Greenland, close off the northern

    shore of Ignerit Peninsula. The island is composed of basalt, except

    for its cliffy northern end , which is gneiss. The outpost South Upernivik

    is on a small, southward projecting peninsula that forms the southern

    extremity of Kekertarsuak Island.

            H.O. 76 427 Guidebook 573

            Indexer: list Kekertarsuak (Ignerit Peninsula)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0566                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kekertarsuak (Qeqertarssuaq) ,

            an island the largest island at the head of Karrat Fjord in Nordost Bay of northern West

    Greenland, is about 14 miles long, east and west and has a width of about

    9 miles at its western end, tapering to a narrow end point at its northeastern

    extremity. In its interior, the island rises to nearly6,000 ft. Tunua,

    a channel about 2 miles wide, separates Kekertarsuak from a mainland

    projection to the northward. Nugatsiak, the principal settlement in

    Karrat J F jord, is situated at the southern extremity of the island, and

    Naujat, a native dwelling-place lies on its western shore, about 6 miles

    northwestward of Nugatsiak . The Universal Greenland Expredition spent most of

    the summer 1932 at Nugatsiak . The region around the settlement is notorious for

    its frequent fogs and strong winds.

            [ ?] H.O. 76, 422

            Indexer: List Kekertarsuak as Kekertarsuak (Karrat Fjord).

            List also: Nugatsiak (Karrat Fjord); Naujat (Karrat Fjord)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0567                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kennedy Channel,

            a 90-mile waterway between northwest Greenland and northeastern Canada (Ellesmere

    Island), forms part of the Smith Sound Route, which leads from Baffin Bay to the

    Polar Sea. Its southern entrance lies north of Kane Basin between Cape Jackson

    (80° 00′N. 67° 25′W.), Greenland, and Cape Lawrence, Ellesmere Island, about

    35 miles northwestward. Its northern entrance is between Cape Morton (81° 12′N.

    63° 40 ′W.) Greenland, and Cape Baird , . Ellesmere Island, about 25 miles north–

    northwestward, beyond which extends Hall Basin. Crozier, Franklin and Hans

    Islands occupy its southern fairway. The channel narrows down to about 17

    miles in its interior portions and is lined on both side by a series of lofty

    cliffs, rising to 1,000 ft. or more. The shorelines are relatively even, the

    only major indentation being the fjord-like Bessels Bay, on the Greenland

    side, south of Cape Morton. Floes of old ice continuously drift southward

    through the channel from spring until December, forming high hummocks where their

    edges meet. The freeze-up comes late and the break-up early owing to the channel's

    high tides, some of which are said to rise to 30 ft.

            Kennedy Channel was discovered and named by Morton of Kane's Expedition, who

    reached Cape Constitution (80° 58′N . ) , on the Greenland side, in June 1854, after

    sledging northward from Rensselaer Harbor, where his expedition was based. Only

    5 vessels have been able to navigate force passage through the channel's ices [ ?] Hall's Polaris (1871),

    Nares's Alert and Discovery (1875), Greely's Proteus (1881) and Peary's Roosevelt

    (Insert): R. Bartlett's 's Effie Morissey

    reached her farthest [ ?] , 80° 22′N. in Kennedy Channel in 1940,


    (1905 and 1908).

            Guidebook 1220 H.O. 76, 541 [ ?] Mirsky, To the North 182,204

            Greely, Handbook 237 AAF Aer. Ch (8) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0568                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kingigtuarsuk (Kingigtorssuaq)

            is a small islet or rock close northward of lat. 73° N. off the coast of northern

    West Greenland, about 16 miles northwestward of Upernivik Colony. A small

    slate stone with a runic inscription was found here in 1824. The inscription

    reads in translation: " Erling Sigvatsson and Bjarne Thordsson and Enridi Oddsson on

    the Saturday before Gangdag (25 April) made this (these) cairns." Scholars have

    placed the date of the monument at around 1330 and contributed it to early

    Norsemen, who wintered here.

            Guidebook 601 H.O. 76, 442

            Indexer: list this as Kingigtuarsuk rock



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0569                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kraulshavn (74° 09′N. 56° 05 ′W.),

            a trading post in the Upernivik District of northern West Greenland,

    is situated at the head of a bay that indents the northern side of Nugsuak

    Peninsula, near o i ts western extremity. The settlement, which was establish ed

    in 1921, is considered a pioneer district in the sense, that it is newly

    occupied by Eskimos, who have migrated here because of the scarcity of game

    and fish farther southward. The population in 1930 was 220 Greenlanders;,

    however, because of their nomadic nature , the number of inhabitants varies greatly.

    The harbor which is said to be good, is accessible from the open sea from

    July to November. Sledging becomes possible in December. Seals, polar bears, whales,

    and foxes are numerous in the vicinity.

            The station was named after a manager at Upernivik Colony.

            H.O. 76,450 Guidebook 633 ,643



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0570                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Kutdlikorssuit (Kugdlerkorsuit),

            an island in lat. 73° N. off the coast of northern West Greenland,

    about 15 miles long, southeast and northwest, and up to 8 miles wide,

    forms the southern shore of Sugar Loaf Bay. On the south Kutdlikorssuit

    faces the outer part of Gieseckes Isfjord. The land attains only moderate

    altitudes. The much indented southern coast has a large bay which is sometimes

    blocked by icebergs. Agpalisiorfik, a native dwelling place, stands close to

    the western entrance point of this bay.

            H.O. 76, 448



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0571                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Lafayette Bay,

            a small bay in lat. 80° N. in northwest Greenland, on the eastern

    side of Kennedy Channel, is entered between Cape Jefferson and Cape Independence, about

    9 miles north-northeastward. The coast here recedes but slightly and is formed

    by steep mountains, 1,300 ft. high, in front of which lies a low foreshore

    about 30 to 60 ft. wide. Crozier Island, the southernmost of the small

    islands in Kennedy Channel, lies close outside the middle of the entrance

    to Lafayette Bay.

            H.O. 76, 542 Guidebook 1224

            Indexer: list Crozier Island.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0572                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Laxe (Lakse or Salmon) Fjord

            in lat. 72° N. in northern West Greenland, is entered between

    Kange k Halve Peninsula and the southwestern extremity of Akuliarusek i I sland , about

    2 miles to the north. The fjord trends eastward for about 29 miles. A fan–

    shaped system of valleys at the head of the fjord is occupied by lakes

    and short rivers which have their source near the Inland Ice.Altitudes here

    come close to the 3,000 ft. mark. The northern side of the inner fjord is

    comparatively fertile and near the head , at Orpik , a small dwelling-place ,

    is a grove of willows, about 6 ft. tall. So far as is known this is the northernmost

    willow grove in West [ ?] reenland. Ekaluarsuit, a salmon river debouches on the southern side

    of the fjord, about 3 miles from the head. The river drains a large lake

    close to the Inland [ ?] ce; its shores serve as favorite tenting ground for the

    people who come here to fish salmon and hunt caribou.

            Sail. Dir. VI 54 H.O.76, 431 Guidebook 580 ff.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0573                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Life Boat Cove

            (78° 24′N., 76° 38′W.), on the Greenland side of Smith Sound, has its

    entrance close northward of Cape Ohlsen. In October 1872, the Polaris

    was run ashore here in a wrecked condition and subsequently abandoned.

    The crew built a house (Polaris House) on land, and spent the winter

    without suffering undue hardship, due mainly to the friendly assistants

    of Eskimos who come over from Etah to visit. In 1923 the Bowdoin

    grounded here with the falling tide. Within the cove the bottom suddenly

    changes from black to a yellow sand, studded with boulders.

            H.O. 76, 520 Bessels, Smith Sound and its Explorations 386



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0574                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Lincoln Sea

            is the name applied to that part of the Arctic Ocean, which lies off the northwestern

    end of Greenland and the northeastern end of Ellesmere Island, or roughly,

    between lat. 82° 10′N. and 83° 40 N., and between long. 34° W. and 64° W. Robeson

    Channel leads south w estward from the Lincoln Sea, and , together with other channels

    and basins of the Smith Sound Route, connects the sea with Baffin Bay.

    The Greenland shore of the Lincoln Sea, which includes the shores of Nyeboe

    and Peary Lands, between Cape Stanton and Cape Morris Jesup, is deeply gutted

    by numerous fjords which are usually filled with heavy polar pack ice. The shores

    are cliffy and steep, with the land behind often attaining altitudes of over

    3,000 ft. A corona of large and small islands off Peary Land adds to the broken -

    up character of this coast.

            The Ellesmere Island shore of the Lincoln Sea, which is formed by the

    nort heastern extremity of Grant Land, reaches from Cape Sheridan to Cape Joseph

    Henry. The charted outline of this coast presents a somewhat less jagged appearance

    than that of the Greenland shore, although a number of larger projections and

    numerous small capes jut out into the sea. Some of the peaks farther inland

    attain elevations of about 5,000 ft. Cape Joseph Henry is marked by a stupendous

    ice-foot thrown up by the heavy ice floes of the Arctic Ocean that crash

    and grind continuously against this cape.

            Ice. - Lincoln Sea, according to Rasmussen, looks very much the same in

    summer and winter. Basins of open water and more or less considerable openings

    in the ice pack may form here and there, but they are always only local and

    temporary. In summer, however, the ice pack, forced into the Lincoln Sea

    from the great Arctic Ocean, starts moving drifting in the direction of Robeson Channel

    - a movement partly caused by openings forming along the shores, partly by channels

    formed created by the current. We have then this general d ir ri ft of the ice from the north–

    ward through the relatively narrow channels of the Smith Sound Rout e into

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0575                                                                                                                  
    Lincoln Sea cont.

    Baffin Bay. Navigation inmidst these masses of great drifting moving floes is nearly

    impossible. A vessel can at best drift with the ice in the direction, in which

    the current is going.

            History. - The Greenland shore of the Lincoln Sea, along which no vessel

    has eve r navigated, was first explored by the Nares Expedition in 1876, when a

    party led by Beaumont reached the vicinity of Sherard Osborne Fjord. Further

    explorations of this coast were carried out by Lockwood, of the Greely Expedition,

    in 1882, by Peary,in 1900, by Rasmussen's First and Second Thule Expedition,

    in 1912 and 1917, and finally by Lauge Koch,in 1921. Koch, in 1938, during a

    flight over northern Greenland in was able to check and correct his own and other

    work by an air plane survey of the northern and northeastern portions of

    Greenland. The Ellesmere Island shore was charted by Lt. Pelham Aldrich of the

    Nares Expedition, and the same stretch was traversed by Peary and members of his

    expeditions of 1905-06, and 1908-09. Both Nares' ship, the Alert , and Peary's

    vessel, the Roosevelt, were in winter quarters at Cape Sheridan.

            Extensive sur - vey flights, made, since Wo lr rl d War II, by the U.S.

    and Canadian Airforces have contributed substantially to a detailed charting

    of both coasts of the Lincoln Sea.

            H.O. 76, 558 ff. Guidebook 1242



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0576                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Littleton Island

            (78° 23′N., 73° 02′W.), a small island with a maximum diam e ter of about

    1 mile, lies on the eastern side of Smith Sound, close northwestward of Cape Ohlsen,

    Greenland. " The desolate, barren-looking piece of rock," as Peary termed it,

    rises precipitously to a flat top, its cliffs alive with myriads of little auks

    and other birds. Inglefield discovered the island in 1852, since which time

    it has been made the depository of records of movements of various northbound

    expeditions. Peary, in the Falcon , effected a landing here in August, 1893. Mac

    Millan, landing on the island in August 1923,found thecairn erected by Kane in 1853

    and remains of a coal cache left by Greely in 1881.

            H.O. 76 519 Guidebook 1202



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0577                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Lupton

            (81° 40′N., 61° 55′W.), in northwest Greenland, forms the eastern entrance

    point at the southern end of Robeson Channel . The cape is a conspicuous

    landmark. Here the character of the coast changes, the low forshore farther

    southward being replaced by the steep cliffs of Polaris Promontory, which in

    the vicinity of the cape rise to about 1,300 ft.

            Cape Lupton was discovered by Hall, in September 1871, who named it after

    Col. Ja m es Lupton of Cincinnati, Ohio, one of his early benefactors. Rasmussen,

    whoe rounded the cape by sledge in May,1917, found the shoreline from Cape

    Lupton to the northward almost impossible to follow, due to pressure ridges,

    towering to a height of from 30 to 50 ft.

            Guidebook 1234 H.O. 76, 547 Nourse, American Explorations in the Ice Zones,

    286. Rasmussen, Greenland by the Polar Sea, 80



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0578                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Marshall Bay,

            a small indentation in the coast of Inglefield Land in northern West Greenland,

    is entered between Inuarfigssuak (78° 52′N., 71° 05′W.), the site of an

    old Eskimo settlement, and Cape Russell, about 4 miles northward. The bay, which narrows

    sharply in its inner portion, extends about 6 miles southeastward to the mouth of

    a river, darining the September Lakes to the eastward. A group of small, steep

    islands in the northeastern portion of the wide, outer part of Marshall Bay,

    has some house-ruins, which were discovered by Rasmussen in 1917. Erik Holtved,

    who re-investigated thes ruins in 1937, discovered Norse relics here. Ruins of about

    30 houses at Inuar f igssuak, at the entrance of Marshall Bay also yielded Norse relics.

            According to Lauge Koch, Marshall Bay is almost always filled with very old

    ice. Koch found the bay firmly frozen over in September,1922. Holteved reported

    the sea-ice and the ice-foot north and south of the entrance so thawed toward

    the end of June, 1937, that sledge travel had to be discontinued.

    Marshall Bay is a quiet bay, meteorologically. During the entire summer,1937,

    Holtved experienced only one storm here, while several were observed in the

    distance.

            Guidebook 1198, 1211 ff. H.O. 76, 527

            Indexer; list Inuarfigssuak



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0579                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Mc Cormick Bay,

            in lat. 77° N., in northern West Greenland, is entered between Cape Cleveland,

    the west point of Red Cliff Peninsula, and Iglunaksuak Point, the extremity

    of an unnamed promontory, about 9 miles to the northwestward. The bay, which opens

    on Murchison Sound at the northeastern end of Baffin Bay, trends about 20

    miles northeastward, narrowing to a d w idth of about 1 miles near its head.

    The barren northern shore, which has a moderate slope, is inter [ ?] ected by

    numerous ravines and is capped with ice. The more [ ?] fertile southern

    shore is marked by a series of moderately high, reddish-brown cliffs which

    farther inland, are interspersed with hanging glaciers, tongues of the central

    ice cap of the Red Cliff Peninsula. Tuktu valley, a wide depression walled

    in by bluffs and glacier faces, leads eastward from the head of the bay nearly

    to the head of Bowdoin Bay, which extends northward from Inglefield Gulf. Sun

    Glacier, which flows into the narrow head from the northeastward, does not

    produce bergs every year.

            Peary's Kite Expedition established camp on the southern shore of the bay, in July 1891.

    Red Cliff House, Peary's 1891-92 base,stood on a knoll about 2-1/2 miles east of

    Cape Cleveland. The sloping foreshore here was covered with mosses and flowers

    showing [ ?] numerous traces of caribou, foxes and hares. Seals and walrus abounded

    off shore.

            H.O. 76, 476 Guidebook 746 Peary, Northward over the [ ?] reat Ice, 69

            Indexer: list Red Cliff House



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0580                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Mc Cormick Bight (Pandora Harbor),

            a small bay at 78° 14′N. in northern West Greenland, is entered between

    Kordlortorssuak Point and Cape Kenrick, a prominent headland, about 2 miles to the

    north-northeastward, The bay is only about 2 miles long and narrows sharply near

    its head. The inner part, where anchorage may be obtained in depths from

    5 to 7 fathoms, is called Pandora Harbor, so named by Sir Allen Young, who examined

    the bight in 1876. Crystal Palace Cliffs, which form the shore in the

    vicinity of Kordlortorssuak Point, are remarkable, table-topped cliffs, consisting

    of rock terraces, which rise evenly, one above the other like balconies.

            H.O. 76, 515 Guidebook 762

            Indexer: list Crystal Palace Cliffs



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0581                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Melville (Navdlortok)

            (76° 01′N., 63° 40′W.), on the west coast of Greenland, is the

    south point of an L-shaped promontory, which juts southward into Melville

    Bay in a position about 47 miles east of Cape York. The east-west arm of the

    promontory, which is about 7 miles long, is linked to the mainland on the north

    by a low isthmus which is awash at high tide. The north-south arm, which projects

    less than 5 miles into the sea, has a few huts, some of which are used by

    bear hunters. Off -shore, about 28 miles south of Cape Melville, extends

    an ice bank on which the largest icebergs ground.

            H.O. 76, 459



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0582                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Melville Bay

            is the name given to that part of Baffin Bay which extends along the west

    coast of Greenland, between Holm Island (74° 30′N., 57° 11′W.), and

    Cape York (75° 54′N., 66° 28′W.), nearly 200 miles northwestward. The

    shore of this large bay curves north-northwestward for about 138 miles to

    Thalbitzer Point and thence trends westward for about 92 miles to Cape York.

    Only a few islands, all of them small, front the mainland shore, and only

    the outermost rocks and islets are icefree, while the entire coast is almost

    completely covered with enormous glaciers. There is, nevertheless, a distinct

    difference between the southeastern and northwestern shore of the bay. In the

    southeastern part, between Holm Island and Thalbitzer Point, the Inland Ice

    stands out as an unbroken horizontal line. Along this stretch there are few

    sharp indentations of the coast line, and the occasional mountains that rise

    above the glaciers, are bare of snow and sharply outlined against the ice.

    The northwestern part, between Thalbitzer Point and Cape York, is indented by

    numerous bays, and the country looks as if a thin carpet of ice had been

    spread over the rugged mountains. For long stretches in the bays near Cape York

    the ice covers even the outermost rocks, across which it reac h es to the sea.

            In general, the level of the Inland Ice is low, with elevations from 1,300

    to 1,600 ft. extending far inland. A few steep bluffs close to the coast

    rise to about 2,000 ft., while some of the small, exposed land sections farther

    inland are said to attain considerably higher elevations. Of the many glaciers

    that reach the sea along the shores of Melville Bay, the most productive

    are Steenstrup, Nansen, and King Oscar Glaciers, all of them in the northern

    part of the southeastern section. More than half of the total glacier front

    of the bay, however, is assumed to be stationary and unproductive.

            The shores of Melville Bay are visited by small parties of Smith Sound

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0583                                                                                                                  
    Melville Bay cont.

    Eskimos who come here to hunt polar bears. Tugtuligssuak, a mainland promontory,

    about midway bwteen Holm Island and Thalbitzer Point, has numerous ruins of stone

    houses and was undoubtedly at one time one of the chief settlements in Melville Bay.

    It was re-discovered as a hunting region in 1905 and has been inhabited since.

    Only a few of the many islands inside the bay are permanently settled.

            Depths - Ice - Navigation. The 500-fathom curve approaches close to the

    entrance to Melville Bay, and within the bay the charted depths are generally great

    outside the off-lying islands. No soundings are show n between the islands and the

    shore. Many of the icebergs , discharged from the glaciers around Melville Bay ,

    ground in its shallower parts; these bergs and the islands break the winds and waves,

    and so allow for the formation of heavy sheets of ice between them during the winter

    months, while in summer they act as anchor for this sheet or floe ice. Furthermore ,

    the current setting northward along the west coast of Greenland carries a great deal

    of a s hore ice into Melville Bay, where it acts as an aggravation to the congestion

    of ice there, so that it is always late in the season before the bay is even

    partly clear of ice. It is understood that steam vessels can cross Melville Bay

    after the middle of August in any year. Their crossing records are likely to vary

    however. In the summer of 1934, an abnormally late ice year, the Heimen , after

    waiting at the southern end of Melville Bay from July 3 to August 3 for an

    opportunity to cross the bay, gave up the attempt. Later that season, three

    ships reached Thule settlement to the northward without hindrance, for favorable

    winds began to clear the bay in the second week of August. In 1935 the Morissey

    found unusually favorable ice conditions for the time of the year. The crossing

    of Melville Bay was effected on July 23, at which time the fast ice was more or less

    broken up by the swell. Thule was reached on July 24th. On August 5, 1937, the

    Isbjørn made the crossing of Melville Bay in about 20 hours, in a northerly wind with

    heavy rain; no pack ice was seen.



    003      |      Vol_XIV-0584                                                                                                                  
    Melville Bay cont.

            History. - Few sections of the Greenland coast have been travel ed so steadily,

    not only by the early whalers but by the many expeditions seeking the Northwest

    Passage and the Pole. Information concerning its the bay's coastal stretches,however, remained

    incomplete up to a rather recent date. The original charting of the bay was done

    from a sketch survey by Sir John Ross (1818), who named the bay after Melville,

    then First Lord of the British Admiralty. Hayes and Bradford, who entered the

    bay in the Panther , in 1869, contributed some knowledge of its glaciers. Finally,

    Astrup, a member of Peary's Falcon Expedition, made the first real in v estigation

    of the coast , in 1894. Astrup sledged westward from Cape York to Thom Island

    and then northward to the Inland Ice, mapping and sketching as he went along.

    That same year, T.C. Chamberlin, of the Peary Auxiliary Expedition, crossed

    Melville Bay by ship, contributing a good description of its broader features.

    In April, 1903 Mylius-Erichsen, Moltke and Knud Rasmussen journeyed by sledge

    across Mel c v ille Bay to Cape York. No actual mapping was done, but a number of corrections

    and new details were filled in, especially in the southern part of the bay.

    Rasmussen revisited the Melville Bay region in the summer of 1916, intent on

    ethnological studies, and from June 4 to June 17 assisted Lauge Koch in mapping

    the bay from Wilcox Head (Holm Island) to Cape York. Rasmussen, by that time,

    had crossed the bay about 40 times, and the map resulting from his and Koch's

    efforts was a great advance over anything heretofore published. Koch revisited

    the bay at various times between October, 1916 and May, 1923, his surbveys subsequently forming the

    the basis fo charts published by the Geodetic Institute of Denmark, 1923 and 1937 ,

    (See also BAFFIN BAY).

            H.O. 76, 453, 508 Mguidebook 662 MG 65, 191 A.P. III, 105

            Greely, Handbook 202, Mirsky, To the North 269 AAF Aer. Ch 38, 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0585                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 250 w

    Cape Morris Jesup

            (83° 39′N., 34° 00′W.), called by Peary the Arctic Ultima Thule, is the

    north point of Greenland and the northernmost known land in the world.

    The pack ice presses close to the narrow foreshore so that the shore-line is

    difficult to ascertain except in late summer. A river discharges

    near the cape through a small delta; a h b out 3 miles southeastward is another

    delta formed by a river which rises in the Marie Peary [ P ?] eaks to the south–

    ward. The mountains back of the cape quickly gain in heights and attain

    elevations of about 4,000 ft. but peaks as well as valleys are usually

    icefree, the chart indicating only a few small glaciers farther inland.

            Peary, who discovered and named the cape in May, 1900, had a camp on the

    sea ice a few miles off-shore whence he struck out twicein the direction

    of the pole. He reached lat. 83° 50′N., but extremely rough ice intersected

    by water cracks prevented his advancing farther northward. A few days later,

    traveling eastward along the coast, Peary saw open water everywhere

    a few miles offshore. In one of Peary's records, left in a cairn which he erected

    by him at the cape, mention is made of 10 musk oxen being killed eastward

    of Cape Morris Jesup.

            Lauge Koch, who surveyed the area in May, 1921, surmised that late

    in summer the greater part of the ice along the coast east of the cape would

    disappear, leaving a wide area of open water between the shore and the

    pack ice belt. Koch's party found no musk-oxen at all in this vicinity, but

    h h ares were numerous and a few wolves were also seen.

            H.O. 75, p. 269 Guidebook 1273 MG. 65 ,p. 327

            Peary, Nearest to the Pole, p. 329 ff.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0586                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Mascart Inlet . ,

            a channel off the northern coast of Greenland, is entered between Cape

    B enet (83° 03′N., 45° 50′W.) and Cape Payer, about 6 miles northeastward, whence

    it extends s outheastward between the eastern coast of Sverdrup Island and the

    western coast of Nansen Land. About 10 miles within the entrance the inlet narrows

    to about 2 miles and then widens and divides, the main branch indenting the

    west coast of [ ?] N ansen [ ?] L and for an undetermined distance, while a narrow passage

    leads southward into J.P. Koch Fjord . A channel, about 23 miles long , connecting

    J.P. Koch Fjord with the Arctic Ocean, is thus formed by the outer part of Mascart

    Inlet and the narrow passage.

            Mascart Inlet was named by Lockwood of the United States Expedition to

    Lady Franklin Bay, in 1882.

            H.O. 76, 565 MG 130, 349



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0587                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Melville Land,

            is the name given to that part of Peary Land in northeast [ ?] reenland, which

    lies on the northern side of the middle portion of Independence Fjord. The mount–

    ainous tract of land extends far northward w to the central part of Peary Land,

    and is distinctly icefree, even in its interior where a flat. plateau attains

    elevations of over 3,000 ft. Its 50-mile coastal stretch on Independence

    Fjord is sedimentary rock, forming precipitous, bronze-colored cliffs, broken

    here and there by fertile ravines and river beds. Towards the west the bluffs rec i e de

    to give way to a wider belt of flat foreshore, thence to a large river delta, clos

    close westward of Cape Harald Moltke, the southwestern extremity of Melville

    Land.

            Rasmussen's First Thule Expedition (1912), with Peter Freuchen as second

    in command, were the first to make extensive observations along the shores of

    M elville Land. Rasmussen contrasted the coast with the barren land farther

    southward through which his expedition had just been passing. "It was a real

    delight to see not clay, nor rocks, nor gravel, but earth; mould, dotted every–

    where woiith red-c [ ?] ossoming saxifrage." The party found an abundance of game, - musk

    oxen, hares and ptarmigan. Birdlife was plentiful, and many seals lay out

    on the ice, basking in the sun. Lauge Koch, who visited the coast in 1921,

    also comme nt ed on its fertility and life. During his reconnaisance Flight

    over Peary Land, 1938, Koch was able to check on his previous observation

    that [ ?] elville Land is distinctly ice free.

            Guidebook 1293 H.O. 75 Peary“Northward MG 51, 359 Geogr. J.LXII, 107

    Chart: AAF Aer. Ch (9) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0588                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Melville Monument,

            a familiar landmark to Arctic navigators, is a small island in Melville

    Bay, about 20 miles northward of Cape Seddon, Greenland. The Monument has

    been described as a small, peaked island, recalling the larger Devil's Thumb

    farther southward. Its height has been given as around 200 ft.

            H.O. 76, 457



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0589                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Meteorite Island (Savigsivik),

            about 4 miles long, in a northerly-southerly direction, lies in Me l ville Bay,

    off the west coast of Greenland, about 23 miles east-northeastward of

    Cape York. In 1893 Peary discovered large meteorites here and on the

    neighboring coast. Three of these huge blocks - the largestcoming from

    Meteorite Island - were later removed to the Museum of Natural History,

    in New York.

            At Savigsivik (Sowallick Point), the southern extremity of the island,

    there is a subsidiary trading post and Eskimo settlement which is visited

    annually by Danish trading ships. (See also Prince Regents Bay, Meteorites.)

            H.O. 76, 461 Guidebook 686

            Indexer: list Savigsivik



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0590                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Morris Jesup

            (83° 39′N., 34° 18′W.), named by Peary for the American patron of exploration but in his writings frequently referred to as the Arctic Ultima Thule, is the north ern extremity point

    of Greenland and the northernmost land in the world. A river discharges near the

    cape through a small delta; about 3 miles southeastward is another delta f or med

    by a river which rises in the Mary Peary Peaks to the southward , where [ ?] levations

    are close to 4,000 ft. In one of the records left by Peary, who discovered

    the cape on May 13, 1900 , and revisited it on the 17th and 26th of that month,

    mention is made of 10 musk oxen being killed eastward of Cape Morris Jesup.

    In mid-May, 1921, Lauge Koch's party found no musk oxen at all in this vicinity

    and saw only one track, several months old. There were numerous hares and a few

    wolves.

            Peary, who struck out northward from Cape Morris Jesup , found the sea ice

    treacherous, due to innumerable crevasses and narrow leads , partly hiiden

    by snow. Ridges of heavy ice were from 25 to 50 ft. high. Beyond was the edge of

    the disintegrated pack with a dense water sky beyond indicated more open leads.

    A few days later , traveling eastward along the coast from Cape Morris Jesup ,

    Peary saw open water a few miles offshore all along the coast.

            H.O. 75, 269



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0591                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Morton

            (81° 12′N., 63° 40′W.), in northwest Greenland, is the northern extremity

    of Petermann Peninsula and the southeastern entrance spoint of the northern

    end of Kennedy Channel. The cape lies about 10 miles north-northeastward

    of Cape Bryan. The coastal ridge immediately behind Cape Morton rises

    to over 2,700 ft. Rasmussen, who camped in this vicinity in April,

    1917, found and used a cache of provisions left there by the Nares Expedition

    in 1875. The cape was named after W. Morton, steward of the Kane Expedition,

    who reached his farthest north, Cape Constitution,lat. 80° 10′N., in June

    1854.

            Guidebook 1228 H.O. 76, 545



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0592                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Murchison Sound,

            the northern channel of approach to Inglefield Gulf in northern West Greenland,

    is entered between Hakluyt Island (at lat. 77° 25′N.) at the northeastern

    end of Baffin Bay, and Cape Robertson, on the Greenland mainland, about 34 miles

    to the northeastward. The sound, which is over 50 miles long, extends south-south–

    eastward, narrowing to about 8 miles at its inner end, between Herbert Island

    and [ R ?] ed Cliff Peninsula. Shoals,extending off this peninsula,reduce the latter

    part of the channel to about half its size.

            Murchison Sound, which was named by Inglefield in 1852, was repeatedly

    investigated by Peary between 1891 and 1895. Steaming up between Northumberland

    and Herbert Islands , on 23 July 1891, Peary, in command of the Kite , found the

    eastern end of the sound still blocked by unbroken ice. Along the sound's northern

    shore new ice was found to be forming toward the end of September. According

    to Lauge Koch (1920-23), a heavy swell from the south will run along the coast

    to the northward (Prudhoe Land), when Murchison Sound is free from ice.

            H.O. 76, 476 Peary, Northward over the Great Ice 69, 141 MG 65, 360



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0593                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nares Land,

            a mainland extension in northern Greenland, separates Victoria Fjord from

    No r d e nskiøld Fjord. The area, which is about 25 miles wide at its broadest, is

    en [ ?] tirely covered with ice, except for a very narrow margin along its coasts.

    Cape Wohlgemut (82° 35′N., 47° 20′W.), at the northwestern extremity

    of Nares Land, rises to about 2,300 ft., but elevations inland are considerably

    higher and come close to the 5,000 ft. mark.

            The land was discovered and named by Lockwood, a member of the Greely

    Expedition (1881-84).

            Guidebook 1256 H.O. 76, 563



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0594                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Newman Bay,

            in northern Greenland, separates Polaris Promontory from Nyeboe Land. The bay

    is entered between Cape Sumner (81° 56′N., 60° 50′W.), and Cape Brevoort,

    about 8 miles north-northwestward and trends southeastward, and then south–

    southeastward for a total of about 39 miles. The capes near the entrance

    are high limestone mountains, affordin g a view not only over the Polar Sea

    and the north coast of Grant Land, but also far inland to a great table-land

    rising near the Inland Ice. The inner shores are mostly clay plains, cut

    through by a number of streams. Reynolds Island and the smaller Howgate Island

    lie about 13 miles from the narrow head of the bay.

            Newman Bay was reached by Hall on a sledge journney on October 16, 1871, and named

    by him after the Reverend Dr. Newman of Washington, D.C. Peary, in August 1905,

    took the Roosevelt into Newman Bay, where she staid 5 days, when she was crowded

    out by ice drifting in from the north. Rasmussen, in May 1917, found the

    bay filled with several-years-old Polar ice, hilly and rough and bare of snow.

            Guidebook 1236 H.O. 76, 554. Peary, Nearest the Pole,45 MG 65, 411. Rasmussen

    Greenland by the Polar Sea, 85 ff. Nourse, American Explor. in the Ice Zones 275,295

    AAF Aer, Ch. 8, 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0595                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Niaqornat,

            (70° 48′N., 53° 30′W.), an outpost in the Umanak District of northern

    West Greenland, lies on the northern shore of Nugsuak Peninsula, about

    35 miles west of Umanak Colony. The population in 1930 was 86 Greenlanders.

    The official buildings, which are grouped together on a cape, consist of a simple

    wooden church, a school, manager's house, stoe and warehouse. Anchorage

    is afforded in a depth of about 19 fathoms in a cove nearby. The harbor

    easily fills with ice. The winter ice remains from January to June.

            Guidebook 515 H.O. 76, 408



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0596                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nordenskiøld Fjord,

            in northern Greenland, is entered on the north-east side of Nares Land,

    between Cape Middendorff (82° 38′N., 46° 20′W.), and Cape Wegener, about

    10 miles northeastward. The fjord extends about 12 miles southeastward to

    the floating termination of Jungersen Glacier at its head. Both shores

    are covered with glaciers, the land beyond rising to heights of from 1,800

    to over 3,000 ft.

            The mouth of the fjord was discovered by Lockwood in 1882. Lauge Koch, who

    explored and named Jungersen Glacier in 1917, found icebergs packed densely

    from shore to shore, a few miles within the fjord's entrance.

            Guidebook 1238 H.O. 76, 563. AAF Aer. Ch. 8, 1943

            Indexer: list Jungersen Glacier.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0597                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nordost Bay

            is the name frequently applied to the large 40-mile wide recession

    o i n the west coast of Greenland, between Nugsuak Peninsula and Svartenhuk Peninsula,

    to the northward. The large Ubekyendt Island, about 23 miles within the

    entrance, divides the bay into two parts, with Umanak Fjord occupying the

    southern section and Karrat Fjord the northern one. At their inner ends both

    of these fjords spread out into a complicated system of branch fjords

    and sounds, terminating at the foot of productive glaciers which discharge

    innumerable icebergs and growlers into the bay. Charted depths in the bay, as

    indicated by several chains of soundings, usually are more than 100 fathoms

    and in some places more than 500 fathoms. The tidal current runs in along the

    northern side of Nugsuak Peninsula and goes out along the southern side of

    Svartenhuk Peninsula.

            Umanak Colony, the most important settlement in the region, is about 57

    miles within the entrance of the bay, on a small island off the southern shore

    of Umanak Fjord. Anchorage is available here and in several other positions

    in Nordost Bay.

            The winter ice usually forms toward the end of November and remains undisturbed

    until April, but most of the bay's wide expanses remain firm enough for sledge

    travel until the end of June. (See also Umanak District).

            H.O. 76, 405 Guidebook 518



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0598                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    North Star Bay

            see Wolstenholme Fjord



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0599                                                                                                                  

    North Water,

            a persistent, ice free area at the northern end of

    Baffin Bay. (See Baffin Bay)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0600                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Northumberland Island,

            at lat. 77° 22′N., in Baffin Bay, lies within the approaches to Inglefield Gulf, off

    the west coast of Greenland. The island is about 19 miles long, east and west,

    and 8 miles wide at its broadest. Peary describes it as " a mass of high

    summits of h g neissose and basaltic rocks almost completely covered with ice-cap,

    from which exude numerous sea-level glaciers." Maximum altitudes are over 2,000 ft.

    Kiatak, an Eskimo settlement on the southwestern shore, had a summer population

    of about 15 Eskimos in 1943.

            In August, 1891 members of Peary's Kite Expedition effected a landing here

    in the whaleboat Faith .

            H.O. 76, 473 Guidebook 733 Greenland I. 42 Peary, Northward over

    the "Great Ice", p. 473



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0601                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nugs s uak (70° 41′N. 54° 35′W.),

            an outpost in the Umanak District of northern West Greenland, lies at the

    western extremity of Nugs s uak Peninsula. The settlement, which in 1930

    had a population of 78 Greenlanders, consists of a church and school, a warehouse,

    with a store, a manager's house, a blubber storage building and about 15 Greenlander

    dwellings. On a promontory, close northward of the settlement is Bjoernefaelden

    (Bear Trap) , famous in Greenland legend. It is a European building which

    scholars agree was probably built by the early Norse settlers. The walls are

    made of 3-foot-square stones, and the building is about 15 by 15 by 6 ft.

            Nugs s uak's small, fairly sheltered harbor with depths of from 6-1/2 to 12

    fathoms, lies between dipping ledges and is open to the westward. Several

    beacons in the vicinity offer aid in navigation. The winter ice forms

    in December and remains until May, but from March onward there are numerous

    open channels.

            H.O. 76, 335 Guidebook 512

            Indexer: list Bjoernefaelden. List Nugsuak as Nugsuak Settlement(Davis Strait)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0602                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nugsuak Peninsula,

            a bold mainland projection in northwest Greenland, over 100 miles long (southeast

    and south north west) and about 33 miles mile wide at its broadest, is bounded on the

    south by the Vaigat and on the north by Nordost Bay. The smaller southeastern part of th [ ?]

    the peninsula belongs to Ritenbenk District, the larger northern and northwestern

    portion to Umanak District.

            On the northern side the land rises sharply from the shore to a

    height of over 1,000 ft., and thence to elevations of from 6 , 000 to 7,000 ft.

    The southern side, which is somewhat lower, has a b or ro ad foreland facoing Vaigat Sound,

    behind which rises a steep basalt cliff. Itivdlek, a broad valley, cuts northwestward

    through the western end of the peninsula. West of this valley the mountains recede,

    giving way to an outer coast of low jagged cliffs. A characteristic feature

    of the middle of the eastern part of the peninsula are two elongated lakes, which lie

    about 1,000 ft. above sea level and together measure almost 50 miles in length. The

    la r ger and more westerly of the two lakes drains into the 40-mile river Kugssuak,

    which discharges through a wide delta south of Niakornarssuk, a hook-shaped

    projection on the west coast of Nugsuak Peninsula. Nugsua,

    a small outpost at the western extremity of the peninsula, stands at the head of a small

    harbor with depths of from 6-1/2 to 12 fathoms. Three other outposts are situated

    on the shores of the peninsula. Sarkak, facing Vaigat Sound on the south,

    southeast , and Niakornat and Kaersut, facing Umanak Fjord on the north.

    Brown coal is found in several places along the northern and southern shores.

    The climate along the shores of Vaigat Sound is considered favorable.

            Guidebook 511 H.O. 76, 407

            Indexer: list Nugsuak Peninsula (Davis Strait)



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0603                                                                                                                  

    Wolstenholme Fjord cont.

    Greenland

            and the 1937-38 British Expedition under David Haig-Thomas.

            SD VI 122 Guidebook 707 MG v. 125, Nr. 3,p 8 ff.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0604                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nugssuak (Big Headland),

            a coastal area in northern Greenland, named by Lauge Koch, extends between

    Cape Russel (78° 55′N., 71° 05′W.), and Cape Kent, about 18 miles

    east-northeastward [ ?] Cape Frederick VII and Cape Wood are intermediate

    points along this stretch of the coast, which is marked only by slight

    indentations. According to Koch the ice-foot along the shore had not been

    exposed to melting in the summer of 1922 and proved unusually good in

    September.

            Guidebook 1213 H.O. 76, 527

            Indexer: list Cape Frederick VII; Cape Wood.

    list Nugssuak (Big Headland) as Nugssuak (coastal area).



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0605                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nugssuak (Upper Nugssuak Peninsula),

            the longest mainland projection in the northern part of the Upernivik

    District of northwest Greenland, in lat. 74° N., extends nearly 29 miles southwestward

    from the ice cap at its base; the width of the projection approximates

    less than 3 miles.

            The peni n sula, which separates Sugar Loaf Bugt from Inugsulik Bay to the

    northward, is extremely rugged with many sharp peaks rising to heights of

    from 1,000 ft. to 3,000 ft. Several deep valleys cut across the peninsula . , one, near

    its base, leading from Ryders Isfjord, on the southeastern side, to Kangerdluar–

    suk, on the northern side. The middle of th is valley, because of its nearness

    to the Cornell Glacier, and the excellent harbor on the northern side, was se–

    lected as the base camp of the Univ s ersity of Michigan Expedition (See Camp Peary).

    Near the middle of the peninsula o i s a second valley, filled with a series of

    lakes which drain into a bay on the northern side. Kraulshavn is a small

    settlement situated at the head of a bay that indents the northern side

    of Nugs s uak Peninsula near its western extremity. Its harbor is accessible

    from July to November.

            H.O. 76, 449 Guidebook 633

            Indexer: list Nugssuak under Nugssuak Peninsula (Baffin Bay). List also

    Kraulshavn .



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0606                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nutarmiut,

            in the Upernivik District of northern West Greenland , in lat. 72° N., is a high granite island ,

    westward of Northern Sound and southward of Uperniviks Isfjord. The island ,

    which rises to more than 3,000 ft. , is about 23 miles long, southwest to northeast ,

    and has a general width of about 8 miles. The southwestern shore is indented

    by a large bay which, in its southeastern part, provides an excellent harbor,

    although the entrance is narrow.

            H.O. 76, 432



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0607                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Nyeboe Land,

            an ice-free area on the north coast of Greenland, with a maximum width of

    over 60 miles, extends roughly between lat. 81° 15′N., and 82° 20′N., and

    between long. 53° W. and 60° W. The land, which faces Lincoln Sea and the

    northern end of Robeson Channel to the westward, is bounded on the west

    by Newman Bay (Cape Brevoort), and on the east by St. George Fjord (Cape

    Bryant), while the southern end touches the edge of the Inland Ice. Rasmussen

    describes the north coast as "a steep wall of cliff, with attractive patterns

    in brown and black along its flanks." Hand Bay and Frankfield Bay indent this

    part of the coast. The hills farther inland have a few prominent peaks, among them

    Mt. Egerton, which rises to over 4,000 ft. A high tableland occupies the interior

    of Nyeboe Land.

            Hall's Expedition of 1871-72, skirted the western edges of Nyeboe Land

            Hall's Expedition first skirted the western edges of Nyeboe Land in

    1871-72, but the whole of its north coast was first explored by members

    of the Nares Expedition, in 1875-76. Since that time the coast has been

    traversed by Lockwood, Peary, Rasmussen and Lauge Koch. In all accounts of

    sledge journeys in this vicinity, the traveling conditions are described

    as most difficult, and more or less continuous road-making is required

    for the passage of the sledges.

            Guidebook 1238 H.O. 76, 554

            Indexer: list Hand Bay; Frankfield Bay.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0608                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    O.B. Bøggild Fjord,

            in northern Greenland, is the most easterly of the three fjords leading

    from De Long Fjord. From its entrance at lat. 83° 10′N., close eastward

    of Ad. Jensen Fjord, the fjord trends about 24 miles southeastward to

    a head so far inside Peary Land, that only a narrow 10-mile strip of land

    is left between this fjord and the head of Frederick E. Hyde Fjord to the

    eastward. This land, the famous Nordpasset (North Pass), discovered in

    1938, by Lauge Koch during his flight over Peary Land, forms the only

    connecting link between the northern and southern portion of Peary Land.

            The fjord was first sighted by Rasmussen and Lauge Koch after a n ascent

    of Thule Mountain in De Long Fjord, in June 1917. Rasmussen named it

    after Professor O. B.Bøggild, a member of the Scientific Committee of the

    Second Thule Expedition.

            H.O. 76, 567 MG, 65, 103



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0609                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 32

    Cape Ohlsen (Kaersorssuak)

            (78° 23 ′N., 72° 55′W.), in northwest Greenland, projects

    into Smith Sound at a point about 4 1/2 miles north of Sunrise Point, the

    northwestern entrance of Hartstene Bay. The cliffs close to the

    cape are precipitous.

            H.O. 76. 519



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0610                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Olrik Fjord,

            an indentation in the west coast of Greenland, at lat. 77° 17′N., leads from the

    southeastern part of the large embayment that is formed at the junction of

    Whale and Murchison Sounds with Inglefield Gulf. The fjord is entered between

    the large Savage Glacier and Beaufort Bluff (Kangek), about 5 miles to the

    northward and thence extends about 39 miles eastward, twice narrowing to a width

    of about 1 mile. The head of Olrik Fjord is but a short distance from the

    head of Academy Bay, the same ice stream sending down a branch into each.

            The inner- and outermost sections of the fjord extend between high, vertical

    cliffs and steep bluffs, but the shores along the inner section flatten

    out into a succession of rounded hills and ridges, rather rich in vegetation

    and game. [ ?]

    [ ?]

    [ ?]

    A number of short streams water both shores. On the northern side A broad river,

    on the northern side of the fjord, drains a large lake to the northward which

    is ice-free only along its shores. The lake has another outlet northward

    into Inglefield Gulf. Of the six glaciers that enter Olrik Fjord, Savage Glacier,

    close the southern entrance, is the largest.

            H.O. 76, 478 Guidebook 738 AAF Aer. Ch (20),1943.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0611                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Pandora Harbor

            in northwest Greenland (see Mc Cormick Bight)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0612                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Parker Snow Bay,

            in the Thule District of northern West Greenland is entered between

    ParkerSnow Point (76° 05′N., 68° 22′W.), and the precipitous Cape

    Dudley Digges, over 6 miles northwestward. The bay extends about 5 miles eastward,

    narrowing as it nears the two glaciers at its head. The cliffy hills near the

    entrance of the bay rise abruptly to over 1,500 ft., then slope more gently

    for another 1,000 ft., until they reach the lower level of the Inland Ice.

    Millions of little auks nest along the grassy slopes; hares and foxes also

    occur. Uigo settlement on the northern side of the bay usually stands

    deserted in summer.

            The Morissey anchored in the bay on July 24, 1935, in a depth of

    15 fathoms.

            Guidebook 701 H.O. 76, 465

            Indexer: list Parker Snow Point



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0613                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 72

    Cape Parry (Kangarssuk)

            (77° 01′N., 71° 10′W.), on the Greenland side of the northern part of

    Baffin Bay, forms the west point of Steensby Land and the southeastern

    entrance point of Whale Sound. The cape, the most striking landmark

    along this part of the coast, is a plateau mountain of diabase sill, rising

    steeply to about 1,200 ft.

            Cape Parry was named by Sir John Ross for W.E. Parry, second in command

    during Ross' expedition of 1818.

            Guidebook 728 H.O. 76, 473 MG 65, 251



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0614                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Peabody Bay,

            the eastern portion of Kane Basin, indents the west coast of Greenland

    between Cape Agassiz (79° 09′N., 65° 40′W.), and Cape Jackson (80° 00′N.,

    67° 25′W.) It is bounded on the east by the 60-mile wide Humboldt Glacier, and

    on the north by the projecting coast of Washington Land.

            Peabody Bay was discovered and named by members of the Kane Expedition,

    1853-55. One party of this expedition, led by Mc Garry and Bonsall, sledged

    nothward along its coast in September-October 1853 and discovered the immense

    accumulation of icebergs in the northern part of Peabody Bay. Morton of the

    Kane Expedition, crossed the bay by sledge in June, 1854. He found the ice

    in the southern part of the bay free from hummocks but heavily covered with

    snow. The thickness of the ice was over 7 ft., the temperature of the water

    29.2° F., while the air was 28° F. The middle of the region was filled with

    high icebergs, some over a mile long, which stood close together. North of

    this section there was much broken ice, with wide leads. Farther north,and west

    of Cape Jackson, the ice was smooth and free from bergs.

            Rasmussen, who sledged across Peabody Bay in April 1917, and Lauge Koch,

    who traversed it on several occasions during 1921-23, found the traveling easy.

    Judging from the height of grounded bergs, the depth of the water in the bay, about 35 miles

    off shore, was estimated to be not more than 20 fathoms.

            Guidebook 1215 H.O. 76, 529 MG 65, 281 ff. AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0615                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Peary Channel

            SEE Indpendence Fjord.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0616                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Peary Land

            is the extensive and as yet only vaguely defined area which forms the northernmost

    part of Greenland. On the north and east Peary Land faces the Lincoln Sea and the

    Mc Kinley Sea, respectively. Its western boundary may be said to be marked

    either by J.P. Koch Fjord or the more southeasterly Victoria Fjord. On its

    southwestern side is the Inland Ice; while the southern end is bounded by

    the Independence Fjord system. The whole area extends roughly between lat. 82° N.

    and 83° 40′N., and between long. 20° W. and 48° W.

            Various sections within Peary Land are called "lands" such as Nansen Land,

    Melville Land, Vildt Land, Herluftrolles Land and others. Some of these districts

    are ice-free, others have ice caps of considerable extent. Plains, and level,

    ravine-scarred plateau surfaces alternate with jagged mountain ranges where peaks,

    rising to 4,000 and 5,000 ft. are common. Large fjord systems, occasional

    lakes, rivers draining small local glaciers , are part of the general picture of this

    most northerly land of the world. The highest altitudes occur in the center

    of Peary Land where the widely visible, volcano-shaped Mt. Vistas rises

    to about 6,200 ft.; the mountain, with its steep, ice- and snow covered gradients,

    f or ro ms a huge drainage system, tending southward in the direction of Independence

    Fjord and north - ward toward Frederick E.Hyde Fjord. The latter two fjords run

    in on the northeastern and southeastern side of Peary Land, respectively,

    and form huge indentations, cutting through the whole width of Peary Land except for

    narrow connecting strips of land at their western end.

            Judged by the ice-free ares, a major part of Peary Land consists of early

    Palaeozoic rock (sandstones and limestones), the high mountains forming part

    of the Caledonian foldings that extend from Europe and Svalbard westward to

    Ellesmere Island. There are in numerous areas fa ri ir ly large, fertile tracts of

    land, providing pasturage for musk-oxen and smaller herbivorous animals such

    as hares and lemmings. Wolves, bears and foxes also occur. Seals are plentiful

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0617                                                                                                                  
    Peary Land cont.

    in the waters off-shore, and many land- and seabirds (gulls, ptarmigan, geese,

    snow buntings, sanderlings, ringed plovers, snowy owls and even ravens)

    have been observed along all coasts.

            History. - Peary Land, the scene of various Arctic expeditions, was first

    sighted by Lockwood of the Greely Expedition, who reached Lockwood Island

    (83° 24′N., 39° 55′W.), in May 1882. Peary, in 1900, extended the exploration

    of the north coast and first contributed to the charting of the region. He discovered

    and named Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland's north point, and explored the regions to the

    south and east of the cape. Peary, however, had first sighted Peary Land

    from the south in 1892 and again in 1895, after crossing the Inland Ice from west to east.

    His first journey brought him to Navy Cliffs, at the head of Independence Fjord

    on July 4, 1892. Here, from a height of nearly 3,000 ft. he viewed the sur–

    rounding lands [ ?] and,to the northeastward,the cliffs of Melville

    Land , m f ronting the middle section of the fjord. To the northwestward he saw a

    depression which he believed connected Independence Fjord with Nordenskiøld

    Fjord cutting into Peary Land from the northwest. As a result of his observations,

    Peary Land was charted as an island, separated from Greenland by the so-called

    PEARY CHANNEL (see Independence Fjord).

            Further exploration was carried out by Mylius-Erichsen of the Danish

    Expedition (1906-08) and by Rasmussen's First and Second Thule Expeditions

    (1912 and 1917). Both Mylius-Erichsen and Rasmussen doubted the existence

    of the P ea ae ry Channel, Rasmussen declaring it a definite myth. The puzzle, however, was

    not quite solved until 1921, when Lauge Koch discovered Wandel Valley. The valley,

    which is traversed by a river and has a delta-like appearance, connects Brønlund Fjord

    a bra n ch of Independence Fjord, with Midsummer Lake to the westward, but the

    depression beyond, leading from Midsummer Lake to the head of J.P. Koch Fjord, was

    found to be solid land, forming the connecting link between Peary Land and the

    mainland to the southward.



    003      |      Vol_XIV-0618                                                                                                                  
    Peary Land cont.

            Lauge Koch's Seaplane Expedition of 1938 resulted in additional

    corrections. Viewing northern Peary Land from a height of 8,000 ft., Koch

    found this area, too, to be almost an island. Frederick E. Hyde Fjord, at its southern

    end, extended so far westward that only a narrow, ten-mile strip of land

    remained between the head of this fjord and C.B.Bøggild Fjord coming in from the

    northwest. (See also the various "lands" under their individual heading: Melville,

    Nansen, Vildt Land, etc.)

            Guidebook 1265 ff. H.O. 75, 262 ff. H.O. 76. 565. A. Pilot III, 380 ff.

    MG 65, 430. MG 130 pp. 320, 322 Encyclopedia Brit. Vol. 10, p. 859 (1929).

    [ ?] AF Aer. Ch. (8) (9), 1943.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0619                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Peary Lodge

            (74° 19′N., 56° 13′W.), at the inner end of Nugssuak Peninsula in the

    Upernivik District of northern West Greenland, was the northernmost base

    station occupied by the University of Michigan Greenland-Expedition during

    1932-33. The station was located about 2-1/2 miles westward of the ice edge,

    in the middle of the valley which leads from Ryders Isfjord on the southeastward

    to Inugsulik Bay on the northwest. Two auxiliary stations were maintained by

    the expedition, one at Kraulshavn at the western end of the peninsula,

    and one at Camp Watkins on the Inland Ice (74° 40′N., 47° 30′W.).

            The expedition continued meteorological studies started by the earlier s

    expeditions of the University and acted as official representative of Pan

    American Airways in the survey of the west coast of Greenland. The highest

    temperature recorded at Peary Lodge was 62° F., in July, and the lowest -36° F. ,

    in March. The average annual temperature was 14° F. During the entire year

    there were not more than 15 storms with gust winds velocities of over 50 miles p.h.

    Surface winds were predominantly from south to southeast. Strong winds from

    the Inland Ice, which were experienced at Peary Lodge, left Kraulshavn practically

    untouched; this is in accord with other observations of the University of

    Michigan Expeditions, that strong winds from the Inland Ice are dominant only

    a short distance seaward; at the outer islands the prevailing winds were coastwise.

            Guidebook 636 ff. H.O. 76, 451

            Indexer: list Camp Watkins: Kraulshavn



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0620                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Permin Land,

            at the head of Sherard Osborn Fjord in northern Greenland, is a small

    ice capped mainland projection, composed of high mountains the summits of which

    are covered by a glacier. Its maximum diameter is about 11 miles.

            Cape V. Nordmann (81° 52′N., 50° 50′W.), the northeastern extremity

    of Permin Land, rises to about 2,600 ft. The land here forms a tongue-like

    projection and extends to within about 1 mile of the southern extremity

    of Henrik Island; the passage between the small tongue and the island

    connects Sherard Osborn Fjord with an inner fjord, which is the continuation

    to the southeastward of Harz Sound.

            Cape Buttress, about 8 miles southeastward of Cape V. Nordmann,

    f or ro ms the eastern extremity of Permin Land and rises to about 3,100 ft.

            The large Ryder Glacier,south of Permin Land,curves w e astward around Cape

    B a u ttress and thence sends a large glacier tongue far northward into Snerard

    Osborn Fjord.

            Permin Land and the capes were named by Rasmussen's Second Thule Expedition.

            Guidebook 1250 H.O. 76, 561 AAF A [ ?] r. Ch (8), 1943 MG 130, 345

            Indexer: list Cape V. Nordmann. Cape Buttress. Ryders Glacier.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0621                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Petermann Fjord,

            on the Greenland side of Hall Basin, indents the coast between Cape Lucie

    Marie (81° 10′N., 62° 50′W.), and Cape Tyson, about 15 miles northeastward.

    The fjord trends south-southeastward for a distance of nearly 60 miles, flanked on

    both sides by steep cliffs rising to ice-covered lime-stone plateaux, 2600 ft.

    high or more; the ice from the plateaux occasionally sends small glacier tongues

    over the cliffs.

            The fjord itself is largely occupied by Petermann Glacier which continues

    southeastward into the Inland Ice as a curved and fairly well-defined depression,

    totalling about 110 miles in length. The face of this glacier lies about

    12 miles within the entrance of Petermann Fjord and is described as low and of smooth

    surface. The glacier's inner portion, beyond the head of the fjord, slopes up

    gradually to the Inland Ice and is heavily crevassed. Few, if any bergs are discharged

    into the fjord.

            Petermann Fjord was first discovered by Hall on August 27,1871. and first

    investigated by Bessels, a member of the Hall Expedition, in March, 1872. Bessels,

    at that time, believed the fjord to be a strait, continuing indefinitely inland.

    Fulford and Coppinger, of the Nares Expedition, examined the fjord in June, 1876,

    and contrary to Bessels, immediatel y realized that what they saw before them was

    floating glacier ice and that the fjord was actually"the outlet of a large glacier

    stream flowing probably from the eastward, to which the glaciers flowing through

    the north-east and southwest cliffs are insignificant tributaries." Peary,

    who had a camp on the upper portion of the glacier in May, 1892, traced it

    Petermann G g lacier as a depression, extending towards the interior of the Inland

    Ice for no less than 110 miles from the glacier Front. His observations

    were later confirmed by Lauge Koch, who passed the inner portions of the glacier

    in 191 7 , and again in 1921.

            Guidebook 1229 H.O.76, 545 MG 65, 289 AAF Aer. Ch. (8), 1943

            Indexer: list Petermann Glacier



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0622                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Petermann Glacier

            see Petermann Fjord



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0623                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Petermann Peninsula,

            a mainland projection in northwest Greenland, has a 20-mile frontage on

    Kennedy Channel and Hall Basin, with Cape Morton, (81° 12′N., 63° 40′W.) its north point, marking

    the ju n ction point of these two waterways of the Smith Sound Route.

    From Cape Morton the peninsula extends about 40 miles southeastward, the main

    body of the land separating Bessels Fjord from Petermann Fjord. The southernmost

    point of the peninsula faces Petermann Glacier and is named Cape Thorsen.

            The mountainous interior, which rises to over 4,000 ft., is almost entirely

    covered by Highland Ice . The cliffy, ice-free margin near the coast is somewhat

    lower, but largely broken up by ice-streams and river-mouths. A bight east

    of Cape Morton leads to a head, where a terrace-like beach stretches up, like an amphi–

    theater, toward the ice-covered inner portions of Petermann Peninsula.

    (See also Cape Morton).

            Guidebook 1228 H.O. 76, 545.

            Indexer: list Cape Thorsen.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0624                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Polaris Bay,

            on the east side of Hall Basin, is formed by a recession of the Greenland

    coast (Hall Land), between Cape Tyson(81° 19′N., 60° 55′W.), and a low point,

    next to the mouth of a l b road river, about 17 miles to the northward. The bay,

    plain. which extends eastward for only 2 or 3 miles, borders a low plain, with

    rounded hills and deeply eroded rocks, which cuts northeastward through all

    of Hall Land, to the head of Newman Bay. The more southerly shores of Polaris

    bay are inter e sected by a number of streams.

            The bay was named after Hall's expedition vessel, the Polaris , which

    was anchored in Thank God Harbor, close northward of Polaris Bay, from September

    1871 to August 1872. Hall's party w f ound the land surrounding the bay rather rich

    in large and small game despite its barren aspect.

            Guidebook 1233 H.C. 546



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0625                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Port Foulke

            see Hartstene Bay,Greenland



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_XIV-0626                                                                                                                  

    Pandora Harbor,

            Pandora Harbor, in northwest Greenland (See Mc Cormick Bight)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0627                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Prince Regents Bay,

            in northwest Greenland, is the name applied to a series of bays on the

    northern shore of Melville Bay, between Cape Melville (76°01′N., 63° 40′W.),

    and c C ape York, about 47 miles west-southwestward. Prince Regents Bay is divided into t

    two distinct parts by a large promontory, which projects southward for about 14 miles

    from the mainland into the middle of the bay; the southeastern extremity of this

    promontory is named Akuliarusek. The irregular shores of the series of bays

    that make up Prince Regents Bay are characterized by many small, ice-free land

    areas, which generally appear as steep bluffs rising from the sea. At the

    heads of the various indentations there are numerous mountains, partly or wholly

    ice-covered but nevertheless distinguishible; otherwise the smooth Inland

    Ice covers long stretches of the shores.

            Meteorites. Meteorites . - The existence of M m eteorites in the vicinity of Cape York

    first became known when Sir John Ross in 1818 found rude knives and hapoon points with

    cutting edges of iron in the possession of the Polar Eskimos. The iron, he was

    told, had been obtained from an "Iron Mountain" on the northern shore of Melville

    Bay, where the iron was in several large masses. Ross obtained fragments of the

    metal, and an analysis of these led to the belief that the iron was of meteoric

    origin. The question, however, was not definitely settled until 1894, when Peary,

    guided by an Eskimo, was given a chance to examine the deposits of the so [ ?] alled

    "Iron Mountain." He found it on a promontory, now know as Ironstone Mountain,

    but it was not a mountain or a vein of iron but two masses of homogenuous

    metal, the peculiar and unmistakable characteristic of which proved them to be

    true meteoric iron; a third and large r mass was found on Meteorite Island, nearby.

    Peary , in 1895 , took the two smaller meteorites to New York, where they were presented

    to the American Museum of Natural History. The largest of the three, wei h g hing between

    36 and 37 tons, were loaded on the Hope , in August 1897, and also taken to the

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0628                                                                                                                  
    Prince Regents Bay cont.

    American Museum of Natural History.

            H.O. 76, 459 ff.

            Indexer: list I ronstone Mountain ; list Meteorites ( [ ?] rince Regents Bay.)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0629                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Prøven

            (72° 22′N., 55° 34′W.), a large outpost in the Upernivik District of northern

    West Greenland, lies off the southern end of Kangek Peninsula, on the middle

    island of the Prøven or Kangersuatsiak island group. The population, in 1930,

    consisted of 239 Greenlanders and 4 Danes. The houses, over more than 50 , all in all,

    are grouped along the shores of a small cove that indents the northwestern side

    of the island, while a few other buildings stand on the eastern shore of the

    neighboring Sand Island. The official buildings, most of which date back to

    1830-50, consist of a manager's house, two warehouses, a factory building,a

    chapel and a school. At the inner harbor, inside the settlement cove, there is

    a well-kept concrete wharf and a small boat landing as well as means for handling

    stores; depths here are from 1 to 5 fathoms. The outer harbor lies in a bay

    formed by the whole of the island group. It is entered from the westward, and depths

    in the fairway of the entrance channel are more than 24 fathoms. The freeze-up

    here comes late in November and the break-up in June.

            The people of Prøven, who make sealing and the trapping of white

    whales their chief source of income, are known among the most capable and

    daring in the district.

            Guidebook 577 H.O. 76, 431



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0630                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Prudhoe Land,

            a land area in the Thule District of northern West Greenland, as defined

    by Inglefield in 1852, was the entire peninsula extending from Inglefield Gulf to

    the northeastern extremity of the present Inglefield Land. To-day,Prudhoe

    Land is the name given to a considerably smaller area, covering only the ice–

    capped southern part of that peninsula, between lat. 77° 50′N. and 78° 25′N.

    and between long. 73° W. and 70° W. The Inland [ ?] ce here attains elevations

    of nearly 5,000 ft. with many of its glaciers reaching sea level. In General

    its edges almost everywhere descending down to the sea or leaving only

    a narrow fringe of ice-free land. Ice -cap conditions on Prudhoe Land

    were first investigated by Lauge Koch, between 1917 and 1921, and later

    by J.M. Wright of the 1937-38 British Expedition under David Haig-Thomas.

    Wright made several traverses of Prudhoe Land in the spring and summer

    of 1938.

            Guidebook 1200 MG 25, Nr. 3. p. 5,10



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0631                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Qaersut

            (70° 44′N., 52° 38 ′W.), an outpost in the Umanak District of northern

    West Greenland and administrative center for the Qaersuarssuk coalmine, stands

    on the north side of Nugsuak Peninsula, about 29 miles west-northwestward

    of Umanak Colony. In 1930, the combined population of Qaersuk and Qaersuarssuk

    numbered 117 Greenlanders. Official buildings include a combined church

    and school, a warehouse with a store, a manager's house and warious other warehouses.

    The coalmine, which is about 1 mile to the northwest, has an average

    production of about 1,500 tons a year. A river delta nearby serves as a harbor

    to the mine.

            H.O. 76, 408

            Indexer: list Qaersuarssuk Coalmine



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0632                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Red Cliff Peninsula.

            a largely ice-covered promontory in northern West Greenland, on the northern

    side of Murchison Sound, separates Bowdoin Bay from McCormick Bay. From

    its base, which is about 7 miles wide between the heads of the two bays, the

    peninsula extends about 20 miles southward, broadening to a width of about

    23 miles at its southern end. The west point is Cape Cleveland (77° 35′N.,

    70° 10′W.), a striking yellow bastion, which forms the southern entrance point

    of Mc Cormick Bay. The low foreshore, w e i x tending from here to Kanak, about

    14 miles southeastward, consists of crumbling, disintegrated sandstone and

    drift formations, with a succession of fan-shaped r i o cky deltas, formed by

    glacier streams. Wide shoals, on which numerous icebergs ground, have been

    formed off this coast by deposits brought down by glacial streams. The

    rocky interior attains elevations of about 3,000 ft. and is almost entirely

    co b v ered by Highland Ice.

            Peary had his 1891-92 base camp on the northwestern side of Red Cliff

    Peninsula .(See also McCormock Bay.)

            Guidebook 746 H.O. 76, 477



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0633                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Refuge Harbor,

            on the Greenland side of Smith Sound, is a cove open to the westward

    that extends in a northeastern direction along the southern side of

    Cairn Point (78° 31′N., 72° 35′W.). M o a cMillan selected the harbor f i o r

    his winter-quarters in 1923-24, taking up birth on September 11th. By

    September 22, the harbor was frozen over solidly, but in her position

    at the head of the cove, the B owdoin was safe from ice-pressure. She left

    the harbor on July 31st, 1924, after sections of the harbor ice had been

    saw a d out.

            H.O. 76, 520 Guidebook 1204

            Indexer: list Refuge Harbor (Smith Sound).



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0634                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Rensselaer Bay,

            an indentation o i n the Greenland side of Kane Basin, is entered between

    Cape Ingersoll (78° 38′N., 71° 35′W.), and Cape Leiper, about 12 miles

    east-northeastward. The bay extends about 6 miles east-southeastward to

    a narrow head, encumbered by two islets.. Two r d ivers, draining from the Inland

    Ice, flow into the head of the bay, their mouths flanking an old Eskimo

    settlement, Aunatoq, and various house rouins in the vicinity. The tall sand–

    stone mountains, that rise on both sides of the outer part of the bay, give way

    near the head, [ ?] to a series of rounded hills of gneiss-granite with traces

    of verdure showing wherever the snow has been blown away. [ ?] ares are abundant

    on the plateauland farther inland, while seals and bearded seals are plentiful

    in the waters offshore.

            In September, 1853, Kanee's vessel, the Advance , found berth

    between the small islands near the head of the bay. In this position she was

    secure from outside ice pressure, but,as the ice did not move out of the bay

    during the next year, the vessel remained beset and was unable to leave port.

    Finally, in May 1855, Kane decided to abandon the ship and journey southward

    to Upernivik by sledge and boat.

            H.O. 76, 526 Guidebook 1207



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0635                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 42

    Cape Robertson (Tuloriok)

            (77° 48′N., 71° 20′W.), in northwest Greenland, forms the northeastern

    entrance point of the western end of Murchison Sound. The cape forms

    the southwestern extremity of a large, ice-covered mainland promontory

    rising to over 3,200 ft.

            H.O.,76, 476 Chart AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0636                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Robertson Bay

            indents the west coast of Greenland between Cape Robertson (77° 50′N.,

    71° 22′W.), and Kangek, about 13 miles southeastward. The bay, which

    maintains an average width of 5 miles, deserves its native name" Imnaksaoh",

    signifying "the precipitous place", because the scenery along its shores

    is bold, with high cliffs rising sheer from the sea. The face of Verhoeff

    Glacier, which is moving rapidly, occupies the eastern side of the head of

    the bay, and terminates in a wall of ice nearly 100 ft. high. Granite

    peaks, with sheer cliff faces 1,000 ft. high, rise to elevations of more than

    4,000 ft. at the edges of the glacier. Meehan Glacier, which occupies the

    western side of the head of Robertson Bay, also dis c harges into the bay. At

    several places on the shores of Robertson Bay there are native dwellings, which

    are stopping places for the Eskimos on their return from the spring walrus–

    hunt grounds off Cape Chalon. One of these settlements, Sioropaluk (Igdluluar–

    ssuit), on the northwestern side of the bay, was Lauge Koch's headquarters

    during the years 1920-23. The dwelling-place, which has a trading-post and a

    store, has a population of about 50 Eskimos (1943). A Greenland Administra–

    tion supply vessel calls once a year, and a 20-foot motor boat is based

    at the se e t tlement.

            Guidebook 750 H.O. 76, 476

            Indexer: list Sioropaluk (Robertson Bay)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0637                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Robeson Channel,

            a 57-mile waterway, passing between Hall Land, in northwest Greenland, and

    Grant Land, on the Ellesmere Island side, forms the northernmost and narrowest

    part of the Smith Sound Route, leading from Baffin Bay to the Polar Sea. Robeson

    c C hannel is entered north of Hall Basin between Cape Lupton (81 o ° 40′N., 61° 55′W.),

    Greenland , and Cape Murchison , . Escamilla DsCaud. Its approximate northern end, off the entrance

    to Lincoln Sea, is defined by a line running from Cape Stanton (82° 13′N.,

    57°00′W.), Greenland, to Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island. The trend of

    the channel is northeasterly; the width is from 13 to 17 miles, except at the

    wider northern and southern ends. Newman Bay, north of Polaris Promontory,

    is the only major indentation in the eastern coast of the channel, while

    the western coast is relatively even.

            The shores on ei g hter side of the channel are cl u i ffy and are fronted, at

    a few feet distant, by an almost continuous ragged-topped wall of accumulated ice,

    from 15 to 35 ft. high. Altitudes on the land on either side are generally low,

    except on Polaris Promontory, at the northern end of Hall Land, where Mt. Chester

    rises to over 2,500 ft. Soundings within the channel, taken by Peary in

    1906 and 1908, range from 289 to 411 fathoms in the narrow southern part, and from

    240 to 261 fathoms at the wide northern end.

            Ice. - In summer and autumn the ice in Robeson Channel is sub j ected to

    great pressure from the strong current that sets southward through the channel

    and also from the momentum of additional masses of ice from the Arctic Ocean that

    pour into the northern end of the channel. .. The pressure is greatest in the

    narrowest part of the channel, where the Polaris Promontory acts as a wedge

    thrust out into the mass of drifting ice floes. On August 30, 1881, Greely

    found Robeson Channel almost clear of ice, but soon afterwards a northwest

    galle filled it with heavy floe ice from the Lincoln Sea. The channel continued

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0638                                                                                                                  
    Robeson Channel cont.

    densely packed with ice through September and the first half of October, but on

    October 26 was again open in all directions except for small and unimportant

    drifting ice and a few floes that were grounded along the shore. Lauge Koch,

    in April 1921, found Robeson Channel covered with smooth ice that had evidently

    been formed during the preceding winter; the heavy polar ice was not encountered

    until near the northern end of the channel, where it lay in large h s heets with

    heavy pressure ridges.

            Explorations. - Robeson Channel was discovered by Hall, in 1871, who

    named it after Geo. M. Robeson, Secretary of the U.S. Navy. Hall's vessel, the

    Polaris , reached her farthest north, 82° 11′N., north of Polaris Promontory

    on August 30, and four days later found moorings in Thank God Harbor, south of

    Cape Lupton. From here, the members of the expedition explored Hall Land

    (the eastern side of the channel) as far northward as Newman Bay. Points o n f

    the west coast of the channel were charted from board the Polaris and from several

    of the Greenland capes. Four [ ?] ars later, Nares, in the Alert pushed through

    all of Robeson Channel. as far as Cape Sheridan (82° 28′N.), the nignest latitude

    ever attained by any vessel up to that time. His ship, which made harbor on Sept. 1, 1875, remained moored here to some grounded pack while winter-

    quarters were established on shore. Sledge parties, journeying southward to

    Fort Conger, where the Alert's consort, the Discovery ,was anchored, subsequently

    produced the first more detailed mpas of the west coast of Robeson Channel. A party

    under Beaumont , sent out from Fort Conger, explored the north coast of Greenland to

    as far as lat. 82° 20 N., 51°00′W. Later the channel's west coast was traversed

    by members of the Greely Expedition (1881-84), and then by Peary, at various times,

    between 1899 and 1902. Peary, in command of the Roosevelt returned to this coast

    in 1905 and 1908, twice forcing the Smith Sound Route as far as Cape Sheridan.

    Finally, Rasmussen and Lauge Koch, between 1917 and 1921, added to these earlier

    surveys by producing the first accurate charts of the Greenland side of Robeson

    Channel.

            Guidebook 1195,1235 H.O. 76, 545 ff. Bessels, Smith Sound and its explorations



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0639                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Roosevelt Range

            is the name given to the mountains which rise back of the northernmost coast of

    Greenland, approximately between long. 30° W. and 37° W. The H.H.Benedict

    Mountains and the Mary Peary Peaks are part of the range. Meximum altitudes are

    from 4,000 to 5, 000 ft. Glaciers are few and comparatively small.

            H.O. 75, 269 Guidebook 1276 AAF Aer. Ch (9) US C&G S 1944



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0640                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 60

    Cape Russel

            (78° 55′N., 69 ° 05′W.), on the coast of Inglefield Land in northwest

    Greenland, forms the northern entrance point of Marshall Bay. The cape, which

    project west-northwestward, is about 1,000 ft. high and has a lake on its

    top, in which many large s la al mon have been caught. In 1937, E. Holtved

    found the remains of an Eskimo settlement on this cape.

            H.O. 76,527 Guidebook 1213 AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0641                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    St. George Fjord

            enters the north coast of Greenland between Cape Bryant (82° 21′N., 54° 25′W.) ,

    the north point of Nyeboe Land, and Dragon Point, on Hendrik Island, about

    19 miles to the southeastward. From here the fjord trends southward for about

    60 miles, flanked in the west by Nyeboe Land, and in the east by Hendrik

    Island and Warming Land. The large Steensby Glacier drains into its head.

    The fjord is bordered mostly by steep cliffs, and the land on either side

    of it is mountainous, an ice-cap close to the inner eastern end of the fjord

    rising to a height of about 4,200 ft. The narrow Hartz Sound, wedged in

    between the southwestern shore of Hendrik Land and the northeastern shore of

    Warming Land, connects St. George Fjord with the head of Sherard Osborn Fjord

    to the eastward.

            The Fjord was discovered and named by Beaumont of the Nares Expedition

    (1875-76).

            H.O. 76 559 Guidebook 1245

            Indexer: list Hartz Sound



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0642                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Satut

            (70° 49′N., 51° 39′W.), an outpost in the Umanak District of

    northern West Greenland, lies on the small Satut Island at

    the head of the northern part of Umanak Fjord. The population in 1930 was 201

    Greenlanders. The settlement has a church, a school, a manager's residence

    and a warehouse with store attached. About 30 Greenlander h ouses are scat–

    tered among the fertile hills and valleys of the island. The harbor is small and

    without protection from the northwind.

            H.O. 76, 420 Guidebook 533



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0643                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Saunders Island,

            (western extremity 76° 34′N., 69° 51′W.), the largest of the islands

    close outside the entrance to Wolstenholme Fjord in northern West Greenland,

    is about 7 miles long, east and west, and about 2 to 3 miles wide. The island,

    which attains an elevation of about 1, 300 ft. forms a conspicuous seamark

    due to its red and yellow-bonded cliffs, breeding grounds for innumerable

    seabirds.

            Prior to 1920, Saunders Island was one of the most populated

    places in the region, partly because a great number of walrus pass here in the

    spring, partly because the whalers, waiting for the waters in the northwestern

    part of Baffin Bay to open, always made it a port of call. In recent years the

    island seems to be inhabited only for temporary periods, and its settlements

    may never have been permanent ones. Peary visited the island on several

    occasions in 1894.

            H.O. 76, 467



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0644                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Scott

            (79° 08′N., 66° 30′W.), on the coast of Inglefield Land in northwest

    Greenland, between Dallas and Advance Bay, rises to about 500 ft.

    An islet lies close northward of the cape.

            H.O. 7 6 , 527 AAF Aer. Ch (20) 1943)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0645                                                                                                                  
    Greenland 140

    Cape Seddon

            (75° 20′N., 58° 40′W.), on the eastern side of Melville Bay in northwest

    Greenland, projects at a point about 60 miles north-northwestward of

    Holms Island. The cape is the extremity of a promontory named

    Tugtuligssuak (the Great Caribou Land), which extends about 7 miles south–

    westward from a low isthmus fronting the Inland Ice. The highest of the

    several summits on the promontory rises to about 2,100 ft. The country around

    Cape Seddon is dotted with ruins of stone houses, indicating that this

    was undoubtedly at one time one of the chief settlements in Melville Bay.

    It was rediscovered as a hunting region in 1905, and has been inhabited since.

    Caribou were then (1905) found in large numbers on Tugtuligssuak as well as

    on some of the smaller islands off the coast, but since the reoccupation they

    have been completely wiped out.

            H.O. 76, 457 Guidebook 672

            Indexer: list Tugtuligssuak (Melville Bay).



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0646                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Sherard Osborn Fjord,

            in northern Greenland, is entered between Dragon Point (82° 18′N., 53°00′. W.),

    on Hendrik Island, and Cape May, the northeastern extremity of Wulff Land,

    about 22 miles to the northeastward. The fjord trends southeastward for about

    35 miles between the eastern shore of Hendrik Island and the western shore of

    Wulff Land, gradually narrowing to a width of about 12 miles, abreast the southern

    end of Hendrik Island. A narrow passage here leads southward to Hartz Sound,

    a branch of St. George Fjord. The head of Sherard Osborn Fjord, between

    Permin Land, a small mainland projection to the westward, and Wulff Land, is

    occupied by the large Ryder Glacier, which sendsa glacier tongue, many miles

    in length, northward through the fjord's eastern side. Reef Island, one of

    several small islands within the wider outer part of the fjord, was the deposi–

    tory of a farthest east record of Lt. Beaumont, member of the Nares Expedition,

    who first surveyed and mapped this part of the coast in 1876.

            Guidebook 1249 H.O. 76, 560



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0647                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Smith Sound,

            the most southerly of the channels of the Smith Sound Route, passing between

    northwest Greenland and northeastern Canda (Ellesmere Island) , leads northward from

    Baffin Bay to Kane Basin. Smith Sound, which is about 29 miles long and 29 miles

    wide, has its southern entrance between Cape Alexander (78° 10′N., 73° 09′W.),

    Greenland, and Cape Isabella, Ellesmere Land, to the northwestward. The northern

    entrance is between Cairn Point (78° 30° N., 72° 25′W.), Greenland, and

    Cape Sabine, Ellesmere Island, due westward. The eastern (Greenland) shore although

    consisting mostly of waterworn headlands, is backed by fertile land with tall grass;

    the country abounds with game, and there are a great number of sea- and landbirds.

    The western (Ellesmere Island) shore is higher and mostly ice-covered, with

    little animal life.

            From the few soundings that have been taken in Smith Sound , the depths appear to be

    generally great, probably between 400 and 600 fathoms in the southern part and

    between 100 and 200 fathoms in the northern part. The southern part often

    remains open, summer and winter, but the middle and northern parts freeze fast

    during the winter months, ice forming a solid bridge opposite Etah settlement, on the Gr

    Greenland side, over which the Eskimos cross over to Ellesmere Island to hunt

    caribou. The break-up of the ice does not occur until sometime during June

    and July. Following the break-up of the ice conditions in Smith Sound are

    variable, depending upon wind a s and currents and upon the state of the ice in

    Kane Basin from which the sound receives its supply of pack-ice. Navigation

    is difficult at all times, even in August, when conditions are relatively

    favorable.

            Explorations. - The discovery of A S mith Sound dates back to the year 1616,

    17th century when the search for a northwest passage that would lead to the

    treasures of India induced a number of Englishmen to eq i u ip Baffin's expedition to

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0648                                                                                                                  
    Smith Sound cont.

    to the Arctic zones. Baffin's farthest north was lat. 77° 45′N.,at the north–

    eastern end of Baffin Bay, whence he sighted a sound to the northward, extending

    beyond the 78th parallel. He named the sound it after Sir Thomas Smith, one

    of his sp o nsors, but the solid ice-field ahead of him checked all further progress.

    John Ross, in 1818, sighted the opening of Smith Sound from a position slightly

    below that of Baffin, but at that time thought it to be a bay. He named the two

    entrance points after his vessels, the Isabella and Ale d x ander . Inglefield, in

    search of the Franklin Expedition, entered Smith Sound in August, 1852, but did

    not proceed beyond lat. 78° 28′N., due to stormy weather and the advanced

    season. [ ?] Kane, in 1853 and Hall in 1871 pushed beyond the

    sound, but contributed to the knowledge of h i ts shores. Hayes, in 1860-62,

    wintered on the eastern side of Smith Sound and thence explored the west coast

    by sledge. The Greely Expedition (1881-84 , ) spent their last miserable winter

    at Cape Sabine, while Sverdrup wintered in Rice Strait, west of Cape Sabine

    in 1899-1900., later transferring his winter- w q uarters to Jones Sound, off

    Baffin Bay. Peary, Rasmussen, and Lauge Koch, Mac Millan, Mc Gregor, Noėl Humphereys, Captain "Bob"

    Bartlett and J.M. worcho - to name only a few of the twentieth century explorers, who have navigated

    Smith Sound or wintered along its shores have since added considerably to the

    knowledge of this part of the world. (See also Smith Sound Route.)

            Guidebook 760 H.O. 76, 514 ff. Bessels, Smith Sound and its explorations.

    Mirsky, To the North. Greely, Handbook. [ ?] 176 ( [ ?] )



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0649                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Smith Sound Route

            a 345-mile waterway, passing between the northwest coast of Greenland and the

    east coast of Ellesmere Island, connects Baffin Bay with the Arct o i c Ocean (Lincoln

    Sea. The channel leads in succession through Smith Sound, Kane Basin, Kennedy

    Channel, Hall Basin and Robeson Channel, and is entered at its southern end

    between Cape Alexander (78° 10′N., 73° 09′W.), Greenland, and Cape Isabella

    on the Ellesmere Island side. Its northern limit is defined by a line

    running between Cape Stanton (82° 13′N., 57° 00′W.), Greenland, and Cape

    Sheridan Ellesmere Island. The waterway, which has a north-northeastward trend,

    varies in breadth from 12 to 29 miles except in Kane Basin, where it opens out

    to a width of approximately 100 miles.

            At least nine-tenth of the surface of the Ellesmere Island shore

    is permanently covered by ice, while the Greenland side is comparatively ice-free. T

    The c au ua se of this marked difference is probably due to a divergence of currents

    along these coasts. On the Greenland side a northward flowing xurrent, com –

    paratively free of ice, allows the open sea to raise the general temperature, while

    on the Ellesmere Island side the Arctic current with its continuous stream of

    ice, blocks the bays and does not allow the open water to ameliorate

    the cold of the ice-covered land. The prevailing winds also carry more moisture

    to the west side, causing fogs when the opposite shore basks in sunshine. Navigatio

    however, is hazardous at all times, even in August which is considered the best

    period. Ice floes of all shapes and sizes are driven from the Arctic Ocean

    southward through the channels of the Smith Sound Route. During summer and

    autumn the movement from the Arctic Ocean is constant, with the exception of

    brief and infrequent periods, when the combination of a fresh and southeasterly

    wind and ebb tide pushes a fan of open water or loosely drifting ice cakes

    out from the northern entrance of the route.



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0650                                                                                                                  
    Smith Sound Route cont.

            Explorations. - Smith Sound, the most southerly of the channels

    of the Smith Sound Route, was discovered and named by Baffin on July 5th, 1616,

    after his tiny craft, the Di scovery , had passe n d the 77th parallel in the northern

    part of Baffin Bay. In 1818, Sir John Ross, in com m and of the Isabella Isabella and

    Alexander Alexander , also sighted Smith Sound from the northern end of Baffin Bay, at that

    time believing it to be a bay. Ingl ef ield, the first to enter Smith Sound , in 1852,

    reached lat. 78° 28′N., on August 27th. Kane (1853), and Hall (1871) pushed northwar

    to Kane Basin and Robeson Channel,respectively. Finally , Nares, in command of the

    Alert , forced a passage through all of the Smith Sound Route,in July and August, 1875.

    His ship remained moored to some grounded pack off Cape Sheridan (82° 28′N).

    during the winter of 1875-76, and was later brought safely back home to

    Portsmouth, England. Peary, in command of the Roosevelt , was the only other

    explorer to repeat Nares' famous enterprise. His vessel winter ed off Cape

    Sheridan in 1905-06, and again in 1908-1909, and twice achieved a safe return

    voyage to its home port, New York. (For details of these explorations as well

    as of exploration of these shores by sledge-parties

    as of extensive exploration undertaken by sledge parties along these shores see under Smith Sound, Kane Basin, Kennedy Channel, Hall Basin and Robeson Channel.)

    H.O. 76, 510 ff Guidebook 759 Bessels, Smith Sound and its

    explorations. Peary, Nearest to the Pole.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0651                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Sontag Bay

            is a 6-mile wide indentation in the west coast of Greenland, between a point

    about 6 miles north-northwestward of Cape Chalon (77° 58′N., 72° 17′W.),

    and Radcliff Point to the northwestward. Three glaciers flow into the

    head of the bay; Childs Glacier, the northernmost of these, is much used

    as a trav e ling route up onto the interior ice.

            The bay was named after the astronomer August Sontag, a member

    of Kane's Expedition (1853-55) and of Hayes' "United States" Expedition (1860-61).

            H.O. 76, 482 Greenland I. 43 Mirsky,To the North, 185



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0652                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    South Upernivik ,

            (72° 08′N., 55deg; 34′W.), an outpost in the Upernivik District of

    northern West Greenland, lies on a small peninsula at the southern

    extremity of Kekertarsuak (South Upernivik) Island. The total population

    in 1930 was 158 Greenlanders. The official buildings consist of a chapel,

    a school, a manager's house, a store and a warehouse. The chapel, which

    stands on a hill, is painted red with white trim , and is conspicuous far

    out at sea. The harbor, close northeastward of the settlement, is

    suitable only for small craft. Ice begins to form toward the end of No–

    vember; by the beginni n g of June the harbor is free of ice.

            Guidebook 574 H.O. 428



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0653                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Steensby Land

            (western extremity 77° 01′N., 71° 10′W.), is a peninsula-like

    projection on the west coast of Greenland, bounded on the southeast by Granville

    Bay and on the north and northwest by Whale Sound. To the southwestward Steens–

    b y Land faces Baffin Bay. The area, which has a maximum t diameter of about

    32 miles , is almost entirely covered with highland ice, which sends large

    glaciers over its steep northern cliffs. The southwestern end of the land,

    with its frontage on Baffin Bay, is partly ice-free and marked by a strip of

    low foreshore, from 1-3 miles wide, extending southeastward from the island's

    western extremity,Cape Parry. There are two breaks i n this low ground, giving

    access to two inlets : Drown Bay and Booth Sound . a few miles farther northwest

    ward.
    The former seems to be the inlet which was entered by Peary in

    a whaleboat in 1894 and which afforded shelter in a bight at the head of its

    northern arm. The latter was entered by Rasmussen, in 1917 . ; h e reported

    that a sandy bar, barely awash , extended across its entrance.

            The land was named after the Danish ethnologist H.P. Steensby, noted

    for his studies of the Polar Eskimos of the Cape York District.

            Guidebook 721 H.O. 76, 473 Greenland I., 113,131

            Indexer: list Drown Bay; Booth Sound (Steensby Land).



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0654                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Stor Island (Sagdliarusek)

            in Nordost Bay of northern West Greenland, lies about 3-1/2 miles east

    of Umanak Island. The 12 by 5 mile island falls steeply to the sea on all

    but its narrow eastern side , which is lower and slopes more gently.

    Inugsugtalik, the highest point on the island, rises to 4,665 ft. The

    snow on top of the mountain does not melt, but there are no considerable

    glaciers, doubtless because of the slight precipitation.

            Sail. Dir. VI 15 Guidebook 529



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0655                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Sugar Loaf Bay,

            in the Upernivik District of northern west Greenland, just north and south of lat.

    74° N., is formed between the large island Kugdlerkorsuit and the long,

    narrow mainland peninsula Nugssuak. From its 15 mile-wide opening on

    Baffin Bay the bay extends eastward for about 23 miles, widening to 29 miles

    close to the mainland coast. Ice fjords lead from the southeastern

    and northeastern ends of the bay. The middle part of the wide head is

    occupied by an irregular, ice-free land mass with elevations of more than

    3,500 ft. Southward of the landmass the smaller Ussing Glacier

    debouches into Uss i ngs Isfjord, while north of the land mass, Cornell Glacier

    terminates in Ryders Isfjord. Cornell Glacier is rated third in importance

    of the glaciers in Upernivik District and is slightly active along the entire

    sea front; bergs , detaching from the glacier , are large, and during the

    winter season the sea ice may be rent for miles around by the wave resulting

    from a single calving.

            The name of the bay derives from a strange, very regular, heart-shaped

    cliff, less than 1,000 ft. high, which rises on Sugar Loaf Island (Umanak)

    in the middle of the bay's entrance. A few small islands in the middle of

    the bay are inhabited.

            H.O. 76, 448 Guidebook 628



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0656                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Svartenhuk Peninsula (Sigguk) ,

            a mainland projection in lat. 71° N. in northern West Greenland,

    separates Uvkusigsat Fjord, a branch of Karrat Fjord, from

    the narrow Umiarfik Fjord to the westward. The peninsula, which extends

    southward for over 60 miles, is narrow at its base but widens to about

    36 miles at its southwestern extremity. Some isolated peaks in the south–

    east rise to over 5,000 ft., but the coast is usually no more than

    2,000 ft. high, and the interior of the peninsula is rolling prairie land.

    Sigguk, the Zwarte Hoek of the Dutch, from which the peninsula takes its

    name, is a remarkable steep and inaccessible cliff at the extreme west coast.

    Near here are three small bays, all of which terminate in great valleys with

    considerable rivers. The bays afford anchorage to smaller craft.

            H.O. 76, 422 Guidebook 569



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0657                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Tasiussak

            (73° 22′N., 56° 05′W.), an outpost in the Upernivik District in northern West

    Greenland, lies on the west side of Tasiussak Island in Tasiussak Bay. In 1930

    the population numbered 177 Greenlanders and 1 European. The official buildings,

    which include a church with a schoolroom attached, a manager's house, a store

    and a warehouse, are grouped around the harbor, while the Greenlander houses

    occupy a small promontory about 1/2 mile westward of the trading post.

    The community secures its livelihood by hunting seal; a few white whales

    are caught in the autumn.

            The harbor off the settlement is safe but narrow. Larger ships

    find anchorage in a small adjacent bay, but the position is exposed to

    winds from the southwest. (See also Tasiussak Bay.)

            H.O. 76, 444 Guidebook 621

            Indexer: list Tasiussak (Upernivik District)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0658                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Tasiussak Bay,

            in the Upernivik District of northern West Greenland, is the rather

    ill-defined area lying between Upernivik Icefjord and Giesecke's Icefjord, or

    between lat. 73° 05′N. and 73° 37′N. The wh i o le bay is filled with islands,

    islets and rocks, of which Tasiussak Island forms the center, and the

    large Tugtokortok Island the most northerly point. The head of the bay

    is formed mainly by two large and rather high mainland projections between

    which the Inland Ice descends to the sea. An unnamed, highly active glacier

    discharges into the more southerly side of the bay.

            Most of the inhabited islands lie in the middle and northern part of the

    bay. The flora here is relatively rich, and turf for building houses can be cut.

    Tasiussak outpost, which has a harbor suitable for all but the largest ships,

    is the main settlement in the bay. Navigation is possible from July to

    September.

            Guidebook 618 H.O. 76, 444

            Indexer: List Tasiussak Bay (Upernivik District); list Tugtokortok Island



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0659                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Thalbitzers Point (Thalbitzers Naes)

            (76° 02′N., 61° 03′W.), in Melville Bay off the west coast of Greenland, projects

    lies about 26 miles northwestward of Cape Walker and about 2 miles from the face of

    Peary Glacier. The projection is the dividing point between the southern and

    northern sections of Melville Bay. From this point the shore trends generally

    westward more than 92 miles to Cape York and is indented by numerous large

    bays, which are separated from eachother by irregular, ice-covered

    projections.

            H.O. 76, 458



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0660                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Thank God Harbor,

            on the eastern side of Hall Basin, indents the Greenland coast just south

    of Cape Lupton (81° 40′N., 61° 55′W.) and close northward of Polaris

    Bay. The small bay borders a low country with occasional rounded hills rising

    to from 900 to 1,400 ft.

            Thank God Harbor was the winter quarters of Hall's expedition in 1871-72.

    The Polaris was anchored in the open roadstead, inside the line of the

    main current, but some shelter was afforded by a small cape to the northwestward

    of the ship's position. Hall died here. here, on board his ship,on November 8,1871,

    and his grave at the head of the harbor was later marked by a tablet erected by

    Sir George Nares , of the British Arctic Expedition of 1875-76. The Polaris Polaris

    remained beset until August 1872, when open water south of Cape Lupton

    permitted her to bear up for home.Her southward drift,however, was stopped

    off Lifeboat Cove, in Smith Sound, where she was run ashore and ultimately,

    had to be abandoned.

            H.O. 547 Guidebook 1234 Bessels, Smith Sound and its Explorations 386



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0661                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Thom Island (Kapiarfigssalik)

            (73° 43′N., 60°40′W.),with a diam e ter of less than two miles, lies in Melville

    Bay, off the west coast of Greenland, about 16 miles west-southwestward

    of Cape Walker. Astrup, who surveyed the island in 1894, as a member of

    Peary's Falcon Falcon Expedition, described it as having in its middle part

    a cone-shaped rock formation, about 300 to 400 ft. high. An iceberg bank extends

    off all its sides, except the northwestern one.

            Thom Island, according to Knud Rasmussen, forms a boundary line for

    all the early habitations in Melville Bay. While i o ther house ruins are to be

    found southward of this point, none have been found between here and Bushnan Island

    to the northwestward.

            Guidebook 676 H.O. 76, 457



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0662                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Th. Thomsen Fjord

            ( N n orthwestern entrance 83° 12′N., 42° 10′W.), is the westernmost of the

    three fjords leading from De Long Fjord in northern Greenland. Flanked

    on the west by Nansen Land and on the east by a large unnamed island and thence by

    a small mainland projection, the fjord trends southeastward, then south–

    southeastward for a distance of about 25 mi o l es. A wide channel, leading

    midways from the eastern side of Th.Thomsen Fjord, rounds the southern

    end of the unnamed island and opens out into Ad. Jensen Fjord. The shores of

    Th.Thomsen Fjord are ice-free except for a few small glaciers near the head.

            The fjord was discovered by Rasmussen's Second Thule Expedition and

    named after the Inspector of the National Museum at Copenhagen.

            Guidebook 1267 H.O. 76, 567 Rasmussen, Greenland by the Polar Sea.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0663                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Thule,

            the northernmost district in the Northern Inspectorate of West Greenland,

    known also as the Cape York District, lies between latitudes 74° 10′N.

    and 80° 09′N., and is bounded on the south by Holm Island and on the north

    by the southern end of Washington Land. It thus includes all of the

    coast lying between the southern end of Melville Bay and the northern end of

    Kane Basin. The most recent of the administrative districts of Greenland,

    Thule was taken over by the Greenland Administration and organized as a district

    in 1937. The residents are the Polar Eskimos, so named by Knud Rasmussen,

    who have survived by reliance on Arctic culture. Fishing and hunting from the

    edge of the ice form their main source of income. However, because of the

    nomadic nature of the i n atives, many of the settlements are occupied only

    sporadically, their inhabitants moving into tents in summer. In 1944

    the population amounted to about 310. The colony and main administrative

    center of the district is Thule, and the principal harbors are at Thule,

    Cape York and Etah. Trade-in-production for 1944-45 (after deductions

    for local consumption) was as follows: blue and white fox skins 1,077;

    sealskins 1,081; narwhal tusks 100 kg; eiderdown 191 kg.

            The southern part of the coast, which comprises the 200-mile stretch

    between Holm Island and Cape York, at the northern end of Melville Bay,

    is completely covered by ice, except for an occasional protruding

    nunatak or mountain peak. The Inland Ice here is comparatively low, with

    elevations of from 1,300 to 1,600 ft. There are few indentations along this

    coast.

            The middle part of the district, extending from Cape York to the entrance

    of Smith Sound, about 145 miles to the northward, is much more ice free than

    the southern part; the margin of the Inland Ice is broader, and only through

    the larger valleys do glaciers come all the way down to the coast. The rock

    is gneiss which, in most parts, is covered by layers of sandstone and lime-

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0664                                                                                                                  
    Thule District cont.

    stone, forming plateaux with steep, multi-colored cliffs, facin f g the sea.

    Some isolated peaks attain elevations up to 4,000 ft. Two major indentations

    are Wolstenholme Fjord and Ingl i e field Gulf.

            The northernmost part of the district is formed by Inglefield Land

    which is ice-free, and by the 60-mile wide Humboldt Glacier. The edge

    of this glacier slopes evenly into the sea, and in general does not

    exceed 164 ft. in elevation. The cliffy but relatively low coast of Ingle–

    field Land is famous for its ice-foot.

            The vegetation is richest in the middle part of the district, where

    there is a thick growth of grass and flowering plants in many places.

    Land animals in the district include caribou, blue and white foxes, Arctic

    hares, polar bears and once, in a generation, a stray wolf. Main

    marine animals are [ ?] walrus, narwhal, white whale and various types

    of e s eals. U I nnumerable land and seabirds have breeding places

    in the district cliffs.

            Systematic meteorological observation are being carried out

    at Thule Colony (q.v.) in Wolstenhome Fjord, and sporadic meteorological data ,

    furnished by various expeditions , are also available from the Inglefield Gulf

    region. The midnight sun shines for about 4 months, and for nearly as

    long a period the sun is below the horizon. Mean temperatures above freezing

    occur only in June, July and August. Storms are mostly from the southeast

    and south and come at all seasons, but calm weather is frequent and preci–

    pitation is slight. Fogs occur during the summer months; ice fog, which is

    frequent, produces the so-called "white rainbow", a sight of exceptional beauty.

    Mirages may be observed in the spring and fall. Ice conditions are similar

    for the entire district. In calm w a e ther young ice begins to form by the

    end of August or early in September and remains fairly sound until June or

    July. However, open water is never far distant from the outermost

    003      |      Vol_XIV-0665                                                                                                                  
    Thule District cont.

    coast, for the tides sweeping through Smith Sound prevent the formation

    of ice even in the coldest winters. The closely packed winter ice still floats

    along the coast at the end of July, and only August and sometimes early

    September bring a properly open sea.

            History of explorations. - William Baffin, the English navigator,

    discovered the region in 1616, but actual contact with its Eskimo population

    was first established by Sir John Ross, in 1818. The Kane Expedition,

    in 1853-55, first wintered on th e i s coast, gaining much assistance from the

    friendly natives, [ ?] and in the 1890ies Peary introduced the first tools,

    implements and firearms. Topographical surveys, resulting in the first

    detailed maps of the region were made by K.Rasmussen and Lauge Koch

    between 1916 and 1923, and a primarily ethnographical survey, reaching

    from Thule, Greenland, to Alaska and Wrangel Island, was completed by

    Rasmussen in 1924. The district has since been visited by many expeditions

    and since its integration with the Northern I n spectorate of West Greenland,

    is supplied by a ship of the Greenland Administration, which calls once

    a year. Weekly communication by plane between the U.S. and Thule is

    maintained by the U.S. Army Air Force s , which ha s ve an air-base at the

    colony since Wo lr rl d-War II.

            Guidebook 646 ff. H.O. 76, 21 Frris, History of the Scientific

    Exploration of the Arctic since the days of flying p. 29 (Mss. E.A. files.)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0666                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Thule,

            (76° 32′N., 68° 50′W.), a trading post and mission station in northwest Greenland and

    since 1937 the colony and administrative center of Thule District, in northern

    West Greenland lies at the head of North Star Bay which indents the southern

    side of Wolstenholme Fjord. Founded in 1910 by a Danish Committee headed

    by Knud Rasmussen with the object of safeguarding the Polar Eskimo against

    exploitation by private traders and to serve as a base for exploration and

    trade, it became the colony of Thule District on August 1, 1937,

    when the whole of that district was taken over by the Greenland Admi–

    nistration to form a part of the Northern Inspectorate of West Greenland.

    The population in 1943 was 120 Greenlanders . and 5 Europeans. Public

    buildings include a trading post, manager's house, parsonage, school

    and a doctor's residence and hospital (13 beds) combined. The numerous

    winter dwellings of the natives are of wood with outside walls of turf, but

    are abandoned in summer when the population moves into tents, hunting and

    fishing from the edge of the ice being their chief source of income.

    The settlement own s several 20- foot motor boats and several hundred sledge

    dogs. Sledge teams travel to and from various other settlements in the

    district about twice a month from December to May. A supply ship of the

    Greenland Administration calls once a year.

            Harbor Facilities. - The harbor, which connects with the Government

    storehouse by means of a small tramway with steel rails, provides anchorage

    for ships up to 2,000 tons. It is well protected, but a better anchorage

    position, in depths of from 7 to 10 fathoms, is indicated under a steep clif on

    the harbor's southeastern side. Navigation of the bay is usually possible

    in August.

            Radio and Weather Station. - Thule radio station burned down in 1944,

    but new equipment and a new, American-manufact u e red transmitter have since been

    installed. Since 1946, a joint Danish-American weather and radio station is

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0667                                                                                                                  
    Thule colony cont.

    being operated at Thule, and there is a U.S. Army Air Forces base nearby,

    whence weather- h g athering and survey flights are being made. The Thule

    weather station operates jointly with an American-Canadian Weather

    Station at Eureka Sound on Ellesmere Island.(See: History of the

    the Scientific Exploration in the Arctic since the days of flying;.

    History of U.S. Weather Bueau.)

            Guidebook 712 ff. H.O. 76, 470



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0668                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Cape Tyson

            (81° 19′N., 61° 55′W.), a small projection on the eastern side of Hall

    Basin in northwest Greenland, forms the northeastern entrance point of Petermann

    Fjord . The cape rises to about 1,500 ft., the land beyond sloping up t wards to

    a plateau, about 2,500 ft. high. Offley Island, about 3 miles w s outh of

    Cape Tyson, is small and steep, its northwestern shore forming a precipitous

    cliff. Bessels, a member of Hall's Expedition, found coral fossils on this

    island. The cape was named by Hall in 1871.

            Guidebook 1252. H.O. 76, 546 Bessels, Die amerikanische Nordpolexpedition.

            Indexer: list Offley Island.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0669                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Ubekyendt Island (Igdlorssuit)

            lies in Nordost Bay, off the west coast of Greenland , between Umanak Fjord and Karrat

    Fjord. Erqua (71° 02′N., 53° 40′W.), the western extremity of the island,

    forms the northern entrance point of Umanak Fjord and the southern entrance point of

    Karrat Fjord. Ubekyendt Island, which is about 21 miles long, north and south, and

    about 14 miles broad at its widest, is rugged and attains elevations of more than

    3,700 ft. on both its northern and southern end. Steep cliffs form the eastern

    shores of the island, while the western side is somewhat less precipitous. On the

    lower flat portions of the island there is a luxurio y u s growth of grasses and flowers

    and a considerable amount of low bush that is used for fuel. The steeper slopes, which

    consist of shale, are bare and difficult to climb. Igdlorssuit settlement, one

    of the main outposts in ? the Umanak District, stands on the eastern shore of the island.

    (See also Nordost Bay; Igdlorssuit .)

            Guidebook 541 H.O. 76, 414

            Indexer: list Erqua



    002      |      Vol_XIV-0670                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Umanak,

            a district in the Northern Inspectorate of West Greenland, between latitudes 70°

    and 72° N., includes all o t he country around Nordost Bay and the fjords leading

    from this bay. The total area is about 4,579 sq. miles. The population in 1936 1944

    was 1, 4 47 59 Greenlanders; the 1930 census reported 18 Europeans. The colony and

    c h ief trading -station is Umanak. Trade-in production for 1936-37 1944-45 (after de–

    ductions for local shipments) was as follows: blubber 1,118 barrels; 65,136 kg; liver 1277 102,787

    barrels; kg; blue and white foxes 66 57 ; sealskins 1,487 2,446 ; whaleskins 61 2 ; narwhal

    teeth 16 kilos ; salted fish 4,700 kilos; 30,800 kg; tusks 44; dried fish 580 kg; eiderdown 34 kilos. feathers 45 kg.

            The southern part of the district is formed by the major northern part of Nugsuak

    Peninsula and the islands and promontories in the southeastern part of Nordost

    Bay, with maximum elevations here amounting to from 5,000 to 7,000 ft. The rock

    on the peninsula o i s largely b asalt and basalt and tuff, but the peaks

    on the islands (Stor o Island and others) are typical gneiss formations, mixed

    occasionally with eruptive rock. There are also some coal-bearing formations.

            The northern part of the district includes part s of Svartenhuk Peninsula in the

    west and the deeply indented mainland coast in the east. The latter attains elevations

    close to 7,000 ft. but the country on Svartenhuk Peninsula is mainly rolling

    prairie land, with some isolated peaks rising to about 3,000 ft. or more.

            Umanak District perhaps has more glaciers than any other region north

    of the equator. From the Inland Ice no less than 10 huge icestreams come

    down to the fjords, and there are countless local glaciers on Nugsuak and Svarten–

    huk Peninsulas and on the islands and the promontories along the central part

    of the mainland coast.



    003      |      Vol_XIV-0671                                                                                                                  
    Umanak cont. Greenland

            The bedrock conditions do not ! p ermit a rich vegetation, but in the basalt and

    the sandstone areas the vegetation is relatively lux u riant. In the entire district

    there are 181 known varieties of higher plants , of which 26 have their northern

    limit here.

            Animal life is richer than in the southern districts. Foxes, ptarmigan and

    hare are plentiful, and caribou are hunted on Nugssuak Peninsula. Polar bears come

    every winter; Greenland and bladder-nose seal appear in summer, while ring-seal is

    hunted all the year round. Loons, seagulls, black guillemots and fulmars and some

    wading birds breed in the district; falcons, ravens and various small birds are

    common. The king eider can be seen all summer, but does not breed in the district.

            Continuous climatological obe r se r vations over a period of years are lacking

    in the district., but I i n 1929 and 1930-31 the German Greenland Expedition of Alfred

    Wegener established in the Nordost Bay area three meteorological stations called

    collectively the West Station. They were at Umanak Colony, on Kamarujuk Fjord and at

    Scheideck Station on the marg o i n of the Inland Ice. Temperatures in F. were as follows:

    Umanak Kamarujuk Scheideck
    Yearly mean: (1930-31) 26,2 27,8 11,3
    Winter mean (Dec.-Feb.1930-31) 14,0 13,6 -3,1
    Summer mean (June-Aug.1930-31) 47,2 52 33,4
    Maxim temp. 62,0 67,6 44,4
    Minimum temp. -18,0 -18,8 -39,6



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0672                                                                                                                  
    Umanak cont.

            Precipitation is low. On the parallel of 71° N., which runs through the middle

    of the district, the sun is absent from November 21 until January 23.

            As a rule Nordost Bay is covered with good permanent ice around Christmas and re–

    mains safe for traveling over most of the wide expanses till the end of June.

    The great masses of calf ice accumulated during the winter often block the

    entrance to all fjords and make navigation of the inner waters impossible

    until some time in August. The West Ice is usually visible from the outer district

    coasts during the whole winter and sometimes approaches them and freezes together

    with the winter ice.

            Guidebook 488 ff. H.O. 76, 20



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0673                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Umanak

            (70° 41′N., 52° 09′W.), the colony and main trading station of Umanak

    District in northern West Greenland, is at the southern extremity

    of Umanak Island, which lies off the northern coast of Nugsuak Peninsula.

    In 1938, the population was about 300 Greenlanders and 15 Danes. Public

    buildings include administrative buildings, hospital and doctor's residence,

    church, school and parsonage. The district hospital, which is supervised

    by a resident Danish doctor and a Danish nurse and midwife, has X-ray equipment

    and can accom m odate 9 patients. The hospital also has a training school. A

    sanitarium, accommodating 20 tubercular children, is under the supervision

    of a specially trained Danish nurse. There is a radio station (call OYJ)

    at Umanak.

            Two anchorages are available, one in Umanak Harbor, off the settlement,

    and the other, in Spragle Bay, on the western side of the island. Umanak

    Harbor (Skibshavn) with depths ranging from 3 to 6 f a t homs, is overshadowed

    by a magnificent notched peak from which the island derives its name.

            The br e ak-up of the winter-ice usually comes around the middle of June, and the

    freeze-up in the latter part of December. Easterly winds frequently bring small

    bergs and growlers into the inner harbor, but a special signal system informs

    incoming vessels as to whether or not the harbor is blocked by ice. (For weather

    and temperatures see Umanak District).

            H.O. 76, 411 Guidebook 528

            Indexer: list Umanak (Umanak Fjord)



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0674                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Umanak Fjord or Bay,

            in the Umanak District of northern West Greenland, is identical with the

    southern arm of Nordost Bay.

            The outer portion of Umanak Fjord is entered

    between Kanisut (70° 50′N., 54° 08′W.), the northern extremity of Nugsuak

    Peninsula, and Erqua, the western end of Ubekyendt Island, and thence extends

    about 42 miles eastward, with a maximum width of 24 miles. It is bounded on the

    south by the steeply rising basal t shores of Nugsuak Peninsula and on the northern

    wide by Ubekyendt and Upernivik Islands, rising to 3,770 ft. and

    6,898 ft., respectively.

            The inner Umanak Fjord, with a length approximating

    43 miles, fans out in an easterly, southeasterly and northeasterly direction, its

    various arms winding their way past precipitous islands and numerous high mainland

    projections to the eastward lying glacier front. A southeastern arm of the

    inner fjord continues as Karajak (Qarajaq) Ice Fjord, extending southeastward

    along the inner northern shore of Nugsuak Peninsula and terminating at the foot

    of the Great Karajak Glacier. The latter, which has a velocity of 60 ft. a day,

    discharges large quantities of ice. A short , north-northwestward trending arm

    of Karajak, terminates at the foot of the Little Karajak Glacier.

            Umanak Fjord has charted depths ranging from 100 to 500 fathoms, but navigation

    is di d [ ?] cult even at the height of the sailing season. The winter ice rarely breaks

    up until the middle or end of June . , and throughout the summer the fjord remains

    filled with drif i ting bergs and calf-ice. Signals are displayed from the top of

    Hare Island (Vaigat Sound), indicating whether or not vessels can penetrate

    the fjord.

            Anchorage is indicated at Umanak Colony a o n Umanak Island, and in various

    positions on Nugsuak Peninsula . (See also Nordost Bay.)

    Guidebook 519 H.O. 76, 406

            Indexer: list Karajak (Quarajaq) Fjord; Great Karajak Glacier; Little Karajak Glacier



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0675                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Umiarfik ,

            (southern entrance 71° 54′N., 55° 25′ W.) , is a narrow fjord in the

    Upernivik District of northern West Greenland, wedged in between Svartenhuk and Ignerit

    Peninsulas. Umiarfik trends first in an easterly, then in a northeasterly

    direction for about 34 miles. The outer shores are basalt, yielding

    to gneiss in the interior of the fjord. A number of deep fertile valleys

    with lakes converge near the head. The region is rich in caribou.

            Guidebook 571 H.O. 76, 426



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0676                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Upernivik,

            a district in the Northern Inspectorate of West Greenland, is the coast between

    latitudes 71° 35 ′N. and 74° 30′N., or more specifically, between Svartenhuk

    Peninsula in the south and Holm Island, in Melville Bay, in the north. The area

    of ice-free land between Baffin Bay in the west and the Inland Ice in the east

    totals about 3,745 Sq. miles. In 1936 1944 the population was 1,311 Greenlanders; the

    1930 census also reported 12 Europeans. The colony and main trading station

    is Upernivik. Trade-in-production for the year 1936-37 1944-45 (after deductions

    for local shipments) was as follows: blubber 1,253 barrels; 77,686 kg; liver 514 barrels; 61,093 kg;

    bear skins 9 1 ; blue and white foxes 37 34 ; sealskins 8,255; 4,477; walrus skins 1; 53;

    narwhal tusks 125 kilos; 97 kg; eiderdown 258 kilos. 167 kg; feathers 413 kg.

            The southern part of the district coast up to Upernivik Colony (72° 46′N.),

    consists mainly of large peninsulas and islands, separated by narrow fjords and

    sounds. The ice-free land margin is broad, reaching a width of about 75 miles.

    Characteristic for the more southerly part of this stretch are relatively high,

    flat-topped basalt plateaux. However, at Prøven (72° 22′N.) the rock formations

    change from basalt to archean. The islands in many instances rise sheer from

    the water's edge, attaining heights of 3,000 ft. or more, their richly colored rock

    forming a striking contrast to the glaciers eastward or the Inland Ice beyond.

            The northern half of the district coast from Upernivik Colony to Holm Island

    is split up into a profusion of mostly small and low islands. The latter are icefree, but

    the mainland coast is completely icecovered except for a few short promontories, that

    rise above the 2,000 ft. mark. In general, elevations here are moderate.

    Fourteen glaciers discharge into Umanak Ice Fjord (approx. 73° N.), and nearly

    1/5 of the ice front along this part of the coast reaches the sea.

            A few minerals have been found in the district, and of importance is the

    graphite-

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0677                                                                                                                  
    Upernivik cont. Greenland

    bearing gneiss. CarPholite (a hydrous aluminum manganese silicate) previously

    known only in France, also occurs, and of greatest interest is the find of beau–

    tiful red garnets. The one outcrop of coal at Ingnerit is of poor quality.

    The flora of the district, except for the immediate region around the colony and Prøven

    outpost is little known. In the interior of the southern fjords and on Svartenhuk

    Peninsula a close, luxuriant plant cover still spreads over wide areas, but north

    of Upernivik [ ?] Ice Fjord the vegetation is poor, a great number of southern species

    apparently having been unable to cross the fjord.

            Caribou are still numerous in the southern part of the district, and the ringed

    seal is abundant everywhere in fjords and coastal waters. Some walrus are taken,

    and white whale and narwhals come every spring and fall. Polar bears are seen when–

    ever the ice appears. Foxes and polar hares are plentiful, and in recent years the

    polar wolf has come down from Melville Bay. Eider ducks, guillemots, auks and other

    birds breed in the cliffs, and falcons and ravens are common.

            Meteorological observations, taken at Upernivik Colony, are of local signi–

    ficance only. The mean temperature at Upernivik throughout the year is 1 , 6 , 3° F.

    July averages temperatures of 41,9° F.; February -10,1° F. From June to September

    the average temperature is above freezing, but sub-zero temperatures may occur

    any day in the year. The annual precipitation at Upernivik is 8,8 in. The prevailing

    wind comes from the east, but calm days are numerous. In the interior of some of

    the fjords in the district's southern part the climate is comparable to that of

    Disko Bay.

            The West Ice from Baffin Bay usually reaches the coast around December and freezes

    together with the winter ice of the coast. In summer it remains from 10 to 15 miles

    off the southern part of the district coast, but on occasion closes in on Upernivik, especially

    with winds from the west and southwest. The winter ice forms in October; the

    break-up comes in June . ; H h owever a skin of new ice can may form at any time f d uring the summer

            Guidebook 563 ff. H.O. 76, 21



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0678                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Upernivik

            (72° 46′N., 56° 09′W.), the colony of Upernivik District and the northernmost

    principal settlement of West Greenland, is situated on a small island of the

    same name about 6 miles northwest of Kaersorsuak Island. The settlement, with

    a population in 1930 1938 of 232 240 Greenlanders and 7 2 Danes, is s v c attered over a rocky

    area between Bryghus Bay, a small cove at the island's southwestern end, and Skibs–

    havn (Danish Harbor), about 1/2 mile northward. Official buildings consist

    of a church, a store, hospital, the doctor's residence, the manager's house,

    a building which serves as a residence for the clergyman and the manager's

    assistant, and a dance hall. The hospital accommodates 14 patients and is

    under the supervision of a Danish doctor and a Danish nurse. There is a radio–

    station ( call OYN ) at Upernivik. The houses, which are gaily painted, are

    grouped together without any sharp demarcation between those of Danes and Green–

    landers. The people, whose chief means of livelihood is sealing, are among

    the poorest of the district.

            Harbor. - Skibshavn, the recommended anchorage at Upernivik, has charted

    dpeths of from 3 to 12-1/2 fathoms. There is a small wharf at the southern side

    of Skibshavn, and several 20-foot lighters are available for fransferring cargo

    from ship to shore . On the eastern side of the harbor is a repair slip

    where ships may be hauled ashore. A limited quantity of supplies is available at this

    port.

            Ice. - The West Ice from Baffin Bay usually reaches Upernivik about the

    middle of December and leaves around the first of June. The winter ice forms

    between November and January and breaks up in May or June. From June to

    December the coast is open to navigation, except that icebergs are frequent, and the

    West Ice may close in on occasion, with prevailing westerly winds.

            Upernivik, founded in 1771,has long been known to explorers of the Far North

    as the final port of call before sailing on through Melville Bay and Smith Sound

    002      |      Vol_XIV-0679                                                                                                                  
    Upernivik cont.

    to the regions beyond Cape York.

            Guidebook 586 H.O. 76, 440



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0680                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Upernivik Ice Fjord,

            a channel from 3 to 6 miles wide in the Upernivik District of northern West Greenland, lies about 15 miles north - eastward of

    Upernivik Colony, where it separates a mass of larger and smaller islands

    offlying the mainland coast. The fjord's approximate entrance is between

    the Avssakutak groups of islets, about 9 miles southeast of Kingigtortagdlit

    (73° 02′N., 56° 54′W.), and Tugssak Island, about 6 miles to the northeastwward.

    The trend of the fjord is southeasterly, the approximate length 34 miles.

    At its head the fjord forms a wide basin , with Upernivik Glacier discharging

    into its eastern end, and with two small glaciers emptying into its northern

    side. From this basin a second channel leads seaward (parallel to Upernivik

    I s ce fjord) between the islands that lie on the northern side of Upernivik Isfjord

    and Kagsersuak, a mainland projection to the northward.

            Upernivik Glacier is by far the largest and most productive of the

    many glaciers in this district, and the numerous icebergs, discharged by it,

    tend to keep the channels between the various islands completely closed until

    July. Once the channels are open, navigation during calm weather is assisted

    rather than impeded by some of the bergs grounding on the rocks or else afloat ,

    as their height affords certain evidence of deep water.

            Seals and se b a birds are numerous in the locality; in the autumn schools

    of white whales come into the water of Upernivik Ice F jord from the waters farther

    north.

            Guidebook 602 H.O. 76, 441

            Indexer: list Upernivik Glacier



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0681                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Upernivik Island ,

            in Nordost Bay of northern West Greenland, forms the eastern side of Igdlorsuit Sound

    and lies between Umanak Fjord and Karrat Fjord.

            The island, which is about 17 miles long, north and south , and about

    17 miles at its broadest, rises to heights of nearly 7,000 ft. and is

    characterized by many glaciers, all of which are said to be inactive. There

    are coal-bearing deposits in the southwestern part of Upernivik Island, and two

    mines supply the inhabitants of Greenland's northern districts with much of

    their necessary fuel.

            Anchorage is indicated at Upernivik Point (Upernivik Naes)(71° 09′N. ,

    52° 56 ′W.) at the southwestern end of the island, but temporary anchorage can

    be found and a landing effected below all the glaciers on the west coast.

            Guidebook 550 H.O. 76 415

            Indexer: list Upernivik Island (Umanak Fjord).



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0682                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Uvkusigssat (71° 05 ′N. 51° 54′W.),

            an outpost in the Umanak District of northern West Greenland, is on the

    southern shore of outer Ignerit, a branchfjord of Umanak Fjord in Nordost

    Bay. The population in 1930 was 175 Greenlanders. The houses, which include

    a chapel-school, a manager's house, a store and various dwellings, stand close to the

    beach of a small bay into which empties a stream. On the beach, a few hundred

    yards north of the houses and accessible only at low tide, is a soapstone

    deposit. The community secures the largest number of foxes caught anywhere

    in the Umanak District.

            Anchorage is afforded in the small bay which is large enough to

    accomodate f g ood-size vessels , but which northerly winds cause to fill with calf ice.

    The winter ice remains from December until June with open channels forming

    early in the spring.

            H.O. 76, 417



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0683                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Uvkusigssat Fjord

            (southwestern entrance 71° 45′N. 53° 40′W.), in northern West Greenland,

    leads from the head of Karrat Fjord, whence it trends north-northwestward

    for about 42 miles. The western shore is formed by Svartenhuk Peninsula,

    the eastern shore by a rugged mainland projection. The narrow fjord, which is

    lined by steep cliffs, terminates at the foot of a small glacier, which

    discharges into the eastern side of the head, filling the fjord's inner portion

    with clay deposits. From thewestern side of the head, where some peaks rise

    to nearly 4,000 ft., large valleys with lakes extend in a northwesterly

    direction to the head of Laxe Fjord. These valleys are comparatively

    fertile and support a considerable number of a e aribou. Uvkusigssat itself

    is little frequented and exposed to all winds.

            H.O. 424



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0684                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Valdemar Glückstadt Land,

            a peninsula in northeast Greenland, forms the western shore of the outer part

    of Danmark Fjord and the eastern shore of Hagen Fjord. Its 20-mile wide northern

    shore faces Independence Fjord, which meets the two other fjords at right angles.

    From Cape Rigsdagen (82° 05 N., 21° 40′W.),at the confluence of Danmark and

    Independence Fjord, the land extends about 70 miles southwestward to a broad

    base near Zig-Zag Valley.

            Valdemar Glückstadt Land is mostly ice-free, except for three small

    glaciers, named Jydske Aas, which occupy its central part. Northward of the glaciers

    the land is low and barren, flattening down to sea-level near its northern end.

    The southern portion of the land slopes up to a high plateau, bordering the

    Inland Ice in the southwest. In the southeast Zig-Zag Valley, so named because

    of its twisting course, slopes down to Danmark Fjord. It contains a chain

    of glacial lakes within steep-walled valleys; the valleys are connected by

    a broad river which drains into Danmark Fjord through a wide delta. According

    to Rasmussen and Freuchen, who investigated and named the valley in 1912, the land

    here is fertile in stretches and supports caribou and hare. Several species of

    landbirds breed in the more sheltered spots.

            Valdemar Glückstadt Land was discovered and named by the Mylius-

    Erichsen Exedition (1906-08)but has had few visitors since. Einar Mikkelson

    explored parts of its coast in 1910, and in 1912, Rasmussen's First Thule

    Expedition made their descent from the Inland Ice through Zig-Zag Valley . , later

    traveling northward along its the land's eastern shore to Peary Land. All three expeditions

    agree on the dearth of game in the northern part of the peninsula.

            Guidebook 1320 H.O. 75, 257 MG 51, 350 ff. Ch AAF Aer. Ch 9, 1943

            Indexer: list Zig-Zag Valley



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0685                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Victoria Fjord,

            a major indentation in the north coast of Greenland, is entered between

    the northeastern end of Wulff Land and Cape Wohlgemuth (82° 34′N., 47° 15′W.),

    at the northwestern extremity of Nares Land, about 23 miles northeastward.

    The fjord trends southeastward for about 80 miles, maintaining a width

    of from 15 to 23 miles except at the narrow head,abreast Danbo Land. C.H. Ostenfeld

    Glacier, which drains into the head, penetrates far northward through the fjord,

    its floating termination stretching from coast to coast at a point about 23

    miles within the entrance. The glacier encircles several ice-capped, island-like

    areas in the inner part of Victoria Fjord. Stephenson Island, at the mouth of

    the fjord, about 3,400 ft. high, is ice-free. Heights on either side of the fjord

    are moderate but the shores of Nares Land are ice-covered while those of

    Wulff Land are largely ice-free and rather rich in vegetation.

            Victoria Fjord was discovered and named by Lt. Beaumont of the Nares

    Expedition (1875-76). Lockwood, of the Greely Expedition (1881-8 4 3 ) named Cape

    Wohlgemuth. The interior of the fjord was first explored by members of Rasmussen's

    Second Thule Expedition(1917), who named C.H. Ostenfeld Glacier.

            Guidebook 1255 H.O. 76, 562 MG 130, vol 1. 345-346

            Indexer: list Cape Wohlgemuth; C.H. Ostenfeld Glacier; Danbo Land.



    001      |      Vol_XIV-0686                                                                                                                  
    Greenland

    Vildt Land (Game Land)

            a mountainous and mostly icefree tract of land in northern Greenland, has a

    9-mile frontage on Independence Fjord, north of A a cademy Glacier , at the fjord's head.

    To the northward the land is flanked by the large Sophie Marie Glacier. The most

    conspicuous point along the shore is Navy Cliff (81° 38′N., 33° 36′W.) a rocky

    plateau rising almost vertically to a height of 3,800 ft. and affording an excellent view of the entire region. Elsewhere the land

    attains elevations of from 2,000 to 3,000 ft., with many of its rocky heights

    deeply intersected by fertile ravines and sheltered, well-watered valleys.

            Peary and Astrup crossed Vildt Land in 1892, Peary erecting a

    small cairn and planting the Stars a nd Stripes on Navy Cliff on July 4th.

    Both Rasmussen's First Thule Expedition 1912) and Lauge Koch's Danish Bicentenary

    Jubilee Expedition (1920-23) established observation camps here. Peary and the

    Rasmussen party shot a large number of musk oxen in Vildt Land. Hares were found

    to be plentiful, and lemmings, stats, wolves, foxes and several species