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    Canadian Meteorology

    Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography


    Canadian Meteorology



    Unpaginated      |      Vol_VII-0324                                                                                                                  
    EA: Meteor.

    [Department of Transport,

    Air Services Meteorological Division,

    Toronto, Canada]


    CANADIAN METEOROLOGY

           

    Table of Contents

    Page
    History of the Canadian Weather Service 1
    History of the Canadian Arctic and Sub-Arctic

    Weather Stations
    14
    Arctic Expeditions in Which the Canadian Meteorological

    Service Participated
    43
    Climate of Arctic and sub-Arctic Canada 52
    Arctic Observing Techniques 88
    Directors of the Meteorological Service of Canada 91
    References 96

    Three charts: Mean Pressure
    Mean Temperature
    Climatic Regions of Arctic and Subarctic Canada



    001      |      Vol_VII-0325                                                                                                                  

           

    CANADIAN METEOROLOGY

            History of the Canadian Weather Service

            Among the earliest Canadian meteorological or climatic

    observations are those made by the Jesuit Missionaries in the 17th century.

    Their records, known as the Jesuit Relations, date back to 1610 and contain

    many references to climatic phenomena which permit some comparison to be made

    between the climate of that period and the present. That the climate then was

    much the same as it is today may be seen from the following excerpts which are

    quoted from the Jesuit Relations for the period 1610-1614.

            “The chief city of new France is called Kebec and is

    situated on the St. Lawrence River. The whole country possesses a

    healthful climate but is harassed by a long and cold winter. This is

    caused partly by--the abundance of snow with which the land in its

    most northern regions, which lie upon the same parallel, as old France,

    is continually desolated for three or four months.” ---- “I noticed

    once that two February days ---- were as beautiful, mild and springlike

    as are those in France about that time, nevertheless, the third day

    after, it snowed a little and the cold returned. Sometimes in summer,

    the heat is as intolerable, or more so, than it is in France.”

            Instrumental observations were made at some posts of the

    Hudson’s Bay Company in the 18th century, for example, at York Factory in

    1772 and 1773. However, it was not until 1839, when Lieutenant Charles

    James Buchanan Riddell of the Royal Artillery arrived in Montreal to establish

    a magnetic observatory, that an organized weather service was founded in

    Canada.



    002      |      Vol_VII-0326                                                                                                                  

            The study of terrestrial magnetism was receiving world–

    wide attention in the early part of the 19th century, and in 1838 the

    British Association for the Advancement of Science brought to the attention

    of the Government the desirability of obtaining a series of simultaneous

    magnetic observations at various points in the British colonies. The

    recommendations of Baron von Humboldt of Germany, Major Edward Sabine, the

    President of the Royal Society, and the Committee of the British Association

    were adopted by the Government and four expeditions were sent out in 1839.

            The localities chosen by Sabine for the proposed stations

    were Canada, van Diemen Island, St. Helena and the Cape of Good Hope. The

    expedition to van Diemen Island was conducted by the British Admiralty and

    the other three were under the Ordnance Department, the duties to be performed

    by officers and soldiers of the Royal Artillery. It was suggested that the

    observations at these stations should include meteorological as well as

    magnetic phenomena.

            Riddell felt that the presence of magnetic rock in the

    vicinity of Montreal made it an undesirable location for a magnetic observatory.

    He obtained permission to choose a suitable site at Toronto instead, and

    observations were begun in an unused barracks of Old Fort York on Christmas

    Day, 1839. A grant of land was obtained from King’s College (now the University

    of Toronto) in 1840 in order that the Observatory might be established in

    appropriate scientific surroundings and the Meteorological Service has been

    closely affiliated with this University ever since. A complete set of

    meteorological instruments was installed, including a barometer which remained

    003      |      Vol_VII-0327                                                                                                                  
    in active service as the standard barometer for Canada until 1939.

            Riddell returned to England in 1841 because of ill health.

    His successor, Lieutenant (General Sir) John Henry Lefroy was posted to Toronto

    from the Observatory at St. Helena. Lefroy was a true scientist with a genuine

    enthusiasm for his work, and under his able administration, the Observatory was

    guided through its critical formative period.

            Lefroy arrived in Canada in 1842 and immediately set out on

    a magnetic survey of the far North-West. His survey covered a route extending

    to Hudson’s Bay and along the Mackenzie River as far north as Fort Good Hope

    by means of canoe transport provided by the Hudson’s Bay Company. At each

    stopping point, Lefroy an s d his assistant took magnetic and meteorological

    observations.

            Lefroy foresaw the merits of obtaining weather information

    from as broad an area as possible and obtained permission to place an observing

    book in each of the military guard-rooms across the land. By this means, he

    was able to collect data from Queenston, Montreal, Kingston, Toronto, London,

    Fredericton, Halifax and Newfoundland. He also endeavoured to bring about a

    plan whereby the various high schools across Canada would take regular weather

    observations. Unfortunately, the necessary legislation was not passed until

    1854 after Lefroy had returned to England. Observations were begun at twelve

    high schools in 1858 and these were continued until 1876 when the government

    grant for this purpose was discontinued.

            The original programme called for the establishment of the

    Observatory for a three-year period, and when this expired, the Ordnance

    004      |      Vol_VII-0328                                                                                                                  
    Department maintained it on a year-to-year basis only. In 1850 the military

    authorities decided to withdraw altogether and for a time it seemed likely that

    the work at the Observatory would be discontinued. However, the Canadian

    (now Royal Canadian) Institute along with kindred societies prevailed upon the

    Legislative Council of the Province of Canada to ensure the continuance of the

    Observatory. In 1853 a transfer was completed whereby the Observatory was

    turned over to Professor J.B. Cherriman of the University of Toronto on behalf

    of the Government of Canada. The non-commissioned officers of the Royal

    Artillery, who had been taking the observations at Toronto, were given a

    discharge from the Army and continued to work at the Observatory. One of them,

    Thomas Menzies, was with Riddell when the Observatory was first established,

    and he continued as an active observer until his death in 1887.

            In 1855, Professor Cherriman’s brother-in-law, Professor

    G.T. Kingston, the Head of the Naval College in Quebec, was appointed Professor

    of Natural Philosophy at the University of Toronto. Before Professor

    Kingston arrived to take up his new position, Professor Cherriman managed to

    negotiate a switch whereby he was made Professor of Natural Philosophy and

    Professor Kingston was appointed Professor of Meteorology and Director of the

    Observatory.

            The practical value of meteorology was little appreciated

    by the Government, but through Professor Kingston’s strenuous efforts, a

    sufficient grant was voted to enable the Observatory to carry on. The faith

    that Professor Kingston had that the work of the Observatory would ultimately

    be of great benefit to Canada is illustrated in his first annual report to the

    005      |      Vol_VII-0329                                                                                                                  
    Auditor-General in 1855 from which the following excerpt is quoted.

            “The object of the observatory is that of furnishing

    to the scientific world the materials necessary for evolving the laws

    that regulate the magnetic and meteorological phenomena of the earth.

            Other enquiries of a practical as well as of a

    speculative character might obtain their solution by a course of

    diligent observation extended through a long period of years. The

    possible realization of these objects should be borne in mind in

    estimating the utility of an observatory which it would be unfair to

    measure wholly by its more obvious and immediate results.”

            Professor Kingston recognized the fact that if simultaneous

    weather reports from several points could be received at a central office, the

    motion of weather systems could be followed to a certain extent and thus

    weather forecasts could be prepared. The newly invented telegraph provided

    the required rapid means of communication and in 1857, Professor Kingston

    read a paper before the Canadian Institute on the possible use of telegraphic

    reports in weather forecasting. His hearers were favourably impressed and a

    committee was appointed to report on the matter. The committee recommended

    that Government support as well as private aid be granted for the purpose of

    establishing certain stations from which these reports might be received.

    The Canadian Government provided a grant of $5000. in 1871 to carry out this

    work and the Meteorological Service of Canada was organized under the

    Department of Marine and Fisheries.



    006      |      Vol_VII-0330                                                                                                                  

            In order to broaden the field from which observational

    data was were received, arrangements were made whereby the transmission of daily

    reports from Port Stanley, Port Dover, Saugeen, Toronto, Kingston and Quebec

    to Washington was begun in 1872 and in return, reports from 15 United States

    stations were sent to Toronto. This exchange of reports made it possible to

    prepare daily synoptic weather charts and paved the way for eventually

    placing weather forecasting on a sound scientific basis.

            The first official storm warning in Canada was issued from

    the Meteorological Office at Toronto in 1876 by Mr. R.F. (later Sir Frederic)

    Stupart, and the first public weather forecast by Mr. B.C. Webber in 1877.

    The drawing of weather charts was an entirely new field and very little was

    known about their interpretation. The meteorologist was further handicapped

    by the small amount of data with which he had to work. In view of these

    limitations, the courage of those pioneer meteorologists is to be admired for

    continuing to issue daily weather forecasts in the face of public scepticism

    and ridicule.

            The westward expansion of the Canadian Pacific Railway

    in the 1880’s and the concurrent extension of the telegraph made it possible

    to establish reporting stations from coast to coast. These stations were, of

    course, all located along the extreme southern fringe of Canada. The vast

    north country was still a blank area on weather maps. Nevertheless, steady

    progress was made in the interpretation of the available information and the

    Service gradually gained public confidence.



    007      |      Vol_VII-0331                                                                                                                  

            The status of weather forecasting in Canada in the

    early part of the 20th century is well expressed in an article written in

    1912 by R.F. Stupart, the Director of the Meteorological Service: “The maps,

    however, valuable as they are, are deficient in many respects, the telegraph

    does not yet reach much beyond the southern margin of Canada, and the weather

    map shows a vast blank to the northward, and cloud observations showing the

    motion of the upper air are fragmentary and unreliable. Forecasts based on

    such imperfect information must necessarily be liable to occasional error.”

            The need for more northern stations was very acute,

    especially for the study of the great cold waves which are characteristic of

    Canadian winters. This need was felt by the United States Weather Office as

    well as by Canada. On September 4, 1882, Major-General Haz e n, the Chief

    Signal Officer in Washington wrote to Charles Carpmael, who had succeeded

    Professor Kingston as Director in 1880, offering United States assistance in

    paying the salaries of observers at Fort Chipewyan and Prince Albert. The

    financial assistance of the United States was not required in this instance,

    (the observer’s allowance at Fort Chipewyan was a modest $60. per annum) but

    it is interesting to note that sixty years later during World War II, a

    large number of weather stations were established in northern Canada with

    United States aid.

            In the years 1900-1910, observing stations were established

    along the MacKenzie Valley as far as Herschel Island on the Arctic Ocean.

    These stations were valuable inasmuch as they provided climatic data, but the

    008      |      Vol_VII-0332                                                                                                                  
    lack of sufficiently rapid communications made it impossible to utilize their

    reports in daily forecasting. As further advances were made in the technique

    of radio transmission from 1926 on, these stations were equipped with radio,

    and for the first time meteorologists were able to draw the daily weather

    pattern for northern continental North America on their charts with some

    degree of confidence.

            Until 1910, weather observations consisted almost entirely

    of surface observations and the only information available to meteorologists

    on the structure and motion of air above the surface was that given by cloud

    observations. It was realized that before any major advances could be made in

    meteorological knowledge it would be necessary to learn more about physical

    processes in the upper atmosphere. A kits station was set up at Agincourt,

    near Toronto, to take soundings of the atmosphere by means of recording

    instruments carried aloft on kites. This represented a step in the right

    direction but there were too many limitations to this method to make it a

    practical forecasting aid. If the winds were too light, the kites would not

    rise, and if they were too strong, the kites could not stand up against them.

    It is interesting to note that the first upper air observations in Canada were

    made in the Arctic by Sir Edward Parry, who sent self-registering thermometers

    aloft on kites in January 1822 near latitude 66° 11′N, longitude 83° 10′W.

            The next step was to explore the atmosphere to much greater

    heights by means of free balloons carrying self-recording meteorological

    instruments. This method, too, was useful for research purposes only, for it

    009      |      Vol_VII-0333                                                                                                                  
    was an obvious requirement that before the record could be used, it had to be

    found and shipped to the office of origin. In a country as sparsely populated

    as Canada, this usually took several weeks, and often months or even years,

    which made their use at isolated stations out of the question. This was

    demonstrated during the Second Polar Year Expedition to Fort Rae, N.W.T. in

    1932-33, for 27 meteorographs were released but only two were recovered.

            Some use was made of aeroplanes to assist in obtaining

    upper air data, and flights were begun for this purpose by the Toronto Flying

    Club in 1934. Through the cooperation of the R.C.A.F., daily ascents were made

    at Fort Smith, N.W.T. during the winter of 1936-37. Ascents were also made at

    Edmonton by the Edmonton Flying Club and in Newfoundland by Imperial Airways.

            When short-wave radio was perfected, it was possible to

    combine the meteorograph with a miniature radio transmitter in such a way that

    the radio signals from the instrument could be received at a ground station

    and interpreted in terms of pressure, temperature and humidity. This new type

    of instrument, called a radiosonde, supplied meteorology with a new tool for

    sounding the atmosphere at any suitably equipped station in any kind of weather.

    The radiosonde soon replaced all the former methods for obtaining upper air

    soundings, and by 1950 there were 28 stations in Canada equipped to take

    radiosonde flights, of which 8 are in the Arctic and 14 in the sub-Arctic. The

    amount of upper air data which is being obtained from the Canadian Arctic and

    sub-Arctic is proving extremely useful in current weather forecasting and will

    undoubtedly provide a valuable aid to meteorological research.



    010      |      Vol_VII-0334                                                                                                                  

            A further aid in the study of upper air motions was developed

    immediately after the First World War. The speed and direction of winds

    aloft were determined by releasing a small balloon, called a pilot balloon,

    which was inflated with hydrogen to rise at a known rate and followed visually

    with a theodolite. The first pilot balloon station in Canada was established

    at Toronto in 1920. By 1950, 69 of the weather stations in Canada were

    equipped to take pilot balloon observations.

            The expansion of the Canadian Meteorological Service was

    steady but gradual until the mid-1930’s. At that time it was announced that

    a national air service, the Trans-Canada Air Lines, was to be inaugurated

    in the very near future. The successful operation of a scheduled air service

    depends to a great extent on an accurate knowledge of present weather and weather

    trends at a large number of points and the Meteorological Service was not

    equipped to provide such a detailed service. It was necessary to expand from

    a daytime organization issuing public weather forecasts only, to one operating

    on a 24-hour basis with a forecast staff at all the major air terminals. New

    observing stations had to be established and the frequency of observations

    at many stations had to be increased to hourly intervals. Training courses

    were begun immediately and when Trans-Canada Air Lines were ready to undertake

    their maiden flight in April 1937, the Meteorological Service was ready to

    fill their weather requirements.

            Two years later, the beginning of the Second World War

    necessitated another rapid expansion of the Meteorological Service. The main

    requirement at first was for additional staff to act as instructors and

    011      |      Vol_VII-0335                                                                                                                  
    forecasters at Air Force operational and training centres. After the United

    States entered the war, weather reports were needed from several routes which

    were used for the large-scale ferrying of aircraft to various theatres of

    operation. The main routes were from Edmonton to Fairbanks, Winnipeg to

    Greenland and from Newfoundland to England.

            The Meteorological Service of Canada could not undertake to

    establish a large number of stations in the sub-Arctic and Arctic owing to a

    critical shortage of staff and equipment and an agreement was made with the

    United States that the new stations which were required would be operated either

    entirely by the United States or with United States assistance. The basic

    agreement was that Canada would be responsible for operating all installations

    which were considered to be an essential part of the general meteorological

    system of Canada and that the United States would be permitted to instal and

    operate supplementary meteorological facilities for the duration of the war. At

    the end of the war most of the stations established by the United States were

    closed and the remainder were taken over by Canada as rapidly as staff became

    available.

            The main expansion of the Meteorological Service during the

    postwar period has been in the Arctic. The increasing interest in Arctic weather

    phenomena which was intensified during the war years was crystallized into a

    definite blueprint for the establishment of a network of weather stations in the

    Canadian Arctic Islands. Canada and the United States made an agreement to

    jointly establish and operate a series of Arctic weather stations to be located

    012      |      Vol_VII-0336                                                                                                                  
    approximately 500 miles apart in the Canadian Arctic. The first of these

    stations was established on Slidre Fiord on Ellesmere Island in April 1947 and

    the second on Cornwallis Island in September of the same year. Two more

    stations were established in April 1948, one on Prince Patrick Island, and

    the other on Ellef Ringnes Island. A fifth station is being established this

    year (1950) near the northermost tip of Ellesmere Island.

            The completion of this Arctic program will provide an adequate

    network of Arctic stations for present meteorological needs. On January 1, 1950, the

    Canadian Meteorological Service was receiving weather reports from 1088 stations,

    of which 128 are located in the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions. The point has

    been reached where an additional increase in the number of reporting stations

    in Canada would probably produce no noticeable improvement in weather forecasting.

    The main problem facing the Meteorological Service at the present time is to

    utilize the data which is are available and attempt to improve the technique and

    methods of forecasting, for it is unfortunately true, as in Stupart’s day, that

    forecasts are still “liable to occasional error.”

            The growth of the Meteorological Service from 1839 to 1950 is

    illustrated in the following table. The number of observing stations in

    operation at the end of each Director’s term of office is given. In the case

    of the present Controller, the number of stations shown is the number in

    operation on January 1, 1950.

    013      |      Vol_VII-0337                                                                                                                  

    Director Term of office No. of stations
    Lt. C.J.B. Riddell, R.A. 1839-1841 1
    Capt. J.H. Lefroy, R.A. 1841-1853 1
    Prof. J.B. Cherriman, M.A. 1853-1855 1
    Prof. G.T. Kingston, M.A. 1855-1880 123
    C. Carpmael, M.A. 1880-1894 285
    Sir Frederic Stupart, K.B. 1894-1929 835
    Dr. J. Patterson, O.B.E., M.A., L.L.D. 1929-1946 984
    A. Thomson, O.B.E., M.A. 1946- 1088



    014      |      Vol_VII-0338                                                                                                                  

            HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN ARCTIC AND SUB-ARCTIC WEATHER STATIONS

            The need for weather reporting stations in Canada’s Arctic

    and sub-Arctic regions was recognized in the earliest days of the Canadian

    Meteorological Service, especially when the construction of synoptic weather

    charts for forecast purposes was begun in 1872. However, the establishment

    of northern stations was a slow process owing to lack of funds, lack of

    communications and the relative inaccessibility of these regions.

            For the purposes of this article, considerations of density

    of population, communications, transportation, climate and mature of terrain

    have made it desirable to define the southern boundary of sub-Arctic Canada

    as follows:

            The 55th parallel across British Columbia, Alberta and

    Saskatchewan to the Manitoba border, then a line through Flin Flon and the

    Pas across Manitoba to where the 51st parallel crosses the Manitoba-Ontario

    border; thence eastward along the 51st parallel to the Quebec border and from

    there to Dolbeau, just north of Lake St. John; from Dolbeau to Caribou Point

    and from there along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River through the

    Straits of Belle Isle.

            Much of our early knowledge of weather conditions in the

    Canadian Arctic has been abstracted from the logs of Arctic expeditions. An

    important publication which lists the meteorological observations of 36

    expeditions during the period 1819-1858 is “Contributions to Our Knowledge of

    the Meteorology of the Arctic Regions, Vol. I, H.M. Stationery Office, 1885”.

    The length of the individual records varies but usually covers a period of

    from one to two years.



    015      |      Vol_VII-0339                                                                                                                  

            After 1871, the Meteorological Service of Canada began a

    systematic program of establishing northern stations by enlisting the aid of

    the Hudson’s Bay Company, missionaries and the North-West (later Royal

    Canadian) Mounted Police. In July 1873, six cases of instruments were sent

    to the Right Reverend Lord Bishop of Rupert’s Land, St. John’s College,

    Winnipeg, for distribution to mission stations under his jurisdiction. In

    1882, Carpmael made arrangements through the Minister of the Interior for

    observations to be taken at all North-West Mounted Police stations.

            As the sub-Arctic became more settled during the early

    part of the 20th century, the number of observing stations gradually

    increased, with the observations being taken by private individuals and

    employees of commercial and mining companies. This expansion was very

    noticeable in the Peace River district where a large number of observing

    stations were opened up during the period 1910-1935. At many of these

    stations instruments were supplied by the Meteorological Service and the

    observations were taken without pay. At other stations, a small allowance

    was given to the observer, but this was usually less than $100 per annum.

            The bulk of the information which we possess concerning

    the climate of Labrador prior to 1900 has been obtained from the records kept

    at the mission stations which were established along the Labrador coast by the

    Moravian Brethren. In 1765, Jens Haven, who had worked among the Greenland

    Eskimoes, arrived in Labrador with three Moravian Brethren to do missionary

    work. Permission for the project was granted by Commodore Sir High Palliser,

    the governor of Newfoundland. In the years which followed, missions were

    016      |      Vol_VII-0340                                                                                                                  
    established by the Moravian Brethren at Nain in 1770, Okkak in 1775, Hopedale

    in 1781, Hebron in 1829, Zoar in 1865, Ramah in 1871, Makkovik in 1900 and

    Killinek in 1904. Zoar, Ramah and Killinek have since been abandoned.

            The observations which were taken at these stations were

    forwarded to Hamburg. Germany, and have been published in the volumes of

    “Deutsche Uberseeische Meteoroloigsche Beobachtungen, herausgegeben von der

    Deutschen Seewarte”. In 1926, the Meteorological Service of Canada authorized

    an allowance to be paid to the Moravian Mission at Nain, and since then the

    records from this station have been forwarded directly to the Meteorological

    Service.

            In the latter 1920’s government radio stations were opened

    at various points in the North-West Territories such as Aklavik, Coppermine,

    Fort Norman, Fort Simpson and Fort Smith, for example, for the purpose of

    gathering and transmitting meteorological data as well and handling commercial

    messages. The outbreak of war in 1939 and the corresponding increase in

    military flying over Arctic regions necessitated the establishment of additional

    northern stations in Canada. This was especially true after the United States

    entered the war in 1941. Aircraft were ferried to Alaska, the Aleutians and

    the U.S.S.R. by way of northwestern Canada, and to the United Kingdom, Iceland

    and Greenland by way of northeastern Canada. Many of these wartime stations

    were established and operated either wholly by the United States or with their

    assistance.



    017      |      Vol_VII-0341                                                                                                                  

            Meteorological observations have been taken in the

    Canadian Arctic during the numerous voyages of the Canadian Government ice–

    breakers C.G.S. Arctic and N.B. McLean, the Hudson’s Bay Company vessel S.S.

    Nascopie which foundered off the north coast of Baffin Land in 1947 and the

    R.C.M.P. vessel St. Roch. Climatic data and meteorological observations were

    also recorded on most of the Canadian Geological Survey expeditions to various

    parts of northern Canada. These records are to be found in the Annual Reports

    of the Geological Survey of Canada.

            The Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic stations at which

    meteorological observations are known to have been taken are given in the

    following list.

            Classification:

            Class I - A station where standard equipment consists of a mercurial

    barometer, wet . , dry, maximum and minimum thermometers, anemometer, barograph

    and rain gauge. At most of these stations complete observations are taken

    four times daily at fixed synoptic hours, viz. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 EST.

    At the stations designated by “T”, the synoptic reports are immediately

    communicated by means of radio and telegraph to the teletype network linking

    all forecast offices in Canada.

            Class II - A station where the equipment consists of a maximum and

    minimum thermometer and a rain gauge ordinarily, although at a few the

    equipment is more extensive.



    018      |      Vol_VII-0342                                                                                                                  

            Class III - The meteorological equipment consists of a rain gauge only.

            Class IIIm - A rainfall reporting station in operation during the

    summer months only.

            F - indicates that weather forecasts are issued.

            A - indicates that the observations are taken at an airport.

            P - indicates that the station was in operation on January 1, 1950.

            a - indicates that position is approximate.

            b - indicates broken record.

    019      |      Vol_VII-0343                                                                                                                  

    Station Class Lat. °N Long. °W Height in

    ft. above

    sea level
    Years of

    operation
    First

    Observer
    Remarks
    British Columbia
    Aiyansh IIIP 55°16′ 129°9′ 500 1924- M.M. Priestley
    Anyox II 55°27′ 129°48′ 370 1916-1935 F.E. Patton
    Atlin I 59°35′ 133°38′ 2240 1899-1946 R. Patrick
    Babine Lake IIP 55°8′ 126°18′ 2230 1910- (b) F. Durham Observations 1910-

    1936 at Babine Lake

    Hatchery.
    Beatton River(A) IIP 57°23′ 121°25′ 2755 1944- Dept. of Transport
    Camp Blueberry I 56°44′ 121°47′ 3094 1943-1645 U.S.A.A.F.
    Coal River I 59°40′ 127°15′ 1660 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Dawson Creek I 55°45′ 120°15′ 2203 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Dease Lake ITP 58°25′ 130°0′ 2678 1943- (b) U.S.A.A.F. Station operated by

    Dept. of Transport

    since Oct. 1946.
    Echo Lake II 56°56′ 130°16′ 3714 1924-1926 A. McKay
    Engineer II 59°30′ 134°15′ 2160 1925-1929 C.E. Gilerich
    Finlay Forks ITP 56°0′ 123°49′ 1900 1943- U.S.A.A.F. Taken over by Domin–

    ion Gov’t. Telegraph

    in 1945.
    Fort Nelson(A) ITP 58°50′ 122°35′ 1230 1937- United Air Lines Operated by Dept. of

    Transport since 1942.

    Radiosonde station.



    020      |      Vol_VII-0344                                                                                                                  
    Station Class Lat. °N Long.°W Height in

    ft. above

    sea level
    Years of

    operation
    First

    Observer
    Remarks
    British Columbia Cont’d
    Fort St. John

    (Baldonnel)
    IIP 56°12′ 120°49′ 2500 1910- c. c. Campbell Observations also

    taken a few miles

    away by Dr. H.A.W.

    Brown from 1933-1945.
    Fort St. John (A) ITP 56°14′ 120°44′ 2275 1942- Dept. of Transport
    Hudson Hope I 56°5′ 121°55′ 1606 1916-1944 F. Monteith
    Ingenika Mine II 56°45′ 125°0′ 2500 1932-1939 E. Buchann
    Log Cabin I 59°46′ 134°59′ 2900 1943-1947 U.S.A.A.F. Operated by Canada

    after Feb. 1946.
    Lower Post I 59°57′ 128°39′ 1830 1937-1938 United Air Lines Observing station

    transferred to Watson

    Lake in 1938.
    McDames Creek II 59°12′ 119°12′ ---- 1937-1941 B.C. Provincial

    Police
    Mill Bay IIP 55°0′ 129°45′ 10 1915- W.D. Noble
    Morley River I 59°53′ 131°46′ ---- 1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Muncho Lake I 58°55′ 125°46′ 2724 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    New Hazelton IIP 55°15′ 127°35′ 1150 1914- W.J. Larkworthy
    Pouce Coupe II 55°43′ 120°8′ 2000 1926-1939 A. Chalmers
    Premier IIP 56°3′ 130°1′ 1371 1926- W.H. Pettman
    Progress II 55°50′ 120°10′ 2800 1942-1948 H. Bentley



    021      |      Vol_VII-0345                                                                                                                  
    Rolla II 55°41′ 120°21′ 2400 1920-1924 E.S. Jephson
    Silver Creek

    (Oninica)
    II 55°30′ 126°0′ ---- 1943-1945 Takla Mercury Mines
    Slate Creek II 55°45′ 124°45′ 3200 1936-1938 W. Ogilvie
    Smith River (A) ITP 59°52′ 126°30′ 2208 1944- Dept. of Transport
    Stewart IIP 56°1′ 130°1′ 4 1910 W. H. Manton
    Summit Lake I 58°39′ 124°38′ 4146 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Sweetwater III 55°52′ 120°30′ 2600 1933-1946 W.S. Simpson
    Takla Landing I 55°29′ 125°58′ 2273 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Telegraph Creek I 57°54′ 131°9′ 550 1942-1948 Dept. of Transport Some Observations

    taken 1924-1928 by

    F.N. Jackson.
    Trout Liard I 59°31′ 126°2′ 1388 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Trutch IIP 57°48′ 122°54′ 2813 1943- (b) U.S.A.A.F. U.S.A.A.F. withdrew

    1945. Re-opened by

    Canada Sept. 1948.
    YUKON
    Aishihik(A) ITP 61°37′ 137°31′ 3170 1943- Dept. of Transport
    Brooks Brook I 60°30′ 133°23′ 2365 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Canyon Creek I 60°52′ 137°8′ 2130 1943-1946 U.S.A.A.F.
    Carcross IIP 60°11′ 134°34′ 2171 1907- P Reid. Station closed

    1948-1949.
    Dawson ITP 64°4′ 139°29′ 1062 1897- W. Ogilvie,

    Commissioner of

    the Territory
    Radio station

    established in 1925

    and observations

    taken over by Royal

    Can. Crops of Signals



    022      |      Vol_VII-0346                                                                                                                  
    Davils Pass I 60°31′ 134°10′ 2220 1943-1944 U.S.A.A.F.
    Elsa IIP 64° 135°30′(a) ---- 1948- Keno Hill Mining Co..
    Fish Lake I 60°10′ 132°3′ 2845 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Flight Strip#6(A) I 60°40′ 113°28′ 2770 1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Flight Strip#8(A) I 61°25′ 139°7′ 2575 1944-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Fort Constantine II 64°0′ 140°0′ ---- 1895-1897 N.W.M.P.
    Forty Mile II 64°30′ 140°30′ 1000 1937-1928 J.E. Ellis
    Frances Lake IIP 61°17′ 129°24′ 2425 1941- Hudson’s Bay Co. Pressure observations

    available for part

    of period.
    Kluane Lake II 60°56′ 138°20′ ---- 1946 H.J. Brooks
    Mayo ITP 63°35′ 135°51′ 1625 1925- Royal Can. Corps

    of Signals
    Orchie Lake I 62°10′ 131°45′ ---- 1944-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Pine Creek IIP 60°50′ 137°33′ 2030 1944- Dom. Experimental

    Sub-Station
    Rampart House II 67°30′ 134°30′ ---- 1874-1879 J. McDougal, H.B.Co. Observations discon–

    tinued when McDougall

    Moved to Dunvegan.
    Rancheria I 60°5′ 130°10′ 2770 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Ross River I 62°2′ 132°25′ 2316 1943-1944 U.S.A.A.F.
    Selkirk IIP 62°46′ 137°25′ ---- 1941- Dom. Govt. Telegraph Some observations by

    N.W.M. Police 1898-

    1899.



    023      |      Vol_VII-0347                                                                                                                  
    Sang(A) ITP 62°22′ 140°24′ 1925 1943- Dept. of Transport Lowest temperature

    in North America,

    −81.4°F, recorded

    here on Feb. 3, 1947.
    Stewart River IIP 63°20′ 139°25′ ---- 1941- Dom. Govt.

    Telegraph
    Visual airways

    observations only.
    Swede Creek II 64°6′ 139°45′ 1050 1919-1929 J.R. Farr
    Swift River I 60°0′ 131°5′ 3415 1943-1946 U.S.A.A.F.
    Tagish Lake II 60°17′ 134°15′ ---- 1898-1900 N.W.M. Police
    Teslin(A) ITP 60°10′ 132°44′ 2300 1943- Dept. of Transport
    Victoria Gulch III 62°0′ 137°10′(a) ---- 1905-1906 P. Holloway
    Watson Lake(A) ITP 60°7′ 128°48′ 2248 1939- Dept. of Transport
    Whitehorse II 60°45′ 135°0′ 2075 1900-1911(b) E.D. Bolton
    Whitehorse(A) ITFP 60°43′ 135°5′ 2289 1940- Dept. of Transport Radiosonde station.
    NORTH WEST TERRITORIES
    Aklavik ITP 68°14′ 134°50′ 25 1926- R.C.C.S. Radiosonde station.
    Arctic Bay ITP 73°0′ 85°18′ 36 1937- H.B. Co. Radiosonde station.

    Operated by Dept. of

    Transport after 1945.

    Observation taken

    1910-11 when Capt.

    Bernier’s expedition

    wintered there.
    Ashe Inlet I 62°33′ 70°35′ 100 1844-1886 W.A. Ashe Observing station

    during Dom. Govt.

    expedition to

    Hudson Bay &

    Strait, 1884-1886.



    024      |      Vol_VII-0348                                                                                                                  
    Bache Peninsula I 79°10′ 76°45′ 10 1930-1933 R.C.M. Police
    Baker Lake ITP 64°18′ 96°5′ 30 1946- R.C.C.S. Radiosonde station.
    Cambridge Bay ITP 69°7′ 105°1′ 45 1935- Rev. R. Thomas Observations taken

    in 1852-1853 by

    expedition commanded

    by Capt. Richard

    Collinson in the

    “Enterprise ” and in

    1927-1928 by officers

    of C.G.S. “Baymaud”.
    Camsell River II 63°30′ 112°0′ -- 1933-1934 W.G. Stuart
    Cape Dorset II 64°15′ 76°25′ 40 1915-1927(b) S.J. Stewart
    Chesterfield Inlet ITP 63°20′ 90°43′ 13 1921- Rev. Father R.T.A.

    Turquetel, R.C.

    Mission.
    Marine radio station

    established in Sept.

    1930. One of

    Canadian bases during

    Second International

    Polar Year, 1932-1933
    Clyde River ITP 70°25′ 68°17′ 26 1943- U.S.A.A.F. Observations by

    J.G. Cormack of H.B.

    Co. 1933-1935.

    Radiosonde station.

    Operating taken over

    by Canada in 1948.
    Coppermine ITP 67°47′ 115°15′ 13 1930- R.C.C.S. Radiosonde station.

    One of Canadian bases

    during Second Inter–

    national Polar Year,

    1932-1933.
    Coral Harbour(A) ITP 64°11′ 83°17′ 193 1943- U.S.A.A.F. Taken over by Canada

    in 1945. Radiosonde

    station. Observa–

    tions taken 1933-

    1935 by H.P. Dionne

    H.B. [ ?]



    025      |      Vol_VII-0349                                                                                                                  
    Craig Harbour I 76°12′ 79°35′ 12 1922-1939 (b) R.C.M. Police Post abandoned in

    1939.
    Dundas Harbour IP 74°34′ 82°10′ 18 1945- R.C.M. Police Observations by

    R.C.M.P. 1930-1933.
    Ennadal Lake ITP 61°8′ 100°55′ 875 1949- R.C.C.S.
    Eskimo Point I 61°7′ 94°3′ 25 1943-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Eureka ITP 80°13′ 86°11′ 8 1947- Dept. of Transport

    and U.S. Weather

    Bureau
    Radiosonde station.

    Operated jointly by

    U.S. and Canada.
    Fort Franklin III 65°20′ 123°0′ 500 1930 only ------- Winter quarters of

    Sir John Franklin’s

    land expedition

    1825-1826.
    Fort Good Hope IIP 66°15′ 128°38′ 214 1896- (b) Rev. P. Seguin,

    R.C. Mission de

    Norte Dame de Bonne

    Esperance.
    Instruments moved to

    Fort Norman in 1904,

    returned in 1908.
    Fort Good Hope ITP 66°15′ 128°38′ 251 1944- R.C.C.S.
    Fort Liard II 66°30′ 124°0'(a) 500 1892-1893 Rev. T.J. Marsh,

    Anglican Mission
    Rev. Marsh moved to

    Hay River in 1893

    and took instruments

    with him.
    Fort McPherson IIP 67°26′ 134°53′ 150 1892- Rev. J.O. Stringer

    and Count V.E. de

    Sainville.
    Rev. Stringer trans–

    ferred to Herschel

    Island in 1897.
    Fort Norman ITP 64°54′ 125°30′ 300 1904- Rev. G. Houssais,

    R.C. Mission
    Instruments brought

    from Fort Good Hope

    in 1904. Radio

    station established

    in 1930 and observa–

    tions taken over by

    R.C.C.S.



    026      |      Vol_VII-0350                                                                                                                  
    Fort Rae I 62°40′ 115°45′ 540 1875-1886 (b) A. Flett, H.B. Co. Instruments taken up

    by Bishop of

    McKenzie River in

    1875. Joint British–

    Canadian station

    during first Interna–

    tional Polar Year

    1882-1883, and base

    for British axpedi–

    tion during Second

    International Polar

    Year 1932-1933. Some

    observations taken

    1934-1936 by R.A.

    Ingrey.
    Fort Reliance ITP 62°43′ 109°6′ 515 1948- R.C.C.S.
    Fort Resolution(A) ITP 61°10′ 113°41′ 519 1875- (b) R. Swanston Records incomplete

    from 1875-1912.

    Observations taken at

    R.C. Mission until

    1930. Radio station

    established in 1930

    and observations

    taken over by R.C.C.S.

    Airport opened March

    1943.
    Fort Ross I 71°55′ 94°15′ 50 1937-1948 (b) H.B. Co. Personnel evacuated

    in Nov. 1943, when

    supply ship unable

    to reach Fort Ross

    during 1942 and 1943.

    Station re-opened

    Oct. 1944 and closed

    in March 1948.
    Fort Simpson ITP 61°52′ 121°21′ 415 1875- (b) Rev. A.C. Carrioch,

    St. David’s Mission
    Records incomplete

    from 1875-1894.

    Barometer and other



    027      |      Vol_VII-0351                                                                                                                  
    instruments left

    here by V.

    Stefansson in 1908.

    Radio station

    established in 1924

    and observations

    begun by RCCS. Obser–

    vations at mission

    discontinued in 1927.
    Fort Simpson(A) I 61°52′ 121°13′ 572 1943-1946 USAAF and Dept.

    of Transport
    USAAF withdrew in

    1945.
    Fort Smith I 60°0′ 111°52′ 680 1911-1946 A.J. Bell Observations taken

    at RCCS radio station

    after 1928
    Fort Smith(A) ITP 60°1′ 111°58′ 665 1943- USAAF and Dept.

    of Transport
    Radiosonde station.

    USAAF withdrew in

    1945.
    Hay River I 60°50′ 115°32′ 529 1893-1943 Rev. T.J. Marsh,

    Anglican Mission
    Mission station

    discontinued when

    observations begun

    at Hay River airport

    in 1943.
    Hay River(A) ITP 60°53′ 115°46′ 529 1943- U.S.A.A.F. Station taken over

    by RCCS in 1945.
    Herschel Island II 69°30′ 139°15′ 15 1896-1928 (b) Capt. G. Leavitt Observations taken

    over by Anglican

    Mission 1897-1906

    when mission was

    closed and instru–

    ments were left in

    charge of N.W.M.

    Police. No records

    received from 1906-

    1916. Broken series

    of observations

    taken by Cecillia

    Harding from 1916-

    1928.



    028      |      Vol_VII-0352                                                                                                                  
    Holman Island ITP 70°30′ 117°38′ 30 1939- W.L.T. Smith

    of H.B. Co.
    Station transferred

    here from Walker Bay.
    Indin Lake ITP 64°16′ 115°14′ 900 1948- Trans-American

    Mining Corporation
    Isachsen ITP 78°47′ 103°32′ 83 1948- Dept. of Transport

    and U.S. Weather

    Bureau
    Station operated

    jointly by U.S. and

    Canada. Established

    by airlift from

    Resolute in April,

    1948. Radiosonde

    station.
    Kazan River I 61°34′ 100°40′ 800 1945-1946 R.C.A.F.
    Kittigazuit ITP 69°17′ 133°56′ 92 1948- R.C.A.F
    Lake Harbour I 62°50′ 69°55′ 54 1909-1948 Archbishop L.

    Fleming, Anglican

    Mission.
    Mills Lake I 61°16′ 118°45′ 484 1943-1944 U.S.A.A.F.
    Mould Bay ITP 76°14′ 119°50′ 50 1948- Dept. of Transport

    and U.S.A.A.F.
    Operated jointly

    by Canada and U.S.

    Established by air–

    life from Resolute

    in April, 1948.

    Radiosonde station.
    Norman Wells I 65°18′ 126°51′ 270 1946-1949 Dept. of Transport
    Norman Wells(A) ITP 65°17′ 126°49′ 270 1949- Dept. of Transport Observing station

    maintained here by

    USAAF from 1943-1946.
    Nottingham Island ITP 63°7′ 77°56′ 54 1927- Dept. of Transport,

    Marine Radio station



    029      |      Vol_VII-0353                                                                                                                  
    Nueltin Lake I 60°30′ 99°0′ --- 1939-1941 J.A. Crafford Some observations

    in 1945 by RCAF

    survey party.
    Padloping Island IP 67°6′ 62°21′ 130 1941- (b) U.S.A.A.E. Continuation of

    this station

    recommended by

    I.C.A.O.
    Pangnirtung IP 66°9′ 65°30′ 43 1923- R.C.M. Police
    Pond Inlet IP 72°43′ 78°30′ 13 1923- (b) R.C.M. Police
    Port de

    Boucherville
    I 63°12′ 77°28′ -- 1884-1886 C. de Boucherville Observing station

    maintained during

    Hudson Straits

    expedition, 1884-

    1886.
    Port Laperriere I 62°35′ 78°1′ -- 1884-1886 A.M. Laperriere Observing station

    on Digges Island

    during Hudson

    Straits expedition

    1884-1886.
    Port Radium ITP 66°5′ 11°82′ 600 1937- (b) R.C.C.S. Station closed

    1940-1942.
    Providence(A) ITP 61°20′ 117°40′ 529 1943- U.S.A.A.F. Station taken over

    by R.C.C.S. in 1945.
    Resolute ITP 74°41′ 94°55′ 56 1947- Dept. of Transport

    and U.S. Weather

    Bureau
    Station operated

    jointly by Canada

    and U.S. Radiosonde

    station.
    Resolution Island ITP 61°18′ 64°53′ 127 1929- Dept. of Transport

    Marine Radio station
    Station moved here

    from Port Burwell.
    Sawmill E(A) I 65°44′ 118°55′ --- 1948-1949 R.C.A.F.



    030      |      Vol_VII-0354                                                                                                                  
    Snare River II 63°30′ 116°0′ 600 1947-1948 R. Coutts and

    B.F. Russell
    Trout Lake I 60°45′ 121°30′ 1650 1944-1945 U.S.A.A.F.
    Tuktoyaktuk IIP 69°30′ 133°0′ (a) --- 1948- Anglican Mission
    Upper Frobisher(A) ITP 63°44′ 68°33′ 68 1942- U.S.A.A.F. Radiosonde station.

    Operation to be taken

    over by Canada in

    1950.
    Walker Bay I 71°30′ 117°50′ 27 1938-1939 H.B. Co. Station transferred to

    Holman Island in 1939.
    Wrigley(A) ITP 63°13′ 123°28′ 511 1947- R.C.C.S. Observing station

    operated by USAAF

    1943-1946.
    Yellowknife II 62°28′ 114°20′ 515 1941-1942 A.L. Arsenault Observations taken at

    Con Mine.
    Yellowknife IIP 63°14′ 114°25′ --- 1943- Yellowknife Hydro
    Yellowknife(A) ITP 62°28′ 114°27′ 656 1942 R.C.C.S. and Dept.

    of Transport
    ALBERTA
    Beaverlodge ITP 55°10′ 119°19′ 2500 1926- Experimental Farm
    Berwyn (Bear Lake) IIP 56°10′ 117°47′ 2000 1934- (b) H. L. Dundas Station closed 1940-

    1949.
    Buffalo Head

    Prairie
    IIP 58°10′ 116°20′ 950 1932- T.R. Smith
    Daysland II 55°52′ 112°17′ 2260 1908-19 2 2 D. Davidson



    031      |      Vol_VII-0355                                                                                                                  
    (Fort ) Dunvegan II 55°56′ 118°35′ 1305 1880-1943(b) J. McDougall,

    H.B. Co.
    Station closed in 1888

    and instruments for–

    warded to Fort Vermil–

    lion. Reopened in 1904
    Edson II 55°33′ 116°25′ 2985 1916-1940(b) D.H. Felker
    Elmworth II 55°4′ 119°40′ 2450 1926- G.S. Moyer
    Embarrass(A) ITP 58°12′ 111°23′ 775 1943- U.S.A.A.F. Taken over by Canada

    in 1945.
    Fairview ITP 56°4′ 118°23′ 2160 1931- J.G. Bryden
    Fort Chipewyan I 58°43′ 111°9′ 714 1874-1940 A. MacFarlane

    H.B. Co.
    Observations irregular

    1874-1886. In 1885,

    instruments received

    from Fort Rae which

    had been left by First

    Intern. Polar Year

    Expedition and observa–

    tions begun by

    Archdaecon W.D. Reeve

    of Anglican Mission.
    Fort McMurray I 56°44′ 111°23′ 829 1908-1944 W. Gordon Radio station esta–

    blished in 1934 and

    observations taken

    over by RCCS.
    Fort Vermilion IIP 58°23′ 116°3′ 950 1905- Rev. A.S. White ,

    Anglican Mission
    Instruments received

    from Dunvegan in 1889,

    but the prospective

    observer declined to

    serve without pay and

    station not opened

    until 1905. Observa–

    tions taken at

    Experimental Farm since

    1908 and mission

    station discontinued

    in 1919.



    032      |      Vol_VII-0356                                                                                                                  
    Goodfare II 55°16′ 119°42′ 2700 1929-1933 V.J. Young
    Goodwin (De Bolt) II 55°11′ 118°12′ 1600 1931-1937 (b) J. P. Grant
    Grande Prairie (A) ITP 55°10′ 118°53′ 2190 1922- (b) W. H. Pearson Station closed in

    1937 and reopened

    by Dept. of Transport

    in 1942.
    Grimshaw II 56°12′ 112°36′ 2001 1945-1949 C.W. Purcell
    Gronard II 55°35′ 116°9′ 1900 1884-1945 (b) W.E. Traill,

    H.B. Co.
    Incomplete records

    1884-1896 and no

    records 1896-1909.
    High Prairie IIP 55°28′ 116°30′ 1968 1926- S. Harris
    Keg River ITP 57°47′ 117°50′ 1402 1935- Dom. Govt.

    Telegraph
    Kinuso II 55°20′ 115°26′ 1928 1927-1948 Mrs. W.L. McKillop
    McMurray(A) ITP 56°39′ 111°13′ 1216 1943- USAAF Taken over by Dept. of

    Transport in Dec. 1944.
    Peace River(A) ITP 56°14′ 117°26′ 1820 1949- C.P. Airlines Observations taken 1944-

    1945 by USAAF.
    Peace River Crossing II 56°15′ 117°15′ 1225 1907-1936 H.A. George Irregular observations

    taken for few years

    after 1882 by Rev.

    J.G. Brink of Christ

    Church Mission.
    Puskwaskau IIImP 55°28′ 118°3′ 2000 1944- Alberta Forest

    Service
    Rycroft

    (Silverwood)
    II 55°46′ 118°45′ 1983 1931-1937 F.V. Platzer



    033      |      Vol_VII-0357                                                                                                                  
    Sasakatoon Mountain IIImP 55°15′ 119°21′ ---- 1942- Alberta Forest

    Service
    Shaftesbury II 56°6′ 117°45′ ---- 1907-1908 Miss L. Millen
    Slave Lake

    (Sawridge)
    IIP 55°20′ 114°49′ 1905 1926- Alberta Forest

    Service
    South Beaver Lodge II 55°20′ 119°24′ 1400 1927-1930 V.C. Flint
    Spirit River II 55°40′ 118°47′ ---- 1910-1911 A.M. Josse
    Valleyview I 55°5′ 117°15′ 2419 1944-1945 USAAF
    Wabasca II 56°2′ 113°0′ 1720 1934-1947 St. John’s Indian

    Res. School
    Wagner(A) ITP 55°21′ 114°59′ 1915 1943- USAAF Taken over by Dept. of

    Transport in Jan. 1946.
    Wembley II 55°9′ 119°8′ 2400 1926-1932 B.J. Smith
    SASKATCHEWAN
    Beaver River

    (Ile a la Crosse)
    II 55°26′ 107°44′ ---- 1929-1941 J.C. Taylor
    Fond du Lac II 59°20′ 107°10′ 700 1905-1938 Rev. A. Beihler Instruments received

    from Fort Chipewyan in

    1905.
    Island Falls ITP 55°32′ 102°21′ 982 1929- Churchill River

    Power Co.
    Observations taken by

    USAAF 1943-1945 and by

    Island Falls Community

    Club after 1945.
    Island Falls(2) IIP 55°35′ 102°26′ ---- 1938- Churchill River

    Power Co.
    Station located on

    Churchill River, 13

    miles from town of

    Island Falls.



    034      |      Vol_VII-0358                                                                                                                  
    Island Falls(3) II 55°34′ 102°47′ ---- 1938-1944 Churchill River

    Power Co.
    Station located on

    Churchill River 38

    miles from town of

    Island Falls.
    Lac la Ronge II 55°8′ 105°23′ 1250 1921-1942(b) A. McKay
    Pelican Narrows II 55°8′ 102°54′ ---- 1929-1930 District Forest

    Inspector
    Stanley Mission II 56°0′ 105°0′ ---- 1910-1940(b) Rev. J. Brown Met. Service shipped

    instruments here in

    1877 but no records

    received until 1910.
    Whitesand

    (Rocky Falls)
    IIP 56°20′ 103°15′ ---- 1938- Churchill River

    Power Co.
    MANITOBA
    Berens River IIP 5 2 °18′ 97°2′ 720 1890- H.E. Plunkett,

    H.B. Co.
    F.A. Disbrowe, H.B. Co.

    post manager took the

    observations from 1908

    until his death in

    1943.
    Brochet ITP 57°53′ 101°40′ 1180 1948- RCCS
    (Fort) Churchill ITP 58°47' 94°11′ 44 1884- J.R. Spencer,

    H.B. Co.
    Marine Radio station

    opened 1928 and took

    over observations.

    Danish expedition

    commanded by Jens Munck

    wintered here 1619-1620 .

    Harbour rediscovered by

    Capt. Luke Fox e in 1631.

    H.B. Co., built trading

    post in 1715.



    035      |      Vol_VII-0359                                                                                                                  
    Churchill(A) ITP 58°45′ 94°5′ 115 1943- USAAF Taken over by Dept. of

    Transport in 1945.

    Radiosonde station.
    Duck Lake I 59°30′ 97°30′ 890 1943-1946 USAAF
    Flin Flon ITP 54°45′ 101°49′ 1025 1927- Hudson Bay Mining

    and Smelting Co.
    Gillam ITP 56°21′ 94°46′ 454 1943- USAAF Taken over by Dept. of

    Transport in July 1945.
    God’s Lake I 54°50′ 94°50′ 610 1933-1944 Canadian Airways
    Herb Lake II 54°45′ 99°30′ 800 1924-1927 F.W. Robinson
    Hillview II 59°55′ 100°33′ 1400 1912-1921 H. Stevenson
    Little Grand Rapids I 51°35′ 95°15′ 998 1939-1944 R. Finch
    Nelson House II 55°49′ 98°57′ ---- 1937-1939 H. Thiboutot
    Norway House I 53°59′ 97°50′ 720 1884-1945(b) J.G. Christie,

    H.B. Co.
    Oxford House II 54°55′ 96°28′ 350 ----- ----- Abstract of early H.B.

    Co. temperature records

    given in Influence of

    Climate by J.

    Disturnell, 1866.
    Pakitawagan II 55°50′ 101°40′ ---- 1924-1926 Rev, J.T.A.

    Renaud
    Poplar River Post II 52°58′ 97°20′ (a) ---- 1888-1889 H.B. Co.
    Port Nelson I 57°0′ 92°51′ 49 1915-1929 A Sutherland

    H.B. Co.
    Observing station trans–

    ferred here from York

    Factory in 1915.



    036      |      Vol_VII-0360                                                                                                                  
    Split Lake II 56°11′ 96°11′ ---- 1911-1913 C.A. Fox
    The Pas ITP 53°49′ 101°15′ 890 1910- G. Halcrow
    The Pas(A) ITP 53°58′ 101°6′ 894 1943- USSAF Taken over by Dept. of

    Transport in Sept.

    1945. Radiosonde

    station.
    Wabowden ITP 54°54′ 98°28′ 764 1943- USAAF Taken over by Dept. of

    Transport in Oct. 1945.
    Wanless IIP 54°11′ 101°22′ 855 1935- R. W. Allen
    York Factory I 57°0′ 92°26′ 85 1772-1915(b) T. Hutchins

    H.B. Co.
    Observations taken by

    T. Hutchins of H.B. Co.

    1772-1773. Observa–

    tions taken by H.B. Co.

    1842-1854, 1864-1868

    and 1876-1883 are

    summarized in Report of

    the Hudson’s Bay Expedi–

    tion 1884-1886 by A.R.

    Gordon. Observing

    station transferred to

    Port Nelson in 1915.
    ONTARIO
    Fort Albany II 52°12′ 82°5′ ----- 1878-1881 H.B. Co. Returns received via

    Moose Factory.
    Fort Hope II 51°33′ 87°49′ 1100 1891-1924(b) D. Baxter,

    H.B. Co.
    All instruments burned

    in 1893 and station

    closed until 1900.
    Lansdowne House ITP 52°14′ 88°0′ 840 19 4 1- H.B. Co. Observations taken over

    by Dept. of Transport

    in 1945.



    037      |      Vol_VII-0361                                                                                                                  
    Marten’s Falls II 51°30′ 86°30′ ---- 1894-1900 J.G. Christie,

    H.B. Co.
    Christie moved to

    Fort Hope in 1900 and

    took instruments there.

    Some observations taken

    in 1878-1880 by J.

    Clark, of H.B. Co.
    Moose Factory I 51°14′ 80°30′ 29 1877-1938(b) J.R. Nason,

    H.B. Co.
    Station closed in 1938

    since observations

    were being taken in

    town of Moosonee.
    Moosonee ITP 51°16′ 80°39′ 34 1932- Proprietor of

    James Bay Inn.
    Radiosonde station.
    Pickle Lake ITP 51°28′ 90°15′ 1245 1938- C.P. Airlines Observations taken for

    two months in 1930 by

    F. Stapleton.
    Rat Rapids IIP 51°8′ 90°1′ 1180 1934- Hydro-Electric

    Power Commission.
    Red Lake ITP 51°2′ 93°50′ 1250 1938- C.P. Airlines Some observations

    taken in 1930 by A.E.

    Crump.
    Swains Lake II 51°17′ 93°20′ 1298 1933-34 R.E. Wright
    Trout Lake ITP 53°50′ 89°52′ 720 1915- (b) John Gregg,

    H.B. Co.
    Station closed 1930-

    1939. H.B. Co. re–

    summed observations in

    1939 and Dept. of

    Transport took them

    over in 1945.
    Woman Lake II 51°11′ 92°51′ 1282 1934-1937 L.E. Nelson Instruments transferred

    from Swains Lake in

    1934.



    038      |      Vol_VII-0362                                                                                                                  
    QUEBEC
    Clarke City I 50°12′ 66°38′ 186 1902-1947 F.N. Ritchie
    Dolbeau I 48°48′ 72°20′ 413 1930-1938 J.E. Morin
    Fort Chimo(A) ITP 58°5′ 68°25′ 112 1882- (b) L.M. Turner,

    Smithsonian Inst.
    Observations taken

    irregularly by H.B. Co.,

    employees 1885-1941.

    USAAF operated observ–

    ing station from 1942

    on. To be taken over

    by Dept. of Transport

    in 1950. Radiosonde

    station.
    Fort George IIP 53°50′ 79°5′ 320 1915- (b) O. Griffith Station closed 1944-48.
    Fort McKenzie ITP 56°63′ 69°3′ 250 1938- J.A. Heslop,

    H.B. Co.
    Station taken over by

    Dept. of Transport in

    1942.
    Great Whale River ITP 55°17′ 77°46′ 50 1925- (b) L.G. Maver,

    H.B. Co.
    Some observations taken

    in 1881 by H.B. Co.

    received via Moose

    Factory. Observations

    1888-1889 by G.A.

    Young on Yacht Alle.

    Station closed 1945-

    1946.
    Greenly Island II 51°22′ 57°12′ --- 1882-1889 ------ Sundial taken in by

    Stupart in 1883.
    Harrington Harbour ITP 50°32′ 59°30′ 25 1911- Miss Maud Cox Observations at Gren–

    fell Mission 1936-

    1944. Taken over by

    Dept. of Transport in

    1944.



    039      |      Vol_VII-0363                                                                                                                  
    (Cape) Hope’s

    Advance
    ITP 61°5′ 69°33′ 240 1928- (b) Dept. of Transport,

    Marine Radio
    Station operated

    summers only from

    1934-1940; closed

    1940-1942. One of

    Canadian bases during

    Second International

    Polar Year. Wind of

    132 mph recorded in

    Dec. 1931.
    Indian House Lake ITP 56°2′ 64°44′ 1044 1944- I ( b) U.S.A.A.F. Taken over by Dept. of

    Transport in 1948.

    Continuation of this

    station recommended

    by ICAO. Station

    closed 1946-7.
    Knob Lake ITP 54°49′ 66°41′ 1550 1948- Hollinger Mining

    Co.
    Lake Dore

    (Chibougamau)
    ITP 49°54′ 74°18′ 1234 1936- Obalski Mining

    Corp.
    Lake Manuan ITP 50°38′ 70°32′ 1625 1942- Aluminum Co. of

    Canada
    Lake Norman I 52°0′ 63°20′ 1520 1942-1945 Quebec Airways
    Lake Onistagan II 50°45′ 71°25′ ---- 1944-1945 A. Robert
    Mecatina

    (Morhiban)
    ITP 51°50′ 62°53′ 1720 1943- (b) USAAF USAAF evacuated in

    1946. Reopened by

    Dept. of Transport in

    1948.
    Mingan(A) ITP 50°17′ 64°9′ 76 1943- USAAF To be taken over by

    Dept. of Transport in

    1950. Radiosonde

    equipment from Mingan

    to be transferred to

    Seven Islands in 1950.



    040      |      Vol_VII-0364                                                                                                                  
    Mistassini Post IIP 50°30′ 73°55′ 1255 1879- (b) H.B. Co. Observations irregular

    from 1879-1915.
    Natashquan ITP 50°12′ 61°49′ 18 1914- Rev. Father

    L. Garnier
    A storm signal station

    was established here

    in 1907.
    Nitchequon ITP 53°12′ 70°35′ 1690 1942- Dept. of

    Transport
    Radiosonde station.
    Passe N D angereuse IIP 49°53′ 71°16′ ---- 1942- Aluminum Co. of

    Canada
    Pentecote II 49°47′ 67°9′ ---- 1936-1938 B. Fleming
    Piaster Bay II 50°17′ 62°49′ ---- 1892 E. Werner
    Port Burwell I 60°25′ 64°51′ ---- 1884-1934(b) H.M. Burwell Observing station

    during Hudson Bay

    Expedition 1884-1886.

    Observations begun by

    RCM Police in 1929.

    Eskimo settlement

    called Killinek nearby.

    Settlement unoccupied

    since 1940.
    Port Harrison ITP 58°27′ 78°8′ 66 1921 L.A. Learmonth Some observations

    during 1901 by G.A.

    Young on Yacht Alle.

    Radiosonde station.
    Seven Islands(A) ITP 50°13′ 66°16′ 190 1944- Dept. of

    Transport
    Stupart’s Bay I 61°35′ 71°32′ ---- 1884-1886 R.F. Stupart Observing station

    during Hudson Bay

    expedition 1884-1886.



    041      |      Vol_VII-0365                                                                                                                  
    Tabouret II 50°18′ 68°34′ 2000 1937 L. Vaillencourt
    Wakeham Bay I 61°42′ 71°58′ ---- 1927-1928 Dept. of Trans–

    port Marine Radio
    Station moved to Hope’s

    aAdvance in 1928.
    LABRADOR
    Amour Point

    (Forteau)
    I 51°28′ 56°51′ 40 1876-1936 P. Godier Lighthouse station.
    Ashuanipi ITP 52°32′ 66°14′ 1790 1948- Hollinger

    Mining Co.
    Battle Harbour IIP 52°17′ 55°25′ 30 1893- (b) Dr. Babardt Station closed in 1900

    and instruments sent

    to North-West River.

    Reopened 1947.
    Bello Isle ITP 51°53′ 55°22′ 426 1871- M. Colton Lighthouse station.
    Cape Harrison ITP 54°44′ 58°19′ 65 1943- USAAF
    Cartwright ITP 53°42′ 57°0′ 34 1934- Can. Marconi Co.
    Davis Inlet II 55°52′ 60°50′ -- 1902 S. Cotter, H.B.

    Co.
    Goose (Bay) (A) ITFP 53°20′ 60°25′ 144 1941- Dept. of

    Transport
    Radiosonde station.

    Constructed to aid

    wartime North Atlantic

    flying. Since a

    similar air base in

    Newfoundland was named

    Gander, this station

    was named Goose.



    042      |      Vol_VII-0366                                                                                                                  
    Hebron IIP 58°12′ 63°37′ 50 1883- (b) Moravian Mission Observing station

    operated by USAAF

    1942-1946.
    Hopedale ITP 55°27′ 60°14′ 35 1867- (b) Moravian Mission Observations by

    Canadian Marconi Co.

    since 1942.
    Nain IIP 56°33′ 61°41′ 14 1883- (b) Moravian Mission For a long time Nain

    was the seat of the

    Moravian Bishop of

    Labrador and the

    German Consul.
    North West River I 53°3′ 60°10′ 12 1900-1942(b) S. Cotter,

    H.B. Co.
    Nutak IIP 57°28′ 60°50′ 5 1947- Dept. of Natural

    Resources, Nfld.
    Okkak II 57°34′ 62°3′ 20 1776-1889(b) Moravian Mission Settlement ravaged by

    influenza in 1918 and

    survivors formed a new

    community called Nutak

    a few miles to the

    south on the same

    island.
    Ramah II 58°53′ 62°21′ 10 1872-1889(b) Moravian Mission
    Rigolet II 54°8′ 57°12′ 40 1857-1863(b) H.B. Co.
    Sandgirt Lake I 53°50′ 65°30′ 1485 1937-1948(b) Labrador Mining &

    Exploration Co.
    Operated by Dept. of

    Transport after 1942.
    Skynner Cove I 59°10′ 63°20′ ---- 1884-1886 W. Skynner Observations during

    Hudson Bay Expedition

    1884-1885.
    Zoar II 56°7′ 61°22′ 40 1883-1902 Moravian Mission



    043      |      Vol_VII-0367                                                                                                                  

            Arctic Expeditions in Which the Canadian Meteorological Service Participated

            1. Lieut. J.H. Lefroy’s Journey to the North-West, 1843-4 . - After the

    Magnetic Observatory had been established in Canada in 1839, Colonel Sabine

    and Sir John Herschel, Bart, persuaded the Royal Society to sanction a

    magnetic survey of British possessions in North America. This survey was

    undertaken by Lieut. J.H. Lefroy who had been placed in charge of the obser–

    vatory at Toronto in 1841. The survey covered a route which extended from

    Montreal to Hudson Bay and as far north as Fort Good Hope. The survey party

    travelled by means of canoe transport provided by the Hudson’s Bay Company.

            Lieut. Lefroy and his assistant took magnetic and meteo–

    rological observations at each stopping place. Frequently, during periods

    of magnetic disturbance, observations were taken at two-minute intervals

    for hours at a time.

            The most important halting points on Lefroy’s journey are

    given below.

    April 30, 1843 Departure from Lachine
    May 20 Sault de Ste. Marie
    June 19 Rat Portage
    June 28 Fort Garry (Winnipeg)
    July 12 Norway House
    July 23 York Factory
    Aug. 20 The Pas
    Sept. 9-11 Isle a la Crosse
    Sept. 23, 1843 to March 5, 1844 Fort Chipewyan



    044      |      Vol_VII-0368                                                                                                                  

            A temporary observatory was built at Fort Chipewyan.

    March 26 - May 25, 1844 Fort Simpson
    May 29 Fort Good Hope

            Lefroy had supposed Fort Good Hope to be just within the

    Arctic Circle and was keenly disappointed when he later learned that its

    latitude was only 66° 16′ N. Lefroy started south from Fort Good Hope on

    May 31, 1844, and arrived back at Montreal on November 25 after retracing

    much of his former route.

            The original account of Lefroy’s journey may be found in Sir

    Henry Lefroy’s Autobiography published in 1895. A part of this autobiography

    was reprinted in Trans. Roy. Soc. of Canada, 1938, edited by W.S. Wallace.

            2. The First International Polar Year, 1882-83 . - In 1875, Lieut. Karl

    Weyprecht of Austria brought forward the suggestion that the value of

    scientific observations in polar regions could be increased considerably

    if such observations were taken simultaneously at many stations. Lieut.

    Weyprecht died shortly thereafter but his ideas stimulated international

    scientific thought and an International Polar Commission was formed to

    study the question further.

            The Commission recommended that an International Polar Year

    be held from August 1882 to August 1883, and twelve countries agreed to take

    part by establishing an observing station in the Arctic of Antarctic for this

    period. The countries represented were, in alphabetical order, Austria,

    Denmark, England and Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Norway,

    Russia, Sweden and the United States.



    045      |      Vol_VII-0369                                                                                                                  

            In 1880, Charles Carpmael, the Director of the Meteorological

    Service, was approached by Dr. F. Wild of St. Petersburg, Russia, the

    president of the International Polar Commission, to obtain the co-operation

    of Canada during the International Polar Year. In view of the benefits which

    Canada would derive from such a scheme, the proposal was heartily endorsed

    by the Meteorological Service. The Department of Marine and Fisheries was

    unable to recommend the expenditure for the establishment of an Arctic

    station by Canada, but an agreement was made with Great Britain whereby

    Great Britain supplied the staff and equipment to operate a station at

    Fort Rae, N.W.T., (lat. 62° 40′ N, long. 115° 45′ W) and the costs of trans–

    portation were shared by Canada. A sum of $5000 was voted by the Canadian

    Government for this purpose.

            The expedition to Fort Rae was under the command of Captain

    Dawson, R.A. Meteorological and magnetic observations were taken every hour

    night and day. On the first and fifteenth of each month, observations were

    taken every five minutes, and for one full hour on each of these days,

    every 20 seconds, to determine minor variations in the magnetic elements.

            Other stations which were maintained in the Canadian Arctic

    during the First Polar Year were located at Fort Conger on North Ellesmere

    Island (lat. 81° 44′ long. 64° 45′ W) and at Kingua Fjord, Cumberland

    Sound, Baffin Island (lat. 66° 36′ N, long. 67° 20′ W). The station at Fort

    Conger was established by the United States and that at Kingua Fjord by

    Germany. The results of these expeditions were published in the following

    works.



    046      |      Vol_VII-0370                                                                                                                  

            Great Britain - Observations of the International Polar Year Expeditions,

    1882-83, Fort Rae.

            United States - International Polar Expedition, Report of the Proceedings of

    the United States Expedition to Lady Franklin Bay, Grinnell

    Land, Vols. 1 and 2, by Lieut. A.W. Greely. Washington, 1888.

            Germany - Die Internationale Polarforschung 1882-1883, Die Beobachtungs

    Ergebnisse der Deutschen Stationen, Band 1, Kingua-Fjord. Berlin, 1886.

            3. Hudson Bay Expeditions, 1884-5-6 . - An expedition was organized by the

    Department of Marine and Fisheries in 1884 to determine for what period of the

    year navigation is possible in Hudson Strait. The expedition was under the

    command of Lieut. A.R. Gordon, R.N., who was the assistant-director of the

    Meteorological Service. Observing stations were established on both shores of

    Hudson Strait and meteorological observations as well as observations of ice

    conditions were taken for a two-year period.

            The expedition left Halifax on July 22, 1884, in the S.S. Neptune,

    a former sealing vessel which had been chartered by the Department of Marine

    and Fisheries. The first station was established on August 5 on the north–

    western shore of Cape Chidley (lat. 60° 25′ N, long. 64° 51′ W) and named

    Port Burwell after the observer, H.M. Burwell, who was appointed to that

    station.

            A site for the second station was chosen at Ashe Inlet on the

    north shore of Hudson Strait (lat. 62° 33′ N, long. 70° 35′ W), named after

    the observer, W.A. Ashe.



    047      |      Vol_VII-0371                                                                                                                  

            The third station was located on the south shore of the Strait

    at a spot named Stupart’s Bay after the observer R.F. Stupart (lat. 61° 35′ N,

    long. 71° 32′ W). It had been considered advisable that in addition to the

    meteorological observations taken at the various stations, a series of magnetic

    readings should be taken at one of them. Since Mr. Stupart had had several

    years’ experience in magnetic work, he was selected to take charge of one of

    the stations and carry out this work. The magnetic instruments were the same

    ones that had been used by Captain Dawson at Fort Rae and were loaned to the

    expedition by Mr. G.M. Whipple, Director of the Kew Observatory, London, England.

            The fourth station was established at Port de Boucherville on

    Nottingham Island (lat. 63° 12′ N. long. 77° 28′ W) with C.V. de Boucherville

    in charge. From Nottingham Island the vessel proceeded to Churchill where

    arrangements were made with J.R. Spencer of the Hudson’s Bay Company to take

    meteorological observations.

            On the return journey from Churchill, a fifth station was put in

    at Port Laperriere on Digges Island, (lat. 62° 35′ N, long. 78° 1′W), with

    A.N. Laperriere in charge. It had been planned to locate the sixth and last

    station on Resolution Island but a suitable anchorage could not be found and

    this plan was abandoned. The station was established at Skynner Cove in

    Nachvak Bay instead, (lat. 59° 10′N, long. 63° 20′W), with W. Skynner in

    charge. All the stations were maintained for the second year, 1885-6, with

    the exception of Skynner Cove.

            The expeditions in 1885 and 1886 were made in the S.S. Alert

    which had been specially rebuilt for the Arctic expedition of 1876 under the

    command of Sir George Nares. Her Majesty’s Government refitted the Alert to

    048      |      Vol_VII-0372                                                                                                                  
    assist in the rescue of the expedition commanded by Lieut. Greenly during the

    First Polar Year. When Greely’s expedition has been rescued, the Alert was

    handed over to the Canadian Government. The station which was established

    on North Ellesmere Island in the spring of 1950 was named after this ship.

            An account of these expeditions is given in Report of the Hudson’s

    Bay Expedition under the Command of Lieut. A.R. Cordon, R.N., 1884-5-6,

    Canadian Government Reports.

            4. Second International Polar Year, 1932-33 . - The International Polar Year

    1932-33, was organized by the International Meteorological Conference of

    Directors at Copenhagen in 1929 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the

    Polar Year 1882-83. The object was to establish as many stations as possible

    in the polar regions where meteorological, magnetic and auroral observations

    could be made. A period of operation extending from August 1, 1932 to

    August 31, 1933 was agreed upon.

            It was hoped that as many as possible of the stations which

    were in operation during the First Polar Year could be re-activated. Great

    Britain requested, and was granted, permission to re-occupy the station at

    Fort Rae. Canada undertook to maintain three special stations at Chesterfield

    Inlet, Cape Hope’s Advance and Coppermine, and to provide additional equipment

    to the permanent magnetic station at Meanook, Alberta.

            The station at Chesterfield Inlet, (lat. 63° 20′N, long. 90° 42′W),

    was the principal Canadian station. It was fully equipped for taking continuous

    049      |      Vol_VII-0373                                                                                                                  
    records of terrestrial magnetism, meteorological elements, earth potentials,

    atmospheric potential gradient, earth temperatures and photographic and visual

    auroral observations. A secondary magnetic and auroral observing station was

    maintained 20 miles south of the main base.

            The station was in charge of F.T. Davies, B.Sc., M.Sc., of the

    Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institute in Washington.

    He had personal charge of the magnetic programme, and through his past

    experience as a member of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition 1928-30, he was able

    to obtain very complete records of the magnetic elements in a region where

    they are greatly disturbed most of the time.

            The station at Coppermine (lat. 67° 49′N, long. 115° 5′W) was

    in charge of R.C. Jacobsen, M.A., of Toronto. It was the most northerly of the

    Canadian stations and the chief meteorological station. A full programme of

    meteorological observations was carried out which consisted of the regular

    surface observations, continuous records of temperature at the top of a 100-feet

    mast and on the ground, as well as kite and balloon observations.

            The upper air work included experiments with newly-developed

    Moltchanoff radiosonde instruments which were provided by the International

    Commission for the Polar Year as a gift from the Rockefeller Foundation. This

    was the first time that such an instrument was used in North America.

            The station at Cape Hope’s Advance (lat. 61° 5′N, long. 69° 33′W)

    was in charge of J.E. Lilly, B.Sc., M.A. The work at this station consisted of

    surface weather and pilot balloon observations as well as visual and photographic

    auroral observations.



    050      |      Vol_VII-0374                                                                                                                  

            Canadian Government radio stations were in operation at the

    above-named three stations prior to the Polar Year, and valuable assistance

    in carrying out the observational programme was given by the radio operators.

    The results of the British and Canadian expeditions are published in the

    following reports.

            Great Britain - British Polar Year Expedition, Fort Rae, 1932-33, The Royal

    Society, London. 1937.

            Canada - Polar Year Expeditions, 1932-33. Dom. Govt. Printing Office,

    Ottawa. 1939.

            5. Establishment of Arctic Stations Jointly by Canada and the United States ,

    1947-50 . - The establishment of a network of weather stations on the

    Canadian Arctic islands is of great benefit not only to the Canadian Meteoro–

    logical Service but to the United States Weather Bureau as well. In view of

    their community of interest in such a project, Canada and the United States

    entered upon an agreement in 1946 whereby they would jointly staff and operate

    a series of weather stations in the Canadian Arctic.

            The first of these joint Arctic stations was established in

    April, 1947, at Slidre Fjord on Ellesmere Island (lat. 80° 13′N, long. 86° 11′W).

    The station was named Eureka. The transport of men and supplies to the station

    at Eureka was accomplished entirely by air. This marked the first time that

    such an operation was attempted in Canada, and since it proved successful,

    the same method was used later in the establishment of other Arctic stations.



    051      |      Vol_VII-0375                                                                                                                  

            The airlift was carried out from Thule, Greenland, where a

    weather station and airstrip had been constructed jointly by Denmark and the

    United States in 1946. The preliminary landings at Eureka were made on the sea

    ice by ski-equipped aircraft carrying small bulldozers. The bulldozers were

    used to level the snowdrifts over the landing area and the remainder of the

    airlift was completed by four-motored transport aircraft with wheel landing gear.

            The second station was established at Resolute Bay on Cornwallis

    Island (lat. 74° 41′N, long. 94° 55′W) in September, 1947, by sea transport.

    Original plans had called for this station to be located at Winter Harbour on

    Melville Island but this proved to be impractical owing to unusually severe

    ice conditions in Melville Sound.

            Resolute Bay was considered to be the best alternate site for the

    following reasons: (a) it offered excellent possibilities for airstrip construc–

    tion; (b) it is situated near the centre of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago;

    (c) it is accessible by cargo ship during the summer. The airstrip site was an

    important factor since it was intended that this station serve as an operating

    base for the support of further Arctic activities.

            Two additional stations were established by airlift from Resolute

    in April, 1948. The first, named Isachsen, is located on Ellef Ringnes Island,

    (lat. 78° 47′N, long. 103° 32′W), and the second, named Mould Bay, is located

    on Price Patrick Island (lat. 76° 14′N, long. 119° 50′W).

            A fifth joint Arctic weather station, named Alert, was established

    on the north shore of Ellesmere Island by airlift from Thule, Greenland, in

    April, 1950.



    052      |      Vol_VII-0376                                                                                                                  

            Climate of Arctic and sub-Arctic Canada

            The Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Canada include a

    vast area which extends over 35 degrees of latitude and 85 degrees of

    longitude, an area which is comparable to that of the continent of Europe.

    In order to discuss the climate of a region of this size, it is advantageous

    to divide it into a number of sections such that places in the same sub–

    division will have somewhat similar climates.

            It should be kept in mind that observational data is very

    meagre for most parts of the Arctic, and consequently, the climatic means

    for many of the stations will require some revision as further data become

    available. Moreover, the stations from which observations have been received

    are nearly all coastal stations, and their climatic conditions are not

    necessarily representative of the climate of the interiors of the islands,

    especially the larger ones. The records from the various stations are,

    strictly-speaking, not directly comparable since they do not extend over the

    same periods of time. The years of record for each station are given in the

    climatic tables.

            The climate of any locality is influenced by many factors.

    The chief climatic controls are latitude, nature of terrain and relative

    distribution of land and water. For the regions under consideration, the

    most important of these controls is the relative distribution of land and

    water or ice as the case may be.

            In order to understand the reasons for some of the climatic

    differences between the eastern and western sections of the Arctic, it is

    053      |      Vol_VII-0377                                                                                                                  
    necessary to consider the broad pattern of the general circulation of the

    atmosphere. An examination of mean winter pressure charts for the Northern

    Hemisphere will reveal that there is a vast high pressure area over most of

    the Canadian Arctic flanked by low pressure areas over the Aleutian Islands

    to the west and over Davis Strait to the east. The high pressure area does

    not remain limited within fixed boundaries, but throughout the winter, surges

    of polar air occur at intervals which travel southward along the Mackenzie

    Valley and project Arctic conditions as far as the Prairie Provinces and the

    mid-western States. On the other hand, cyclonic storms which form over

    eastern Canada and the United States tend to move northeastward towards the

    semi-permanent trough of low pressure over Davis Strait.

            This movement of high and low pressure areas is indicated

    in the general statement that during the winter, the western parts of the

    Arctic are colder and less stormy than the eastern parts. The mean pressure

    distribution also causes the average winter surface air flow in the Arctic

    Islands to be from north-northwest to south-southeast.

            During the summer months, the well-marked pressure

    distribution of the winter becomes less pronounced and pressure gradients

    are comparatively weak. In this period, the weather in the Arctic is

    in fluenced by weak disturbances which develop along the Polar Front, the

    boundary line between air masses of tropical origin and those of polar origin.

    The mean summer position of this front lies across Alaska and northern Canada

    near the Arctic Circle.



    054      |      Vol_VII-0378                                                                                                                  

            As a first approximation, sub-Arctic and Arctic Canada

    may be divided into eight climatic regions. These regions, whose boundaries

    are shown on the accompanying chart, have been arbitrarily named as follows:

    (1) Northern Islands, (2) Southwestern Islands, (3) Eastern Arctic,

    (4) Hudson Bay and Strait, (5) Labrador Coast, (6) Mackenzie Valley,

    (7) Barren Lands, (8) Laurentian Plateau. It may be noted that the southern

    boundary of sub-Arctic Canada lies near the isotherm which passes through

    points with a mean annual temperature of 32°F. The southern limit of

    permafrost, i.e., permanently frozen sub-soil, as given by J.L. Jenness, is

    also shown on the chart.

            Northern Islands . - The most well-known feature of the climate of Arctic

    regions is the fact that temperatures are consistently low and the winters

    exceptionally severe. The hardships and suffering from cold and scurvy of

    the earliest Arctic expeditions gave the Arctic a reputation, which is not

    entirely deserved, of possessing an unendurable winter climate. These

    hardships were overcome by later expeditions with the use of better heating

    equipment, insulated quarters and proper diet. For example, in 1819-20,

    Parry’s men were in perfect health after spending the winter at Melville

    Island.

            The climate of this region is essentially a modified

    maritime type. Although it is true that the polar seas are frozen over for

    nearly three-quarters of the year, there is sufficient radiation through the

    ice from the comparatively warm water below to exert a moderating influence.

    055      |      Vol_VII-0379                                                                                                                  
    Thus the extreme low temperature for any point in this region is rarely

    lower than −60°F whereas temperatures 20 degrees colder than this have been

    experienced in the Mackenzie Valley.

            Average winter temperatures are consistently low, the

    lowest that are to be found anywhere in the Canadian Arctic. For seven

    months of the year, from October to April, mean monthly temperatures are

    below zero over the entire region. As a matter of fact, from November 11,

    1948, to April 27, 1949, the temperature at Eureka rose above zero on only

    three occasions.

            During the brief summer period, the ice-filled polar waters

    with a surface temperature near 30°F prevent the air in contact with them

    from warming up to any great extent. Moreover, an incursion of warm air from

    the south is cooled rapidly in its lower layers by contact with the cold

    water. As a result, summer temperatures are low and maximum temperatures as

    high as 60°F have not been recorded at many stations. Mean summer temperatures

    throughout the region show little variation from year to year and the average

    temperature of the warmest month, July, is generally near 40°F.

            The sun is above the horizon continuously in mid-summer

    and below the horizon for a corresponding period in mid-winter. Consequently,

    it is only during the spring and fall months that a diurnal range of

    temperature from a minimum near sunrise to a maximum in the afternoon is

    appreciable. During the summer and winter, changes in temperature arise

    mainly from changes of air mass, the occurrence or dissipation of fog or cloud,

    the local effect of falling precipitation or changes in wind speed or direction.



    056      |      Vol_VII-0380                                                                                                                  

            A consideration of temperatures alone would indicate

    that there are only two seasons in the Northern Islands, ten cold months

    and two cool ones. Frost may occur in any month but temperatures do not

    remain consistently below freezing until September. Mean temperatures in

    September are well below freezing, with 16°F at Isachsen, 21°F at Eureka

    and 23°F at Resolute. Average temperatures continue to drop rapidly from

    October on, reaching −30°F to −40°F by January. The mean temperature levels

    off in February although the extreme low temperatures are usually experienced

    in late February or early March.

            The lowest average temperatures for February are found

    on northern Ellesmere Island with Eureka reporting −41°F and Fort Conger

    −40°F. Although both of these means have been derived from a series of

    observations extending over less than three years, it is probable that they

    are representative of conditions in this area and that the “cold pole” for

    North America is to be found in this vicinity.

            In March, temperatures begin to rise gradually as the

    sun’s elevation increase, but above-freezing temperatures are not common

    until the beginning of June. An indication of the temperature regime over

    the Northern Islands may be obtained from the following table.



    057      |      Vol_VII-0381                                                                                                                  

           

    Monthly and Annual Mean Temperatures and Temperature Extremes (°F)

    Eureka Fort Conger Isachsen Mould Bay Resolute Winter Harbour
    Lat. (°N) 80°13′ 81°44′ 78°47′ 76°14′ 74°41′ 74°47′
    Long. (°W) 86°11′ 64°45′ 103°32′ 119°50′ 94°55′ 110°48′
    Years of

    Record
    1947-1949 1881-1883 1948-1949 1948-1949 1947-1949 1819-20, 1908-09
    Jan. −37 −38 −37 −32 −28 −30
    Feb. −41 −40 −29 −31 −35 −31
    Mar. −31 −28 −27 −20 −26 −16
    Apr. −20 −14 −20 −11 −11 −12
    May 13 14 12 11 12 17
    June 38 33 31 29 33 33
    July 43 37 38 38 41 42
    Aug. 38 34 34 34 38 33
    Sept. 21 16 16 18 23 19
    Oct. −3 −9 −3 0 7 0
    Nov. −20 −24 −16 −17 −6 −19
    Dec. −41 −28 −37 −28 −21 −29
    Year −3 −4 −3 −1 2 1
    Range 84 77 75 70 76 73
    Highest 66 53 64 57 59 60
    Lowest −63 −63 −55 −63 −55 −56



    058      |      Vol_VII-0382                                                                                                                  

            Annual precipitation over this region is low,

    generally less than five inches per year, which is less than that over the

    driest parts of the Prairie Provinces. In order to arrive at the figures

    for total annual precipitation, the amount of snowfall has been converted

    to equivalent rain on the assumption that ten inches of snow are equivalent

    in water content to one inch of rain. It should be noted that this method

    of conversion, which is the standard procedure in the Meteorological

    Service, is a close approximation in temperate climates where the snow is

    soft and fluffy. On the other hand, in the Arctic the snow crystals are

    similar to grains of sand and a conversion factor of [ ?] four or five inches

    of snow to one inch of rain would be closer to the truth.

            Contrary to popular opinion, snowfall in the Arctic is

    relatively light during the winter since air temperatures are so low that

    the amount of precipitable water vapour in the air is extremely small. In

    open country, the snow on the ground is rarely over 12 inches deep and the

    ground is bare in many spots. However, deep compact drifts are formed around

    obstacles and in valleys. These drifts are so hard-packed that tractors can

    be driven over them.

            Common phenomena during the winter are the storms of

    blowing snow which occur on the average about once every two weeks. The

    snow crystals are quite small and when the wind increases to more than

    15 m.p.h., the snow particles begin to be carried aloft. If the wind is

    higher than 40 m.p.h., the visibility is reduced to near zero in blowing

    snow.



    059      |      Vol_VII-0383                                                                                                                  

            The heaviest snowfalls occur in May and September,

    and about one-half of the total annual snowfall may be expected in these

    two months. The snow becomes soft towards the end of May although the

    amount of melting is slight until the beginning of June. Once the

    melting process has started, the snow disappears very rapidly and the

    islands are snow-free by the end of June except in isolated areas such as

    ravines or high terrain.

            Snow may fall even in the warmest months but it does

    not remain on the ground until September. The precipitation during July

    and August is chiefly in the form of light rain or drizzle. The station

    which reports the lowest annual precipitation is Eureka, with a mean

    total of 1.62 inches according to a limited series of observations. In

    temperate zones, an annual total of this magnitude is found only in desert

    regions.

            The mean monthly amounts of rain and snow and the

    total annual precipitation at various stations in this region are given

    in the following table.



    060      |      Vol_VII-0384                                                                                                                  

           

    Mean Monthly Rain and Snowfall in Inches and

    Mean Annual Total Precipitation Converted to Inches of Rain

    Eureka Fort Conger Isachsen Mould Bay Resolute Winter Harbour
    Lat. (°N) 80°13′ 81°44′ 78°47′ 76°14′ 74°41′ 74°47′
    Long. (°W) 86°11′ 64°45′ 103°32′ 119°50′ 94°55′ 110°48′
    Years of

    Record
    1947-1949 1881-1883 1948-1949 1948-1949 1947-1949 1908-09
    R S R S R S R S R S R S
    Jan. 0 1.1 0.42 0 1.4 0 0.4 0 0.4 0.89
    Feb. 0 0.6 0.13 0 0.2 0 0.5 0 1.2 0.79
    Mar. 0 1.4 0.44 0 0.7 0 1.2 0 1.6 0.93
    Apr. 0 0.1 0.17 0 0.5 0 0.4 0 1.0 0.43
    May 0 2.0 0.40 0 4.6 0 1.0 0 8.0 1.08
    June 0.01 0.1 0.18 trace 2.0 0.06 2.5 0.56 2.0 0.04
    July 0.27 0 0.66 0.49 0.7 1.04 0.2 1.10 0.7 --
    Aug. 0.23 0.6 0.38 0.47 0.3 0.25 1.6 0.62 1.7 --
    Sept. 0 2.8 0.35 0 7.7 trace 4.7 0.32 7.4 0.94
    Oct. 0 1.0 0.24 0 2.7 0 1.2 0.01 5.2 0.38
    Nov. 0 1.0 0.20 0 4.1 0 0.6 0 2.4 0.32
    Dec. 0 0.4 0.30 0 0.1 0 0.1 0 0.5 0.14
    Year 1.62 3.88 3.46 2.79 5.82 Incomplete



    061      |      Vol_VII-0385                                                                                                                  

            Winter is normally the period of clear weather over

    the Arctic Archipelago. Any clouds which occur are mainly of the ice

    crystal type for frontal systems are usually far to the south. This clear

    weather lasts until April when the cloudiness begins to increase, reaching

    a maximum in May or June. The mean cloud amount decreases in July but

    increases again to a secondary maximum in August or September. The

    cloudiness of winter. It may be noted that Arctic cloud conditions, which

    are characterized by a summer maximum and a winter minimum, are just the

    reverse of those which occur in temperate latitude s .

            The summer cloud cover consists almost entirely of a

    shallow deck of low stratus whose base is often lower than 500 feet. As

    the air blows over the icy waters, its lower layers are near saturation.

    When this air is forced to rise over any obstacle such as the shore of an

    island, the slight amount of additional cooling is sufficient to lower the

    temperature of the air below its de w point, which results in the formation

    of fog and low cloud. The amount of summer cloudiness may be judged from

    the fact that in August 1948, there were only 48 hours of sunshine at

    Resolute out of a possible 662 hours. This is undoubtedly an extreme case

    but it serves as an illustration.

            Fog in the Archipelago occurs most frequently during

    the period of open water in the same manner as the low cloud. Since this

    type of fog is essentially a coastal phenomenon, it is possible that the

    interiors of the larger islands may be comparatively fog-free with the

    062      |      Vol_VII-0386                                                                                                                  
    exception of some radiation fog.

            Ice crystal fog is common during the winter in periods

    of light winds. However, this type of fog is rarely very thick, and during

    a two-year period at Resolute, the visibility in ice crystal fog was seldom

    reduced to less than one mile. Another type of winter fog known as “Arctic

    sea smoke” occurs over leads of open water and is usually limited in extent

    to the immediate vicinity of the open water.

            Broadly speaking, the number of foggy days per year in

    the coastal areas of the Archipelago is about 15-25, of which approximately

    75% occur during the three months June, July and August. Short term records

    from the stations at Isachsen and Mould Bay would seem to indicate that the

    frequency of fog is somewhat greater in the islands bordering on the Arctic

    Ocean, possibly as high as 40 days per year.

            Sea ice begins to form in sheltered bays in mid–

    September and the open sea is frozen over in October except for occasional

    leads which may occur throughout the winter. The new ice increases at a

    relatively constant rate of about one foot per month from November to March.

    The rate of ice growth falls off as the sun’s elevation increases, and a

    maximum thickness of about seven feet on the average is reached in early

    June. Much greater thickness of sea ice may occur where the edges of leads

    are forced together by winds or currents to form towering pressure ridges.

    Southwestern Islands . - This region includes the islands of Banks, Victoria

    and King William which are located near the continental shoreline. The

    temperature regime is similar to that over the Northern Islands. However,

    063      |      Vol_VII-0387                                                                                                                  
    some latitudinal control is evident in the fact that mean winter

    temperatures are of the order of 10°F higher than those in the Northern

    Islands although extreme low temperatures are much the same.

            Extreme maximum summer temperatures are considerably

    higher than any recorded in the Northern Islands; for example, 78°F at

    Holman Island and 76°F at Cambridge Bay. Even higher temperatures have no

    doubt been experienced in the interior of Banks and Victoria Islands.

    These comparatively high temperatures result from the fact that the islands

    can be reached by incursions of warm air from the south with very little

    modification. However, it is interesting to note the effect of a body of

    water as narrow as Coronation Gulf, for an extreme high temperature of 87°F

    has been recorded at Coppermine, 11°F higher than that at Cambridge Bay on

    the opposite shore of the gulf.

            Monthly and annual mean temperatures are given in the

    following table for the only two stations in this region from which records

    are available.



    064      |      Vol_VII-0388                                                                                                                  

           

    Monthly and Annual Mean Temperatures and Temperature Extremes (°F)

    Cambridge Bay Holman Island
    Lat. (°N) 69° 7′ 70° 30′
    Long. (°W) 105° 1′ 117° 38′
    Years of Record 1928-29, 1935-38

    1940-50
    1940-50
    Jan. −25 −17
    Feb. −28 −20
    Mar. −19 −13
    Apr. −7 1
    May 15 22
    June 35 38
    July 47 46
    Aug. 45 43
    Sept. 31 32
    Oct. 12 18
    Nov. −9 −1
    Dec. −26 −12
    Year 6 11
    Range 75 66
    Highest 76 78
    Lowest −63 −48



    065      |      Vol_VII-0389                                                                                                                  

            The mean annual precipitation is between five and

    eight inches, about double the average over the Northern Islands. This

    is mainly because of a greater amount of snowfall which is distributed

    throughout the year with a minimum during the months of July and August

    and a maximum in October or November. An indication of the annual

    precipitation regime may be obtained from the following values for Cambridge

    Bay and Holman Island.

           

    Mean Monthly Rain and Snowfall in Inches and

    Mean Annual, Total Precipitation Converted to Inches of Rain

    Cambridge Bay Holman Island
    Lat. (°N) 69° 7′ 70° 30′
    Long. (°W) 105° 1′ 117° 38′
    Years of Record 1928-29, 1935-38, 1940-50 1940-50
    R S R S
    Jan. 0 3.1 0 2.1
    Feb. 0 1.8 0 3.8
    Mar. 0 2.2 0 4.2
    Apr. 0 1.8 0 3.3
    May 0.01 2.9 0.02 4.1
    June 0.18 2.9 0.22 1.0
    July 0.81 0.1 0.75 0
    Aug. 0.86 trace 1.46 1.5
    Sept. 0.35 2.9 0.57 2.8
    Oct. 0.02 6.9 0.05 7.2
    Nov. 0 5.4 0 3.5
    Dec. 0 2.5 0 2.2
    2.23 3.07
    Year 5.48 6.64
    41% 46



    066      |      Vol_VII-0390                                                                                                                  

            The snow conditions over this region are similar

    to those over the Northern Islands and storms of blowing snow occur with

    about the same frequency. The average depth of the winter snow cover

    is small and the ground is bare in many spots. The straits and channels

    freeze over somewhat later than those in the Northern Islands; for example,

    Coronation Gulf does not freeze over until about the first of November.

            Cloud and fog conditions along the coasts are much

    the same as those over the rest of the Archipelago. However, conditions

    in the interior of Banks and Victoria Islands are probably quite different

    from these. For example, Stefansson states: “Through later experience

    in hunting and through discussions with Victoria Island Eskimos who were

    visiting Banks Island that summer, we conclude that fogs of this type

    seldom go more than 15 miles inland and probably never more than 20. So

    there is in the interior of an Arctic island as large as Banks, at least

    if the island is low, a considerable area nearly free of this type of fog,

    which is the most common of the Arctic fogs”.

            Eastern Arctic . - It is generally recognized that there is always some

    open water in Baffin Bay adjacent to Smith, Jones and Lancaster Sounds.

    Moreover, Lancaster Sound itself rarely freezes over completely. From

    Bylot Island to Cape Dyer, Baffin Bay freezes over to the Greenland coast,

    but south of Cape Dyer, tides and currents limit the seaward growth of

    the ice shelf. The presence of this open water and the circulation around

    the semi-permanent low over Davis Strait which brings in air from the

    Atlantic combine to give this region higher mean winter temperatures, a

    067      |      Vol_VII-0391                                                                                                                  
    greater annual precipitation and a higher frequency of storms than the

    islands to the north and west.

            Summer temperatures are similar to those over the

    remainder of the Archipelago with the mean temperature of the warmest month,

    July, in the range 40-45°F. On rare occasions a temperature over 70°F

    may be experienced; for example, a high of 75°F has occurred at Arctic

    Bay, 71°F at Clyde River and 77°F at Pond Inlet.

            The mean annual precipitation is near ten inches

    for most stations. Pond Inlet and Clyde River both report between five

    and six inches but it is believed that their sheltered location causes

    them to have less precipitation than the regional average. The increase

    in annual precipitation over that of the islands to the north and west is

    due partly to a larger amount of summer rainfall and partly to a much

    greater snowfall in the latter part of the year. There is a marked

    maximum snowfall in October corresponding to the period when cyclonic

    storms are frequent in the Davis Strait area. Temperature and precipita–

    tion values for typical stations in this region are given in the

    following tables.



    068      |      Vol_VII-0392                                                                                                                  

           

    Monthly and Annual Mean Temperatures and Temperature Extremes (°F)

    Arctic Bay Clyde River Craig Harbour Dundas Harbour Fort Ross Pond Inlet
    Lat.(°N) 73° 0′ 70° 25′ 76° 12′ 74° 34′ 71° 55′ 72° 43′
    Long.(°W) 85° 18′ 68° 17′ 79° 35′ 82° 10′ 94° 15′ 78° 30′
    Years of

    Record
    1937-49 1942-48 1933-39 1930-49

    (broken)
    1937-48 1931-49
    Jan. −20 −14 −21 −16 −20 −25
    Feb. −26 −17 −23 −18 −25 −29
    Mar. −17 −14 −14 −10 −16 −20
    Apr. −4 −2 −2 −1 −7 −2
    May 19 19 17 22 16 20
    June 36 33 34 36 32 35
    July 44 40 41 42 40 42
    Aug. 41 39 38 40 36 40
    Sept. 30 32 28 30 25 31
    Oct. 14 21 12 16 10 15
    Nov. −4 3 −5 2 −7 −5
    Dec. −16 −9 −18 −12 −15 −20
    Year 8 11 7 11 6 7
    Range 70 57 64 60 65 71
    Highest 75 71 67 64 64 77
    Lowest −57 −47 −49 −44 −57 −60



    069      |      Vol_VII-0393                                                                                                                  

           

    Mean Monthly Rain and Snowfall in Inches and

    Mean Annual Total Precipitation Converted to Inches of Rain

    Arctic Bay Clyde River Craig Harbour Dundas Harbour Fort Ross Pond Inlet
    Lat.(°N) 73° 0′ 70° 25′ 76° 12′ 74° 34′ 71° 55′ 72° 43′
    Long.(°W) 85° 18′ 68° 17′ 79° 35′ 82° 10′ 94° 15′ 78° 30′
    Years of

    Record
    1937-49 1942-48 1933-39 1930-49

    (broken)
    1937-48 1931-49
    R S R S R S R S R S R S
    Jan. 0 3.4 0 2.4 0 3.8 0 2.2 0