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    Bird Write-ups

    Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)


    Bird Write-ups

    Classification of Arctic Birds



    001      |      Vol_IV-0038                                                                                                                  
    EA-Ornithology

    (George M. Sutton)


    CLASSIFICATION OF ARCTIC BIRDS

            ORDER GAVIIFORMES (Loons)

            Family Gaviidae

            Genus Gavia

            G. immer: Common Loon or Great Northern Diver (3)

    G. adamsii: Yellow-billed Loon (14)

    G. arctica: Arctic Loon (1)

    G. stellata: Red-throated Loon (12)

            ORDER COLYMBIFORMES (Grebes)

            Family Colymbidae

            Genus Colymbus

            C. ruficollis: Little Grebe or Dabchick (26)

    C. auritus: Horned or Slavonian Grebe (25)

    C. nigricollis: Black-necked Grebe (15)

    C. cristatus: Great Crested Grebe (21)

    C. grisegena: Red-necked Grebe (28)

            ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES (Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, Petrels, and their Allies)

            Family Diomedeidae

            Genus Diomedea

            D. albatrus: Short-tailed Albatross (66)

    D. nigripes: Black-footed Albatross (33)

    D. melanophris: Black-browed Albatross (32)



    002      |      Vol_IV-0039                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES (continued)

            Family Procellariidae

            Subfamily Fulmarinae

            F. glocialis. Fulmar Petred

            Subfamily Puffininae

            Genus Puffinus

            P. creatopus: Pink-footed Shearwater (59)

    P. gravis: Greater Shearwater (45)

    P. tenuirostris: Slender-billed Shearwater (68)

    P. griseus: Sooty Shearwater (69)

    P. puffinus: Common Shearwater (38)

            Genus Pterodroma

            P. inexpectata: Scaled Petrel (64)

            Genus Bulweria

            B. bulwerii: Bulwer’s Petrel (37)

            Family Hydrobatidae

            Genus Oceanites

            O. oceanicus: Wilson’s Petrel (72)

            Genus Hydrobates

            H. pelagicus: Stormy Petrel (70)

            Genus Oceanodroma

            O. Leucorhoa: Leach’s Petrel (49)

    O. furcata: Fork-tailed Petrel (41)

            ORDER PELECANIFORMES (Gannets, Cormorants, and their Allies)

            Family Sulidae

            Genus Morus

            M. bassanus: Gannet or Solan Goose (76)

            Family Phalacrocoracidae

            Genus Phalacrocorax

            P. auritus: Double-crested Cormorant (75)

    P. carbo: Common Cormorant (73)

    P. aristotelis: Green Cormorant (77) or shag (85)

    P. pelagicus: Pelagic Cormorant (80)

    P. penicillatus: Pallas’s Cormorant (79)

    P. urile: Red-faced Cormorant (84)



    003      |      Vol_IV-0040                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER CICONIIFORMES (Herons and their Allies)

            Family Ardeidae

            Genus Ardea

            A. cinerea: Gray Heron (96)

            ORDER ANSERIFORMES

            Suborder Anseres

            Family Anatidae

            Subfamily Anserinae

            Tribe Cygnini

            Genus Cygnus

            C. cygnus: Whooper Swan (103)

    C. buccinator: Trumpeter Swan (101)

    C. bewickii: Bewick’s Swan (98)

    C. columbianus: Whistling Swan (102)

            Tribe Anserini

            Genus Chen

            C. hyperborea: Snow Goose (130)

    C. caerulescens: Blue Goose (110)

    C. rossii: Ross’s Goose (129)

            Genus Anser

            A. anser: Gray-lag Goose (117)

    A. fabalis: Bean Goose (including Pink-footed Goose) (100)

    A. albifrons: White-fronted Goose (135)

    A. erythropus: Lesser White-fronted Goose (124)

            Genus Philacte

            P. canagica: Emperor Goose (116)

            Genus Branta

            B. bernicla: Brant (111)

    B. leucopsis: Barnacle Goose (106)

    B. canadensis: Canada Goose (114)

    B. ruficollis: Red-breasted Goose (128)



    004      |      Vol_IV-0041                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER ANSERIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Anseres (continued)

            Family Anatidae (continued)

            Subfamily Anatinae

            Tribe Tadornini

            Genus Tadorna

            T. tadorna: Sheld-duck or Sheldrake (189)

            Tribe Anatini

            Genus Anas

            A. acuta: Pintail (182)

    A. crecca: Green-winged Teal (167)

    A. formosa: Baikal Teal (146)

    A. platyrhynchos: Mallard (173)

    A. penelope: European Widgeon (160)

    A. americana: Baldpate or American Widgeon (147)

            Genus Spatula

            S. clypeata: Shoveller (191)

            Tribe Aythyini

            Genus Aythya

            A. fuligula: Tufted Duck (179)

    A. marila: Scaup or Greater Scaup Duck (187)

            Tribe Mergini

            Genus Somateria

            S. mollissima: Eider or Common Eider (158)

    S. spectabilis: King Eider (170)

    S. fischeri: Spectacled Eider (195)

            Genus Polysticta

            P. stelleri: Steller’s Eider

            Genus Camptorhynchus

            C. labradorius: Labrador Duck (171)

            Genus Melanitta

            M. nigra: Black or Common Scoter (149)

    M. perspicillata: Surf Scoter (197)

    M. fusca: White-winged Scoter (202)



    005      |      Vol_IV-0042                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER ANSERIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Anseres (continued)

            Family Anatidae (continued)

            Subfamily Anatinae (continued)

            Tribe Mergini (continued)

            Genus Histrionicus

            H. histrionicus: Harlequin Duck (168)

            Genus Clangula

            C. hyemalis: Long-tailed Duck or Old-squaw (172)

            Genus Bucephala

            B. islandica: Barrow’s Goldeneye (148)

    B. clangula: Goldeneye or Common Goldeneye (164)

    B. albeola: Bufflehead (151)

            Genus Mergus

            M. albellus: Smew (192)

    M. serrator: Red-breasted Merganser (185)

    M. merganser: Goosander (165)

            ORDER FALCONIFORMES (Eagles, Hawks, Ospreys, Falcons, and their Allies)

            Suborder Falcones

            Family Accipitridae

            Subfamily Perninae

            Genus Pernis

            P. apivorus: Honey Buzzard (234)

            Subfamily Milvinae

            Genus Milvus

            M. milvus: Kite (237)

            Subfamily Accipitrinae

            Genus Accipiter

            A. gentilis: Goshawk (224)

    A. nisus: Sparrow Hawk (257)

    A. striatus: Sharp-shinned Hawk (255)



    006      |      Vol_IV-0043                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER FALCONIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Falcones (continued)

            Family Accipitridae (continued O )

            Subfamily Buteoninae

            Genus Buteo

            B. buteo: Buzzard (212)

    B. lagopus: Rough-legged Hawk or Rough-legged Buzzard (253)

            Genus Aquila

            A. chrysaëtos: Golden Eagle (223)

            Genus Haliaeetus

            H. leucocephalus: Bald Eagle (208)

    H. albicilla: White-taled Eagle (263)

    H. pelagicus: Steller’s Sea Eagle (258)

            Subfamily Circinae

            Genus Circus

            C. cyaneus: Marsh Hawk or Hen Harrier (239)

            Family Pandionidae

            Genus Pandion

            P. haliaëtus: Osprey or Fish Hawk (244)

            Family Falconidae

            Subfamily Falconinae

            Genus Falco

            F. rusticolus: Gyrfalcon (229)

    F. peregrinus: Peregrine Falcon (249)

    F. subbuteo: Hobby (233)

    F. columbarius: Merlin (240)

    F. vespertinus: Red-footed Falcon (252)

    F. tinnunculus: Kestrel (236)

            ORDER GALLIFORMES (Ptarmigans, Grouse, Partridges, Quails, and their Allies)

            Suborder Galli

            Family Tetraonidae

            Genus Tetrao

            T. urogallus: Capercaillie or Capercailzie (270)



    007      |      Vol_IV-0044                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER GALLIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Galli (continued)

            Family Tetraonidae (continued)

            Genus Lyrurus

            L. tetrix: Black Grouse (266)

            Genus Lagopus

            L. lagopus: Willow Ptarmigan (302)

    L. mutus: Rock Ptarmigan (290)

    L. leucurus: White-tailed Ptarmigan (301)

            Genus Canachites

            C. canadensis: Spruce Grouse or Spruce Partridge (296)

            Genus Falcipennis

            F. falcipennis: Sharp-winged Grouse (293)

            Genus Tetrastes

            T. bonasia: Hazel Hen or Hazel Grouse (279)

            Genus Bonasa

            B. umbellus: Ruffed Grouse (291)

            Genus Pedioecetes

            P. phasianellus: Sharp-tailed Grouse (292)

            Family Phasianidae

            Subfamily Phasianinae

            Genus Perdix

            P. perdix: Common, Gray, or Hungarian Partridge (271)

            Genus Conturnix

            C. coturnix: Quail (289)

            ORDER GRUIFORMES (Cranes, Rails, and their Allies)

            Suborder Grues

            Family Gruidae

            Genus Grus

            G. grus: Common Crane (306)

    G. monacha: Hooded Crane (312)

    G. canadensis: Sandhill Crane (315)

    G. leucogeranus: White Crane (316)



    008      |      Vol_IV-0045                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER GRUIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Grues (continued)

            Family Gruidae (continued)

            Genus Anthropoïdes

            A. Virgo: Demoiselle Crane (308)

            Family Rallidae

            Genus Rallus

            R. aquaticus: Water Rail (333)

            Genus Crex

            C. crex: Corn Crake (322)

            ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES (Oystercatchers, Plovers, Sandpipers, Phalaropes, Gulls,

    Terns, Auks, and their Allies)

            Suborder Charadrii

            Family Haematopodidae

            Genus Haematopus

            H. ostralegus: Oystercatcher (352)

            Family Charadriidae

            Subfamily Vanellinae

            Genus Vanellus

            V. vanellus: Lapwing (348)

            Subfamily Charadriinae

            Genus Squatarola

            S. squatarola: Gray Plover or Black-bellied Plover (344)

            Genus Pluvialis

            P. apricaria: Golden Plover (342 and 343)

    P. dominica: American Golden Plover (334 and 343)

            Genus Charadrius

            C. hiaticula: Ringed Plover (356)

    C. semipalmatus: Semipalmated Plover (358)

    C. dubius: Little Ringed Plover (349 and 356)

    C. vociferus: Killdeer (347)

    C. mongolus: Mongolian Plover (350)



    009      |      Vol_IV-0046                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Charadrii (continued)

            Family Charadriidae (continued)

            Subfamily Charadriinae (continued)

            Genus Eudromias

            E. morinellus: Dotterel (340)

            Family Scolopacidae

            Subfamily Tringinae

            Genus Bartramia

            B. longicauda: Bartramian Sandpiper or Upland Plover (373)

            Genus Numenius

            N. minutes: Pygmy Curlew (441)

    N. borealis: Eskimo Curlew (397)

    N. phaeopus: Whimbrel (including Hudsonian Curlew) (482)

    N. tahitiensis: Bristle-thighed Curlew (377)

    N. arquata: Common Curlew (382)

    N. madagascariensis: Amur Curlew (365)

            Genus Limosa

            L. limosa: Black-tailed Godwit (374)

    L. haemastica: Hudsonian Godwit (407)

    L. lapponica: Bar-tailed Godwit (371)

            Genus Tringa

            T. erythropus: Dusky Redshank (392)

    T. totanus: Redshank (446)

    T. flavipes: Lesser Yellowlegs (413)

    T. nebularia: Greenshank (405)

    T. ocrophus: Green Sandpiper (including Solitary Sandpiper) (404)

    T. glareola: Wood Sandpiper (486)

    T. guttifer: Armstrong’s Sandpiper or Spotted Greenshank (368)

            Genus Xenus

            X. cinereus: Terek Sandpiper (474)

            Genus Actitis

            A. hypoleucos: Common Sandpiper (383)

    A. macularia: Spotted Sandpiper (469)

            Subfamily Arenariinae

            Genus Aphriza

            A. virgata: Surfbird (471.1)

            Genus Arenaria

            A. interpres: Turnstone (478)



    010      |      Vol_IV-0047                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Charadrii (continued)

            Family Charadriidae (continued)

            Subfamily Scolopacinae

            Genus Limnodromus

            L. griseus: Short-billed Dowitcher (461.1 and 390)

    L. scolopaceus: Long-billed Dowitcher (421 and 390)

            Genus Capella

            C. stenura: Pin-tailed Snipe (436)

    C. media: Great Snipe (403)

    C. gallinago: Common Snipe (including Wilson’s Snipe) (384)

            Genus Scolopax

            S. rusticola: Woodcock (485)

            Genus Lymnocryptes

            L. minimus: Jack Snipe (409)

            Subfamily Eroliinae

            Genus Calidris

            C. canutus: Knot (410)

    C. tenuirostris: Great Knot (402)

            Genus Crocethia

            C. alba: Sanderling (455)

            Genus Ereunetes

            Ereunetes pu

            E. pusillus: Semipalmated Sandpiper (460)

    E. mauri: Western Sandpiper (480)

            Genus Eurynorhynchus

            E. pygmaeus: Spoon-billed Sandpiper (466)

            Genus Erolia

            E. ruficollis: Rufous-necked Sandpiper (454)

    E. minuta: Little Stint (418)

    E. temminckii: Temminck’s (472)

    E. subminuta: Long-toed Stint (422)

    E. minutilla: Least Sandpiper or American Stint (411)

    E. fuscicollis: White-rumped or Bonaparte’s Sandpiper (483)

    E. bairdii: Baird’s Sandpiper (370)

    E. melanotos: Pectoral Sandpiper (430)

    E. acuminata: Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (461)

    E. maritima: Purple Sandpiper (440)

    E. ptilocnemis: Rock Sandpiper (451)

    E. alpina: Dunlin (including Red-backed Sandpiper) (391)

    E. testacea: Curlew Sandpiper (387)



    011      |      Vol_IV-0048                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Charadrii (continued)

            Family Scolopacidae (continued)

            Subfamily Eroliinae (continued)

            Genus Limicola

            L. falcinellus: Broad-billed Sandpiper (378)

            Genus Micropalama

            M. himantopus: Stilt Sandpiper (470)

            Genus Tryngites

            T. subruficollis: Buff-breasted Sandpiper (379)

            Genus Philomachus

            P. pugnax: Ruff (453)

            Family Phalaropodidae

            Genus Phalaropus

            P. fulicarius: Red Phalarope or Gray Phalarope (445)

            Genus Lobipes

            L. lobatus: Northern Phalarope or Red-necked Phalarope (427)

            Suborder Lari

    Family

            Suborder Lari

            Family Stercorariidae

            Genus Catharacta

            C. skua: Great Skua (492)

            Genus Stercorarius

            S. pomarinus: Pomarine Jaeger (497)

    S. parasiticus: Parasitic Jaeger or Arctic Skua (497)

    S. longicaudus: Long-tailed Jaeger or Buffon’s Skua (494)

            Family Laridae

            Subfamily Larinae

            Genus Pagophila

            P. eburnea: Ivory Gull (519)

            Genus Larus

            L. canus: Common Gull (including Short-billed Gull) (509)

    L. argentatus: Herring Gull (516)

    L. fuscus: Lesser Black-backed Gull (523)



    012      |      Vol_IV-0049                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Lari (continued)

            Family Laridae (continued)

            Subfamily Larinae (continued)

            Genus Larus (continued)

            L. marinus: Black-backed Gull (506)

    L. glaucescens: Glaucous-winged Gull (513)

    L. hyperboreus: Glaucous Gull (512)

    L. glaucoides: Iceland Gull (517)

    L. kumlieni: Kumlien’s Gull (521)

    L. ridibundus: Black-headed Gull (506)

    L. philadelphia: Bonaparte’s Gull (507)

    L. minutes: Little Gull (524)

            Genus Rhodostethia

            R. rosea: Ross’s Gull (534)

            Genus Rissa

            R. tridactyla: Kittiwake (520)

            Genus Xema

            X. sabini: Sabine’s Gull (536)

            Subfamily Sterninae

            Genus Sterna

            S. hirundo: Common Tern or Sea Swallow (547)

    S. paradisaea: Arctic Tern (546)

            Suborder Alcae

            Family Alcidae

            Genus Plautus

            P. alle: Dovekie or Little Auk (567)

            Genus Pinguinis

            P. impennis: Great Auk (570)

            Genus Alca

            A. torda: Razor-billed Auk (587)

            Genus Uria

            U. lomvia: Thick-billed or Brunnich’s Murre (592)

    U. aalge: Common Murre or Guillemot (564)



    013      |      Vol_IV-0050                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Alcae (continued)

            Family Alcidae (continued)

            Genus Cepphus

            C. grylle: Black Guillemot (560)

    C. columba: Pigeon Guillemot (583)

            Genus Brachyramphus

            B. brevirostris: Kittlitz’s Murrelet (573)

            Genus Cyclorrhynchus

            C. psittacula: Parakeet Auklet (582)

            Genus Aethia

            A. cristatella: Crested Auklet (565)

    A. pusilla: Least Auklet (575)

            Genus Fratercula

            F. arctica: Puffin (586)

    F. corniculata: Horned Puffin (572)

            Genus Lunda

            L. cirrhata: Tufted Puffin (594)

            ORDER CUCULIFORMES (Cuckoos and their Allies)

            Suborder Cuculi

            Family Cuculidae

            Genus Cuculus

            C. canorus: Cuckoo (596)

    C. saturatus: Oriental Cuckoo (602)

            ORDER STRIGIFORMES (Owls)

            Family Strigidae

            Subfamily Buboninae

            Genus Bubo

            B. virginianus: Great Horned Owl (613)

    B. bubo: Eagle Owl (610)

            Genus Nyctea

            N. scandiaca: Snowy Owl (628)



    014      |      Vol_IV-0051                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER STRIGIFORMES (continued)

            Family Strigidae (continued)

            Subfamily Buboninae (continued)

            Genus Surnia

            S. ulula: Hawk Owl (614)

            Subfamily Striginae

            Genus Strix

            S. nebulosa: Great Gray Owl or Lapp Owl (612)

            Genus Asio

            A. otus: Long-eared Owl (619)

    A. flammeus: Short-eared Owl (627)

            Genus Aegolius

            A. funereus: Boreal Owl or Tengmalm’s Owl (608)

            ORDER APODIFORMES (Swifts and their Allies)

            Suborder Apodi

            Family Apodidae

            Genus Apus

            A. apus: Swift (634.1 e)

            ORDER CORACIIFORMES (Kingfishers and their Allies)

            Suborder Alcedines

            Family Alcedinidae

            Subfamily Cerylinae

            Genus Megaceryle

            M. alcyon: Belted Kingfisher (636)



    015      |      Vol_IV-0052                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER PICIFORMES (Woodpeckers and their Allies)

            Suborder Pici

            Family Picidae

            Subfamily Picinae

            Genus Colaptes

            C. auratus: Yellow-shafted Flicker (659)

            Genus Dendrocopos

            D. major: Great Spotted Woodpecker (650)

    D. villosus: Hairy Woodpecker (651)

            Genus Picoides

            P. tridactylus: Three-toed Woodpecker (657)

    P. arcticus: Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker (643)

            ORDER PASSERIFORMES (Perching Birds)

            Suborder Tyranni

            Family Tyrannidae

            Genus Sayornis

            S. saya: Say’s Phoebe (674)

            Suborder Passeres

            Family Alaudidae

            Genus Alauda

            A. arvensis: Skylark (688)

            Genus Eremophila

            E. alpestris: Shore Lark or Horned Lark (918)

            Family Hirundinidae

            Genus Iridoprocne

            I. bicolor: Tree Swallow (704)

            Genus Riparia

            R. riparia: Bank Swallow or Sand Martin (689)

            Genus Hirundo

            H. rustica: Common Swallow or Barn Swallow (690)

            Genus Delichon

            D. urbica: House Martin (698)



    016      |      Vol_IV-0053                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER PASSERIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Passeres (continued)

            Family Corvidae

            Genus Perisoreus

            P. infaustus: Siberian Jay (730)

    P. canadensis: Canada Jay or Gray Jay (711)

            Genus Corvus

            C. corax: Raven (728)

    C. corone: Carrion Crow (712)

    C. cornix: Hooded Crow (719)

    C. monedula: Jackdaw (720)

            Genus Nucifraga

            N. caryocatactes: Nutcracker (725)

            Family Paridae

            Genus Parus

            P. major: Great Tit (739)

    P. atricapillus: Black-capped Chickadee or Willow Tit (734)

    P. cinctus: Gray-capped Chickadee or Lapp Tit (738)

    P. hudsonicus: Brown-capped Chickadee (735)

    P. ater: Coal Tit (737)

            Genus Aegithalos

            A. caudatus: Long-tailed Tit (742)

            Family Sittidae

            Genus Sitta

            S. europaea: Nuthatch (748)

            Family Certhiidae

            Genus Certhia

            C. familiaris: Tree Creeper or Brown Creeper (751)

            Family Cinclidae

            Genus Cinclus

            C. cinclus: Dipper (754.2)

    C. mexicanus: American Dipper (752)

            Family Troglodytidae

            Genus Troglodytes

            T. troglodytes: Wren or Winter Wren (757)



    017      |      Vol_IV-0054                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classification

            ORDER PASSERIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Passeres (continued)

            Family Turdidae

            Genus Turdus

            T. merula: Blackbird (759)

    T. migratorius: American Robin (758)

    T. torquatus: Ring Ousel (779)

    T. pilaris: Fieldfare (765)

    T. naumanni: Dusky Thrush (762)

    T. musicus: Red-winged Thrush (778.1)

    T. ericetorum: Song Thrush (783)

    T. viscivorus: Mistle Thrush (770)

    T. sibiricus: Siberian Thrush (782)

            Genus Ixoreus

            I. naevius: Varied Thrush (788)

            Genus Hylocichla

            H. minima: Gray-cheeked Thrush (766)

            Genus Oenanthe

            O. oenanthe: Wheatear (789)

            Genus Saxicola

            S. torquata: Stonechat (784)

    S. rubetra: Whinchat (790)

            Genus Phoenicurus

            P. phoenicurus: Redstart (777)

            Genus Cyanosylvia

            C. svecica: Blue-throat (760)

            Genus Erithacus

            E. rubeccula: Robin or Robin Redbreast (780)

            Family Sylviidae

            Genus Sylviidae

            S. atricapilla: Black-cap [ ?] (793)

    S. borin: Garden Warbler (796)

            Genus Phylloscopus

            P. collybita: Chiffchaff (794)

    P. trochilus: Willow Warbler (805)

    P. borealis: Eversmann’s Warbler (795)

    P. inornatus: Yellow-browed Warbler (806)

            Genus Acrocephalus

            A. schoenobaenus: Sedge Warbler (801)



    018      |      Vol_IV-0055                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classifications

            ORDER PASSERIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Passeres (continued)

            Family Regulidae

            Genus Regulus

            R. regulus: Golden-crowned Kinglet (809)

    R. calendula: Ruby-crowned Kinglet (812)

            Family Muscicapidae

            Genus Muscicapa

            M. striata: Spotted Flycatcher (815)

    M. hypoleuca: Pied Flycatcher (814)

            Family Prunellidae

            Genus Prunella

            P. modularis: Hedge Sparrow (818)

    P. montanella: Arctic Accentor (817)

            Family Motacillidae

            Genus Motacilla

            M. alba: Wagtail or White Wagtail (841)

    M. citreola: Citrine Wagtail (827)

    M. flava: Yellow Wagtail (842)

            Genus Anthus

            A. spinoletta: Water Pipit (840)

    A. trivialis: Tree Pipit (838)

    A. pratensis: Meadow Pipit (829)

    A. cervinus: Red-throated Pipit (834)

    A. gustavi: Pechora Pipit (832)

            Family Bombycillidae

            Genus Bombycilla

            B. garrulous: Waxwing (848)

            Family Laniidae

            Genus Lanius

            L. excubitor: Great Gray Shrike (851)

    L. cristatus: Red-tailed Shrike (855)

            Family Sturnidae

            Genus Sturnus

            S. vulgaris: Starling (858)



    019      |      Vol_IV-0056                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classifications

            ORDER PASSERIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Passeres (continued)

            Family Paulidae

            Genus Vermivora

            V. selata: Orange-crowned Warbler (874)

            Genus Dendroica

            D. petechia: Yellow Warbler (886)

    D. coronata: Myrtle Warbler (870)

    D. striata: Black-poll Warbler (863)

            Genus Seiurus

            S. noveboracensis: Water Thrush (872)

            Genus Wilsonia

            W. pusilla: Wilson’s Warbler (884)

            Family Ploceidae

            Genus Passer

            P. domesticus: House Sparrow or English Sparrow (890)

    P. montanus: Tree Sparrow (894)

            Family Icteridae

            Genus Euphagus

            E. carolinus: Rusty Blackbird (888.2)

            Family Fringillidae

            Genus Fringilla

            F. coelebs: Chaffinch (901)

    F. montifringilla: Brambling (897)

            Genus Pyrrhula

            P. pyrrhula: Bullfinch (898)

            Genus Pinicola

            P. enucleator: Pine Grosbeak (932)

            Genus Chloris

            C. chloris: Greenfinch (912)

            Genus Spinus

            S. spinus: Siskin or Common Siskin (942)

    S. pinus: Pine Siskin (933)



    020      |      Vol_IV-0057                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Classifications

            ORDER PASSERIFORMES (continued)

            Suborder Passeres (continued)

            Family Fringillidae (continued)

            Genus Acanthis

            A. cannabina: Linnet (920)

    A. flavirostris: Twite (950)

    A. flammea: Common Redpoll or Mealy Redpoll (930)

    A. hornemanni: Hornemann’s Redpoll (916)

            Genus Loxia

            L. curvirostra: Crossbill, Common Crossbill, or Red Crossbill (937)

    L. pytyopsittacus: Parrot Crossbill (929)

    L. leucoptera: White-winged or Two-Barred Crossbill (953)

            Genus Passerculus

            P. sandwichensis: Savannah Sparrow (941)

            Genus Junco

            J. hyemalis: Slate-colored Junco (943)

            Genus Spizella

            S. arborea: Tree Sparrow (949.1)

            Genus Zonotrichia

            Z. leucophrys: White-crowned Sparrow (952)

    Z. coronata: Golden-crowned Sparrow (910)

            Genus Passerella

            P. iliaca: Fox Sparrow (906)

            Genus Calcarius

            C. lapponicus: Lapland Longspur or Lapland [ ?] Bunting (918)

    C. pictus: Smith’s or Painted Longspur (944)

            Genus Plectrophenax

            P. nivalis: Snow Bunting (947)

            Genus Emberiza

            E. pallasii: Pallas’s Bunting (928)

    E. schoeniclus: Reed Bunting (939)

    E. pusilla: Little Bunting (921)

    E. rustica: Rustic Bunting (940)

    E. citrinella: Yellow Bunting (955)

    E. aureola: Yellow-breasted Bunting (954)

    E. hortulanus: Ortolan Bunting (926)

    Gaviiformes (Loons)



    001      |      Vol_IV-0058                                                                                                                  
    EA-Ornithology

    (George Miksch Sutton)


    LOONS

           

    Order GAVIIFORMES

           

    Family GAVIIDAE

            1. Arctic Loon. See writeup.

            2. Black-throated Diver. A name widely used among English-speaking peoples

    for the European race or subspecies of the arctic loon ( Gavia

    ar c tica ) ( q.v. q.v. ).

            3. Common Loon. See writeup.

            4. Diver. Any of several diving birds, especially the loons. See Common Loon

    (Great Northern Diver), Arctic Loon (Black-throated Diver), Red–

    throated Loon (Red-throated Diver), and Yellow-billed Loon (White–

    billed Northern Diver). See also GAVIIFORMES and Gavia .

            5. Gavia . See writeup.

            6. GAVIIFORMES . See writeup.

            7. Great Northern Diver. A widely used name for the Common Loon ( Gavia immer )

    ( q.v. q.v. ).

            8. Green-throated Loon. Gavia arctica viridigularis , a race or subspecies of

    arctic loon found in northeastern Siberia, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, and

    extreme western Alaska. Sometimes known as the green-throated diver.

    See Arctic Loon.



    002      |      Vol_IV-0059                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Loons

            9. Lesser Common Loon. Gavia immer elasson , a small race or subspecies of

    the common loon or great northern diver found, supposedly, in

    interior North America. See Common Loon.

            10. Loon. Any of four species of large northern diving birds belonging to

    the genus Gavia , family Gaviidae, and order Gaviiformes (among some

    authors, the genus Colymbus , family Colymbidae, and other order Pygopodes),

    which have long, straight, sharp bills; long necks; firm plumage;

    and feet placed far back in the body. A loon differs from a grebe

    principally in having webbed rather than lobed feet and fully developed

    rather than degenerate tail feathers. Some s times called diver. See

    GAVIIFORMES , Gavia , Common Loon, Arctic Loon, Red-throated Loon,

    and Yellow-billed Loon.

            11. Pacific Loon. Gavia arctica pacifica , a race of the arctic loon found in

    North America. See Arctic Loon.

            12. Red-throated Loon. See writeup.

            13. White-billed Northern Diver. A name used in Europe for the Yellow-billed

    Loon ( Gavia adamsii ) ( q.v. q.v. )

            14. Yellow-billed Loon. See writeup.



    003      |      Vol_IV-0060                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Arctic Loon

            1. Arctic Loon . A large diving bird, Gavia arctica , sometimes called

    the black-throated loon, which is holarctic in breeding distribution, and

    which is represented in northern Europe (including Iceland) by the nominate

    subspecies, a form widely known as the black-throated diver; in Asia, from

    the “Kirghiz Steppe and west Siberia to the Yenesei,” by G. arctica suschkini

    (5); in northeastern Siberia, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, and western Alaska (Cape

    Prince of Wales) by the green-throated loon, G. ar c tica viridigularis ; and

    throughout most of Arctic America (from Point Barrow, Alaska, eastward to

    Melville Peninsula, southern Baffin Island, Southampton Island, and the Carey

    Islands in northern Baffin Bay, and southward to the Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak

    Island, central British Columbia, Lake Athabas c k a, Nueltin Lake, and Churchill

    and York Factory on the west coast of Hudson Bay) by G. arctica pacifica , the

    so-called p P acific loon. Differences between these four races are slight,

    although A. M. Bailey (1), who believes that viridigularis and pacifica both

    breed in the Cape Prince of Wales region of Alaska, considers viridigularis

    a full species.

            The arctic loon winters well to the southward of its breeding range —

    in the Mediterranean, Caspian, and Black seas; off the coast of India and

    Japan; and from southern Alaska southward to southern Baja California. The

    paucity of records from the Atlantic coast of the United States and the Gulf

    of Mexico indicates that the species does not winter there at all commonly.

    It has been recorded from Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Iowa, New York (Long Island,)

    and New Hampshire.

            The arctic loon is smaller than the common loon. The most distinctive

    field mark of its breeding plumage is the light ashy gray of the crown, nape,

    and hind neck — a character which shows at great distance in the clear

    004      |      Vol_IV-0061                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Arctic Loon

    atmosphere of the Far North. The sides of the neck and forebreast are ele–

    gantly lined with black and white. The rows of evenly spaced white spots on

    the back and scapulars are even bolder in effect than those of the common loon.

    In winter plumage the bird is dark gray above, white below, without noticeable

    ruptive markings of any sort.

            The arctic loon probably mates for life. In spring, having made its way

    back to its tundra nesting ground, it frequents the mouths of rives and open

    leads in the salt-water ice until the lakes begin to thaw. Pairs of the big–

    headed, stub-tailed birds fly eagerly inland, circling the ice-covered ponds

    and calling excitedly. Their cries resemble the syllables kud-loo-lee (from

    which an Eskimo name for the bird, kudloolik , is derived), the yelp of a dog,

    and a human moan. In Siberia, however, the bird is known as the gagarra (3).

            The nest is primitive — a shallow basin in the turf or a mound of damp

    vegetation at the water’s edge, frequently on a tiny islet at some distance

    out from shore. The two eggs sometimes lie directly on the moist earth. Both

    the male and female incubate. When they change places at the nest, “they sit

    close together for a few moments and twist their necks from side to side in a

    fixed ritual” (7). An incubating bird occasionally plucks moss or grass which

    it places on the nest rim or absent-mindedly holds in its beak. On seeing an

    enemy approaching, it may stretch its neck out flat on the ground. The incuba–

    tion period is said to be 28 days.

            When the nesting pond is shallow and without fish, the parent loons must

    fly to salt water regularly the summer through in order to obtain food. Some

    fish which they capture and swallow they may regurgitate for the young birds

    on their return, but invariably they carry one fish back held crosswise in the

    beak. If early sets of eggs are taken by foxes, jaegers, or Eskimos, the

    005      |      Vol_IV-0062                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Arctic Loon

    female lays again, and very late broods are sometimes frozen in the ice. The

    newly hatched young, which are dark gray on the head, neck , and upper part of

    the body, and white on the belly, are so buoyant that they cannot dive very

    well; but as they increase in size they become more and more expert at under–

    water maneuvers. They stay in the nesting pond until they can fly. The parent

    loons are very solicitous of them. On Southampton Island, where the arctic

    loon was common during the summer of 1930, I found many pairs with their young

    on lakes near the head of South Bay. I occasionally lured newly hatched young

    to the shore through the well-known Eskimo trick of splashing my fingers in the

    water. The old loons were fairly frantic while I remained in the vicinity.

    They circled on their narrow, whistling wings, croaking and growling savagely.

    Sometimes they alighted very close to me with a resounding whack! which sent

    a thin, glistening fan of water far out in front of them. In alighting, all

    loons strike the water breast first, not feet first as ducks and geese do.

            The postnuptial molt of adult arctic loons does not start until the young

    can obtain their own food. If, therefore, the nesting lake has no fish in it,

    the parent birds continue to bring food from afar until the flight feathers

    of the young have fully developed. Never do the young birds attempt to travel

    overland from the nesting pond to salt water. After the young have flown to

    salt water, or to a lake in which there are fish, the parent birds can molt.

    If the young do not fly until very late in the season, young and old birds

    probably migrate southward together and the adults proceed with the postnup–

    tial molt on their wintering ground.



    006      |      Vol_IV-0063                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Arctic Loon


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    References:

    1. Bailey, A. M. Birds of Arctic Alaska . Denver, Co l ., Colorado Museum of

    Natural History, 1948. Popular Ser. No. 8.

    2. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American diving birds,” U.S.Nat.Mus.

    Bull . no.107, pp.67-72, 1919.

    3. Haviland, M.D. A Summer on the Yenesei . Lond., Arnold,1915.

    4. Hersey, F.S. “The status of the Black-throated Loo a n ( Gavia arctica )

    as a North American bird,” Auk , vol.34, pp.283-90, 1917.

    5. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World . Cambridge, Mass., Har–

    vard Univ. Press, 1931. Vol.1, p.34.

    6. Pike, O.G. “Photographing the Black-throated Diver and Gray Lag-goose,”

    British Birds , vol.5, pp.178-85, 1911.

    7. Stonor, C.R. Courtship and Display Among Birds . Lond., Country Life

    Ltd., 1940, p.62, and plate 37.

    8. Sutton, G.M. “The birds of Southampton Island, Hudson Bay,” Carnegie Mus.

    Mem . vol.12, pt.2, sect.2, pp.13-18, 1932.



    007      |      Vol_IV-0064                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Common Loon

            3. Common Loon . A large diving bird, Gavia immer , frequently called the

    great northern diver. It is probably the best known of the Gaviidae (loons)

    among white men, though it is not very well known among most Eskimos and other

    Far Northern peoples. A Baffin Island Eskimo name for it is tudlik or tullik .

    It is sometimes referred to as the black-billed loon, to distinguish it from

    the yellow-billed or white-billed loon ( G. adamsii ). It breeds on lakes

    throughout most of continental North America from New England, northern New

    York, northern Pennsylvania, northern Ohio, northern Indiana, Wisconsin, North

    Dakota, and northeastern California northward; on certain of the Aleutians

    westward as far as Kiska; in the southern part of the Arctic Archipelago

    (notably Banks and Baffin Islands); and in Newfoundland, Greenland (north

    to about lat. 70° N. on the west coast and to 76° on the east coast), Iceland,

    and Bear Island. Unlike the red-throated loon ( G. stellata ) and arctic loon

    ( G. arctica ), it often nests in forested country, the area of its greatest

    abundance being, perhaps, the well-wooded southeastern part of Canada and

    the state of Maine. It is decidedly rare in northern Alaska. It probably

    nests sparingly in Spitsbergen. Summer records from Jan Mayen, the Faeroes,

    the outer Hebrides, northern Scotland, and the Shetlands suggest the possibility

    of its nesting there. It winters in open water from Alaska southward to the

    Gulf of California; from the Great Lakes and Maine southward to the Gulf of

    Mexico; and from the British Channel and the North and Baltic seas to the

    western Mediterranean, Madeira, the Azores, and (casually) the Black Sea. Two

    subspecies are currently recognized — G. immer immer (common loon) and G .

    immer elasson (lesser common loon). The later race, which is allegedly smaller,

    is said to breed “in the Dakotas and perhaps adjacent states and Canadian

    provinces” (3). Baffin Island specimens measured by Shortt and Peters (5)

    008      |      Vol_IV-0065                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Common Loon

    and Greenland specimens measured by Rand were definitely small for the nominate

    race. Some taxonomists believe that elasson should not be recognized.

            In full breeding plumage the common loon is a handsome bird. It is about

    27 to 32 inches long, not including the feet, which protrude well beyond the

    tail. The head and neck are velvety black, glossed with green, blue, and violet.

    Two patches of bold white lines almost form a collar about the neck. The upper

    part of the body, including the back, rump, tail, wings, sides, and flanks, is

    black marked with thick-set, symmetrical rows of more or less rectangular white

    spots. The breast and belly are immaculate gleaming white. In winter the bird

    is very different in color, its upper parts being plain gray, its under parts,

    including the chin, throat, and most of the face and foreneck, white. The sexes

    are alike. At all seasons the eyes of adults are red.

            The common loon is best known for its wild cry, which is clear, far-carrying,

    and laughter-like in quality; and for its ability to dive “before the bullet

    gets there” when shot at. It lives almost exclusively on fish, and in winter

    is frequently caught in nets, sometimes at considerable depth. If it alights

    on a small body of water it may be unable to get away in calm weather, for it

    cannot rise in flight unless it can “run” a long distance on the surface or fly

    straight into the wind.

            North of the tree limit, the common loon summers only on the largest of

    the tundra lakes, laying its two eggs on a small island, or at the tip of a

    long promontory, in a nest which is a mere scooping out, or leveling off, of

    the turf. Yeates (6) has reported eggs in a northern Iceland nest as early as

    June 2. Throughout arctic and subarctic parts of its range the breeding popula–

    tion is thin and scattered. A careful study of the species should be made in the

    Arctic, particularly in areas inhabited also by the yellow-billed loon (q.v.).



    009      |      Vol_IV-0066                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Common Loon


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    1. Dunlop, E.B. “Notes on the Great Northern Diver,” British Birds vol.9,

    pp.142-27, 1915.

    2. Munro, J.A. “Observations of the loon in the Cariboo Parklands, British

    Columbia,” Auk , vo.62, pp.38-49, 1945.

    3. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World . Cambridge, Mass., Harvard

    Univ. Press, 1931. Vol.1.

    4. Rand, A.L. “Notes on some Greenland birds,” Auk , vol.64, p.282, Apr., 1947.

    5. Shortt, T.M., and Peters, H.S. “Some recent bird records from Canada’s

    Eastern Arctic,” Canad.J.Res . vol.20, sect.D, no.11,

    p.339, Nov., 1942.

    6. Yeates, G.K. “Field notes on the nesting habits of the Great Northern

    Diver,” British Birds , vol.43, pp.5-8, and plates 1-9, 1950.



    010      |      Vol_IV-0067                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Gavia

            5. Gavia . The avian genus to which all the loons of the world belong.

    The four species are remarkably similar structurally as well as in behavior

    and nesting habits, all being boldly patterned in the breeding plumage but

    inconspicuously colored in winter. The best-known species among white men

    is the common loon or great northern diver ( Gavia immer ), which breeds through–

    out continental northern North America (south to the northern United States),

    in southern parts of the Arctic Archipelago, and in Greenland, Iceland, Jan

    Mayen, and Spitsbergen; it winters from the southern limits of its breeding

    range southward to Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of California,

    the North Sea, and the coasts of the British Isles. Closely related, but

    not nearly so well known, is the much larger yellow-billed loon or white–

    billed northern diver ( G. adamsii ), which breeds from the White Sea eastward

    across Siberia and northern Alaska, on certain islands of the Arctic Archi–

    pelage, and (probably) on continental North America from Great Slave Lake

    and Nueltin Lake northward. Smallest of the four species is the red-throated

    loon ( G. stellata ), which breeds from northernmost lands about the North Pole

    southward to the Aleutian Islands, the coasts of Alaska and British Columbia,

    Hudson, Bay, southern Labrador, the north shore of Lake Superior, Newfoundland,

    Sweden, and northern Russia and Siberia. The arctic loon ( G. arctica ), which

    is intermediate in size between the red-throated and common loons, is, like

    the red-throated loon, panboreal in breeding distribution, but it does not

    nest either as far north or as far south as that species.

            If, as some taxonomists believe, the yellow-billed loon is a geographical

    race of Gavia immer , then there are but three species of the genus Gavia ,

    all of them with virtually circumpolar distribution, all with year-round

    range lying northward of the equator.



    011      |      Vol_IV-0068                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Gaviiformes

            6. Gaviiformes . The avian order of loons, a small and remarkably homo–

    geneous group of water birds containing but one family (Gaviidae), one genus

    ( Gavia ), and four species ( immer , adamsii , arctica , and stellata ), all of

    which nest in northern regions. Throughout the order the sexes are alike in

    shape and coloration, and the ey e s of adults are red.

            There is a difference of opinion as to whether the loons and grebes belong

    in separate orders. Certain European ornithologists place them together in

    the order Pygopodes; use for the loons the family name Colymbidae and the

    generic name Colymbus; and do not employ the name Gavia at all. This has led

    to some nomenclatural confusion. Grebes and loons are strikingly different

    in several basic respects: ( 1 ) In loons the tail is composed of 16 to 20

    short but firm and well-developed rectrices; in grebes there are no obvious

    tail features at all. ( 2 ) In loons the feet are webbed; in grebes the feet

    are lobed. ( 3 ) In loons the sternum is much longer proportionally than in the

    grebes. ( 4 ) The plumage of adult loons is much firmer and less “furry” than

    that of grebes. ( 5 ) Newly hatched grebes of most species are striped, often

    conspicuously so; newly hatched loons are dark gray above, lighter below, and

    wholly unstriped. ( 6 ) Loons usually nest on land, laying dark-colored,

    spotted eggs, which they do not cover when they leave the nest. Grebes build

    floating nests and lay light-colored, unspotted eggs which they cover with wet

    vegetation when they leave the nest.

            All loons are accomplished swimmers and divers, but on land they are

    almost helpless. They fly from the water with difficulty, usually “running”

    along for a considera s ble distance, facing into the wind, and rising slowly.

    Once squared away for steady flight, they hold their feet together straight

    behind them. The “tail” of a flying loon is really its big, webbed feet stuck

    out behind.



    012      |      Vol_IV-0069                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Gaviiformes

            Loons eat fish principally, the long, sharp bill, powerful muscles of

    the head and neck, dense, firm plumage, and large feet, which are placed

    far back in the body, all being modified for capturing fish. Especially

    notable is the flattened tarsus, which can be drawn forward through the

    water with great facility; and the bones, tendons, and muscles of the leg,

    which are so designed as to permit each foot to function through a wide arc

    directly behind the body, thus allowing the bird to change its course very

    rapidly.

            The loons inhabit the Northern Hemisphere exclusively, nesting on

    large lakes far in the interior, or on tundra ponds, or slow-flowing rivers

    close to the coast, and migrating southward to such North Temperate Zone

    waters as are open the winter through and in which fish are abundant. This

    fact, coupled with the fact that loon remains dating back as far as Tertiary

    time have been found in North America and Europe, but not in more southerly

    regions, give rise to a belief that the Gaviiformes were strictly northern

    in origin.

            All loons make primitive nests, which are sometimes little more than a

    flattening off or scooping out of a tiny islet, or of a hummock at the tip

    of a long, narrow promontory. The eggs number two; they vary considerably

    in color, but usually are dark olive brown, irregularly spotted with darker

    brown or black. The incubation period is 25 to 28 days in the red-throated

    loon, longer (up to 30 days) in the common loon. Both sexes have been ob–

    served to share the duties of incubation (common loon, arctic loon, and red–

    throated loon). Young loons, which leave the nest soon after hatching, are

    down-covered and very buoyant, hence do not dive very well.

            Adult loons undergo a complete postnuptial molt into a winter plumage

    013      |      Vol_IV-0070                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Gaviiformes

    which is much less strikingly marked than the breeding plumage. The pre–

    nuptial molt, which involves, presumably, all the feathers except the remiges

    and rectrices, brings the bird again into courting and breeding attire. Some

    observers believe that the postnuptial molt frequently is finished not on or

    near the breeding grounds but in winter after the southward migration has

    taken place.


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    References:

    1. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American diving birds,” U.S.Nat.Mus.

    Bull . no.107, pp.47-82, plates 45 and 46, 1919.

    2. Sutton, G.M. “The wing molts of adult loons: a review of the evidence,”

    Wilson Bull . vol.55, pp.145-50, 1943.



    014      |      Vol_IV-0071                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Red-throated Loon

            12. Red-throated Loon . A diving bird, Gavia stellata , so named because

    in summer the adult has a triangular brownish-red patch on the throat and fore–

    neck. It is sometimes called the red-throated diver. It is the smallest of

    the loons and is unlike the other three species in that it is gray and white

    rather than black and white on its upper parts in summer. It is a compara–

    tively slender-billed species. In breeding feather it is ashy gray on the head

    and sides of the neck, with black and white striping on the crown and hind neck,

    and red-brown throat patch; dark gray, flecked with white all over the upper

    part of its body (the part showing above water line when the bird is swimming);

    and pure white on the breast and belly. In winter it is gray flecked with

    white above, and pure white below.

            Like the arctic loon, the red-throated loon is holarctic in breeding dis–

    tribution, but it nests both farther north and farther south than that species.

    It ranges in summer from Iceland, Spitsbergen, Franz Josef Archipelago (Bell

    and Mabel Islands) Jan Mayen (one record), Bear Island, Novaya Zemlya, northern

    Russia, northern Siberia (including the New Siberian Archipelago and Wrangel

    Island), northern Alaska, Banks Island, Prince Patrick Island, Melville Island,

    Ellesmere Island (lat. 82°30' N.), and northern Greenland (lat. 82°27' N.)

    south to Ireland (Donegal), Scotland, southern Sweden, Lake Baikal, Kamchatka,

    the Commander Islands, Kuril Islands, Aleutian Islands, and Queen Charlotte

    Islands, southern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba (Churchill, Hudson Bay), southern

    Ontario (the north shore of Lake Superior), Gasp e é Peninsula, and Newfoundland.

    It winters from the British Isles and the Baltic and North seas to the southern

    shores of the Mediterranean, the Black and Caspian seas, southern Baluchistan,

    Turkistan, China, Taiwan, and Japan; and in the New World from the Aleutian

    015      |      Vol_IV-0072                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Red-throated Loon

    Islands and the Pacific coast of Canada south to northern Baja California and

    from Maine and the Great Lakes to Florida and the Gulf of Mexico.

            The red-throated loon probably mates for life. The pairs return to their

    nesting grounds before the tundra ponds are free of ice, so they are obliged

    to frequent the river mouths or the leads in the salt-water ice until the lakes

    thaw. At this season they are very clamorous. One of their best-known cries

    is a loud, rolling kok-a-rah-oh , kok-a-rah-oh , kok-a-rah-oh! which they repeat

    over and over with the rhythm and wild enthusiasm of a college yell. Other

    characteristic cries are a plaintive mew, which sometimes has a decidedly human

    quality; and a sharp kok or kark , which may be primarily a note of alarm. The

    Eskimos, who know the bird well, call it the kokshowk or kokarow (Alaska) in

    imitation of its cries.

            In spring and summer the pairs perform interesting sexual rites together —

    beak-dipping while facing each other; splash-diving; and racing side by side

    through the water, half-standing as they rush forward, sometimes with their wings

    raised prettily over their backs. Splash-dives, which are amazingly quick, are

    usually preceded by a sharp yelp. Racing birds sometimes give their weird

    kok-a-rah-oh cry in duet. The most spectacular of the sexual displays has been

    called a “snake-dance.” This is a joint performance in which the birds “zigzag

    indiscriminately along the course in a state of wild excitement” (3).

            One pair of red-throated loons per small tundra pond is the rule, though

    two pairs have been known to nest at opposite ends of larger ponds, and along

    the Yenisei Haviland (1) noted red-throated and arctic loons nesting on the

    same ponds. The nest is a heap of moss in the turf, usually at the water’s

    edge and preferably on a peninsula or tiny islet offshore. Both sexes are

    believed to incubate. The incubation period is 25 to 28 days. An incubating

    016      |      Vol_IV-0073                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Red-throated Loon

    bird sometimes reaches out and gathers bits of moss which it adds to the nest.

            Many early eggs of the red-throated loon are destroyed by jaegers. This

    predation sometimes so delays brood-rearing that the young loons are still

    unable to fly when the home pond begins to freeze shut in late August or

    early September. I have seen half-grown red-throated loons swimming about

    in a small pool which the birds managed to keep open in the ice. The faith–

    ful parents continued to bring them food captured in salt water several miles

    away. Some of this food the parents may have regurgitated, but some of it

    (small fish) they carried crosswise in their beaks. In making a getaway

    from the little icebound pond, the young loons probably waited for a stiff

    wind into which they could rise without having to “run” a long distance

    through water.


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    References:

    1. Haviland, M.D. A Summer on the Yenesei . Lond., Arnold, 1915, p.198.

    2. Huxley, J.S. “Courtship activities in the Red-throated Diver ( Colymbus

    stellatus Pontopp .); together with a discussion of the

    evolution of courtship in birds,” Linnaean Soc. J. (Zool. )

    vol.35, pp.253-92, 1923.

    3. Keith, D.B. “The Red-throated Diver in North East Land (Spitsbergen),”

    British Birds , vol.31, pp.66-81, 1937.

    4. Turner, E.L. “The Red-throated Diver in its breeding-haunts,” Ibid .

    vol.7, pp.150-55, 1913.

    5. Van Oordt, G.J., and Huxley, J.S. “Some observations on the habits of

    the Red-throated Diver in Spitsbergen,” Ibid . vol.16,

    pp.34-46, 1922.



    017      |      Vol_IV-0074                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Yellow-billed Loon.

            14. Yellow-billed Loon . A large diving bird, Gavia adamsii , which closely

    resembles the common loon or great northern diver ( G. immer ), but is decidedly

    larger; has an ivory-colored or white, rather than black, bill; and is pur–

    plish black rather than greenish black on the throat. Its bill shape is dis–

    tinctive, the culmen line being straight (rather than slightly arched or de–

    curved, as it is in the common loon) — a diagnostic feature which will serve

    to identify it in subadult or winter plumage. It is sometimes called the

    white-billed loon or white-billed northern diver. It is the largest of the

    loons. An adult male taken July 8, 1914, at Camden Bay, Alaska, weighed

    13 1/2 lb. (Canadian National Museum). An adult female shot in Hopper Bay,

    Alaska, on May 27, 1924, weighed 10 lb. 3 oz. (4). An adult male Gavia immer

    shot in Michigan in the latter part of May weighed 8 lb. 2 oz. (Museum of

    Zoology, University of Michigan).

            The yellow-billed loon summers in the Old World from northern Finland, the

    Murman coast, and Novaya Zemlya eastward across northern Siberia; and in the

    New World from Alaska (Cape Prince of Wales, Point Hope, Point Barrow, and Salmon

    River) eastward to Somerset Island (7), Foxe Basin (8), Melville Peninsula,

    Baker Lake, and Nueltin Lake. In Alaska it is said to breed on “the large

    tundra lagoons usually back from the coast in rather inaccessible places, re–

    mote from human habitations” (1). Birulia (3) was informed by natives of the

    Iana River country that its breeding ground was not the tundra proper but the

    lakes at the edge of the forest region south of the tundra. It nests commonly

    along the Hanbury and Thelon rivers and presumably on lakes and streams through–

    out the Great Slave Lake and Aylmer Lake district of the Northwest Territories.

    The southern limits of its breeding range are ill-defined. It breeds northward

    to well beyond the tree limit in the Arctic Archipelago, E. Porsild and

    018      |      Vol_IV-0075                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Yellow-billed Loon

    A. L. Washburn having encountered it recently on both Victoria and Banks Islands.

    Handley did not find it on Prince Patrick Island. It is possibly unique among

    loons in that it frequently nests on slow-moving rivers (5).

            In the summers of 1948 and 1949, A. W. F. Banfield found the yellow-billed

    loon the commonest breeding loon of the tundra area east of Great Bear and Great

    Slave lakes. He encountered it on all the larger lakes. Early in the summer

    of 1948 he found a nest at the tip of a s s m all rocky peninsula on Lake Clinton–

    Colden. On July 25, 1948, Banfield saw two adults and a small young one swim–

    ming out from the bank of the Back River. Often he mistook the cry of an adult

    loon for the wailing of a distant wolf. In early September, he saw many small

    groups of yellow-billed loons migrating westward while numerous birds of other

    species were moving southward. In the summer of 1946, he noted Gavia adamsii ,

    but not G. immer , in the Mackenzie Delta.

            The yellow-billed loon winters commonly off the Norway coast. It was “not

    common” off the southeastern Alaskan coast in the winter of 1920 (1). It has

    been recorded in winter occasionally along the Baltic coasts of sweden and Fin–

    land as well as off Japan and China. There are migration records for various

    parts of Europe (including the Caspian Sea), Alaska, the Commander Islands, and

    Vancouver Island. The species has been reported at least once from Greenland

    and once from Long Island, New York (19).

            Since the yellow-billed loon and common loon look so much alike, all early

    records for the latter in northwestern North America (especially for western

    islands of the Arctic Archipelago) should be carefully checked. The close re–

    semblance between the two forms has led some ornithologists to believe that they

    may be conspecific; but until further field work brings to light an area in

    019      |      Vol_IV-0076                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Yellow-billed Loon

    which they intergrade, or reveals that their breeding ranges strictly complement

    each other, they may best be considered distinct. Both species may nest on Banks

    Island, but Porsild and Washburn did not record immer there in the summer of 1949.

            The yellow-billed loon’s plumages and molts are believed to be the same as

    those of the common loon. When the birds move north to their nesting grounds,

    they have completed the molt from the gray winter plumage into their handsome

    breeding attire. They gather along open leads, or between the shore and the

    retreating ice, waiting for the lakes to thaw out. They move inland in pairs

    and the nesting ground rings with their wild cries. A Yakut name for the bird

    means “diver that neighs like a horse” (6).

            Bailey (1) tells us that on a chain of lakes along the Chipp River, about

    a hundred miles inland from Point Barrow, Alaska, Robert Brower built “dummy

    platforms” in the water on which yellow-billed loons promptly nested. From

    these nests he collected several sets of the little-known eggs.


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    References:

    1. Bailey, A.M. Birds of Arctic Alaska . Denver, Co l ., Colorado Museum of

    Natural History, 1948, pp.133-38. Popular Ser . no.8.

    2. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American diving birds,” U.S.Nat.Mus.

    Bull . no.107, pp.60-65, 1919.

    3. Birulia, A. “Ocherki iz zhizni ptits poliarnago poberezhia Sibiri.”

    (Sketches from the life of the birds of the arctic shores

    of Siberia.). Akad.Nauk. Classe Phys.-Mat. Mem. Zapiski ,

    ser.8, vol.18, no.2, 1907.

    4. Brandt, Herbert. Alaska Bird Trails . Cleveland, O., The Author, 1943, p.319.



    020      |      Vol_IV-0077                                                                                                                  

    5. Critchell-Bullock, J.C. “An expedition to sub-arctic Canada,” Canad .

    Field Nat . vol.45, p.12, Jan., 1931.

    6. Pleske, Theodore. “Birds of the Eurasian tundra,” Boston Soc.Nat.Hist.

    Mem . vol.6, no.3, p.353, Apr., 1928.

    7. Shortt, T.M., and Peters, H.S. “Some recent bird records from Canada’s

    Eastern Arctic,” Canad.J.Res . vol.20, sect.D, no.11,

    p.339, Nov., 1942.

    8. Taverner, P.A. “Fieldfare, an addition to the American list, and some

    arctic notes,” Auk , vol.57, p.119, Jan., 1940.

    9. Zimmer, J.T. “Yellow-billed loon on Long Island, New York,” Ibid .

    vol.64, pp.145-46, Jan., 1947.

           

    George Miksch Sutton



    021      |      Vol_IV-0078                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Grebes

           

    GREBES

           

    Order COLYMBIFORMES

           

    Family COLYMBIDAE

            15. Black-necked Grebe. See writeup.

            16. COLYMBIFORMES. See writeup.

            17. Colymbus. See writeup.

            18. Dabchick. A vernacular name widely used among English-speaking peoples

    for small grebes — in Europe especially for the little grebe

    ( Colymbus ruficollis ); in Australia for the little grebe and hoary–

    headed grebe ( Colymbus poliocephalus ); in North America especially

    for the pied-billed grebe ( Podilymbus podiceps ). The only one of

    these three which ranges northward into subarctic regions is Colym

    bus ruficollis .

            19. Eared Grebe. The name commonly used in America for the New World race of

    black-necked grebe (Colymbus caspicus) ( q.v. ).

            20. Gray-cheeked Grebe. A name sometimes used in England for the red-necked

    grebe (Colymbus grisegena) ( q.v. ).

            21. Great Crested Grebe. See writeup.

            22. Grebe. See writeup.

            23. Hell-diver. A colloquial (not slang) name used widely in America for any

    small grebe, especially the pied-billed grebe ( Podilymbus podiceps ),

    a species which has been reported once from Baffin Island (Snyder,

    Canad. Field - Nat . 44:123).

            24. Holboell’s Grebe. The common name almost universally used among English–

    speaking peoples for the subspecies of red-necked grebe ( Colymbus

    022      |      Vol_IV-0079                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Grebes

    grisegena ) inhabiting northeastern Siberia (except Kamchatka) and the

    New World. See Red-necked Grebe.

            25. Horned Grebe. See writeup.

            26. Little Grebe. See writeup.

            27. Poliocephalus . A genus of four species of grebes (three inhabiting the Old

    World, one inhabiting the New), all of them small, short-billed, and

    without ornamental head plumage; currently regarded as inseparable

    from the genus Colymbus ( q.v. ).

            28. Red-necked Grebe. See writeup.

            29. Slavonian (or Sclavonian) Grebe. The name used among British ornithologists

    for the horned grebe ( Colymbus auritus ) ( q.v. ).



    023      |      Vol_IV-0080                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Grebes

            15. Black necked Grebe . A diving bird, Colymbus caspicus , resembling

    somewhat the horned or slavonia grebe ( Colymbus auritus ), hence intermediate

    in size between the little grebe or dabchick ( Colymbus ruficollis ) and the red–

    necked grebe ( Colymbus grisegena ). Like the horned grebe and red-necked grebe

    it is found in both the Old World and the New; but its distribution is strik–

    ingly dissimilar. Far from being exclusively a bird of the Northern Hemisphere,

    it breeds not only in Eurasia and western North America but also throughout

    almost all of Africa east and south of the Sahara. Nowhere in either the Old

    World or [ ?] the New does it nest so far north as does the horned grebe — Central

    British Columbia and southern Manitoba marking about its northern limit in

    North America, and Denmark, southern Sweden, the eastern lake provinces of

    the U.S.S.R., the Aral and Caspain seas, the Altai Mountains, and the Amur val–

    ley its northern limit in Eurasia. Three races are recognized: caspicus of

    Eurasia; californicus of North America; and gurneyi of Africa. The two northern

    races winter, respectively, in southern Europe, Indian (casually), China, and

    Japan; and in western North America from Washington to Guatemala.

            In breeding plumage the black-necked grebe is readily distinguishable from

    the horned grebe by its black neck (the breeding horned grebe’s foreneck is rich

    chestnut) and by the fan of narrow golden yellow feathers spreading backward

    across the black cheek from the eye; but in winter plumage the two species are

    very similar, both being dark gray above and white below (the lower part of the

    head conspicuously white), the most dependable point of difference being that of

    bill shape. In the horned grebe the bill is stoutish and straight; in the black–

    necked grebe it is slender and slightly upturned. The two Old World races of

    the black-necked grebe are further distinguishable from the horned grebe because

    their primaries are partly white (Stresemann, Ibis , 90: 473-74) but Colymbus

    caspicus californicus of North America has dark primaries.



    024      |      Vol_IV-0081                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Grebes

            The black-necked grebe’s nesting habits are like those of the other

    grebes. The floating nest is made of decaying vegetation and is more or

    less hidden in water plants. The eggs number 4 as a rule; though as many as

    8 have been recorded. Both sexes incubate. One of the cries of the breeding

    season has been described as a rippling trill, “bidder vidder, bidder vidder”

    (Griscom, fide Ticehurst, in Handbook of British Birds ).


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    References:

    1. Pike, O.G. “The Black-necked Grebe,” British Birds , vol.13, pp.146-54, 1919.

    2. Stresemann, Erwin. “The earliest description of the black-necked grebe,”

    Ibis , vol.90, no.3, pp.473-74, 1948.



    025      |      Vol_IV-0082                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Colymbiformes

            16. Colymbiformes . The avian order of grebes, a group of diving birds

    bearing general resemblance to the loons (Gaviiformes) but differing in having

    lobed rather than webbed feet; in having incomplete or “hairy” tail feathers;

    and in being considerably smaller. The great crested grebe and red-necked

    grebe are about as long as, but less heavy than, the smallest loon (red–

    throated loon). The smallest grebes are less than a foot long. In the water

    grebes are extremely graceful and quick, but on land they are virtually help–

    less. A captive grebe, placed on the ground, may stand upright momentarily,

    slap nosily forward on outward-pointing feet, tire suddenly, and sink down

    with an audible grunt.

            Taxonomists differ in opinion as to whether the grebes and loons belong

    together in the same order, but agree that all loons belong together in one

    family, and that all grebes belong together in a separate family. The family

    named used for the loons by many British ornithologists is, unfortunately,

    the very same as that used for the grebes by most ornithologists elsewhere —

    the Colymbidae. This leads to some confusion, but it does not alter the fact

    that the grebes and loons are very different — not alone in appearance and be–

    havior, but also in present-day distribution and possibly even in o r igin.

            The 18 species of grebes (family Colymbidae) are currently placed in four

    genera. Colymbus , with 13 species, is considerably the largest genus of the

    family, Podilymbus having but two species, Aechmophorus two, and Centropelma one.

    Colymbus is the only genus of the four which is found in both the Old and New

    Worlds which ranges northward into subarctic regions. It is further notable

    in that it ranges southward far below the equator in both the Old World and

    the New. Of the five species of the genus which breed in boreal regions, two

    are large (among the largest grebes known), two are small, and one is very small.

    026      |      Vol_IV-0083                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Colymbiformes

    Of these same five species, two (a large and a small) inhabit the Northern

    Hemisphere exclusively; the other three are of widespread distribution,

    ranging southward to far below the equator in the Old World . As for the

    three genera found only in the New World ( Aechmophorus , Centropelma , and

    Podilymbus ), none ranges northward into the subarctic, one ( Centropelma )

    being a monotypic genus whose sole habitat is Lake Titicaca. The Colymbi–

    formes are not, in other words, exclusively boreal, as are the Gaviiformes.

    They are also much more diverse morphologically than that group, one genus

    ( Centropelma ) being flightless; one ( Aechmophorus ) having an exceedingly

    long neck and long, sharply pointed bill; one ( Podilymbus ) having a short,

    heavy bill. Several grebes (especially of the genus Colymbus ) have puffy or

    oddly ornamented head plumage in the breeding season. Most grebes when adult

    have unusual eye-color in that the pupil is surrounded with a narrow, light

    ring. The color pattern of grebe plumage varies considerably, though it

    tends to be dark on the head, neck, and upper part of the body, and satiny

    white on the breast and belly. Throughout the order the sexes are colored

    alike. Newly hatched grebes of most species are striped either on the head

    and neck, or all over; but the chick of the western grebe or swan grebe

    ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) is pale gray above and white below and wholly

    without stripes of any sort.

            The courtship behavior of grebes is extremely interesting, some forms

    giving strange duet performances in which the male and female “run” rapidly

    side by side through the water with necks oddly arched, sink to their bellies

    with a splash, and disappear below the surface; others posturing before each

    other while shaking “gifts” (pieces of wet vegetation brought up from the

    027      |      Vol_IV-0084                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Colymbiformes

    bottom) in their bills; others giving loud shrieks or whinnies which make

    the marshes ring. The great crested grebe ( Colymbus cristatus ) is an incred–

    ibly shaped bird as it lifts and displays its ornamental head plumage.

            All grebes, even those which breed northward into subarctic regions,

    build a floating nest which is more or less anchored to aquatic vegetation.

    Several species are semicolonial in their nesting. The eggs, which are un–

    spotted, are light-colored when laid but soon become dark with nest stains.

    Both sexes incubate. When the incubating bird leaves the nest, it usually

    covers the eggs carefully with wet vegetation. The young are able to swim

    and dive immediately after hatching, and since they are less buoyant than newly

    hatched loons they stay under the water more successfully. Two broods are

    frequently reared in temperate and tropical regions. When two broods are

    reared, the male takes charge of the first while the female proceeds with the

    second. During the postnuptial molt grebes become wholly flightless for a

    period (as do loons), but this does not greatly inc on venience them because they

    are so expert at diving.

            For additional information see Grebe.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            [ ?]

            References:

            1. Knowlton, F.H., and Ridgway, Robert. Birds of the World . N. Y., Holt,

    1909, pp.103-106.



    028      |      Vol_IV-0085                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Colymbus

            17. Colymbus . An avian genus composed of 13 species of grebes, each

    of which has a slender, straight, or slightly upturned bill about as long as,

    or slightly shorter than, the head; tarsus shorter than the middle toe and

    its nail; primaries and secondaries of about equal length; and head plumage

    which is more or less elongate or “puffy” (and frequently ornamental) in the

    adult, especially in the breeding season. Among them are the most northward–

    ranging grebes of the world — the red-necked grebe ( C. grisegena ) and horned

    or Slavonian grebe ( C. auritus ); the large great crested grebe ( C. cristatus )

    of the Old World; several well-known and widely ranging small species such

    as the black-necked or eared grebe ( C. caspicus ); the very small little grebe

    ( C. ruficollis ) of the Old World; and the least grebe ( C. dominicus ) of the

    New. Several (perhaps all) species of the genus are usually semicolonial in

    their nesting. Among the factors which may Prevent their nesting farther

    north than the y do are ( 1 ) insufficiency of animal food in shallow tundra ponds;

    ( 2 ) scarcity of aquatic vegetation from which nests might be made and in which

    nests might be hidden. Shortness of breeding season at high northern latitudes

    can hardly account for their failure to breed there, for the incubation and

    fledging period is shorter than that of the loons, which do breed there.

            The genus Colymbus is almost cosmopolitan in distribution, but no single

    species of the genus has nearly so extensive a range as that of the group. The

    species which range farthest north are probably the most migratory. Those

    with very restricted ranges probably do not migrate at all. The great crested

    grebe breeds throughout the Old World from southern Sweden and eastern Siberia

    southward through much of Eurasia, Africa, Australia, Tasmania and New Ze a land,

    but is not found in the New World at all. The little grebe is represented by

    several races in various parts of the Old World but is not found in the New.

    029      |      Vol_IV-0086                                                                                                                  
    EA-ORn. Sutton: Colymbus

    The black-necked grebe is represented by one race ( caspicus ) in Eurasia, an–

    other ( gurneyi ) in Africa, a third ( californicus ) in North America. The horned

    grebe and red-necked grebe breed in northern parts of both the Old and New

    Worlds. The least grebe is found only in tropical parts of Middle and South

    America and in the Greater Antilles. The hoary-headed grebe ( C. poliocephalus )

    is restricted to Australia and Tasmania. Four species have very restricted

    ranges — C. rolland of the Falkland Islands; C. taczanowskii of Lake Junin,

    Peru; C. pelzelnii of Madagascar; and C. rufopectus of New Zealand. Only three

    species of the 13 — the red-necked, horned (Slavonian), and black-necked

    (eared), are common to the New World and the Old, and all of these breed north–

    ward into (or very nearly into) the Subarctic in both America and Eurasia.

    Two Old World species, the great crested and the little, range northward into

    the Subarctic, as well as southward far below the equator. The horned grebe

    and red-necked grebe are, like the arctic loon and red-throated loon, more or

    less panboreal in breeding distribution and confined the year round to the

    Northern Hemisphere; but the genus as a whole is so widely distributed today,

    with about equal numbers of endemic species in the several land masses, that

    it is impossible to decide where the group originated.

            Five species ( ruficollis , pelzelnii , dominicus , rufopectus and poliocephalus )

    are by some taxonomists placed in the separate genus Poliocephalus , but this does

    not seem to be warranted, for the characters of Poliocephalus (small size; ab–

    sence of bizarre head plumage in the breeding season; proportional stoutness of

    bill) are superficial and not very clearly defined.



    030      |      Vol_IV-0087                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Great Crested Grebe

            21. Great Crested Grebe . A well-known diving bird, Colymbus cristatus ,

    of the Old World, said to be the largest species of its genus, family

    (Colymbidae), and order (Colymbiformes), though careful weighing of specimens

    may reveal that the red-necked grebe ( C. grisegena ) — a more robust and

    shorter-necked species — is just as heavy.

            Four geographical races of the great crested grebe are currently recog–

    nized — one ( cristatus ) breeding more or less throughout Eurasia north to

    about latitude 60° N., as well as in northern Africa; another ( infuscatus )

    being confined to Africa south of the Sahara; one ( christiani ) being found

    only in Australia and Tasmania; and one ( australis ) being restricted to New

    Zealand.

            The northernmost race, cristatus , which apparently is the only one of

    the four to migrate at all, breeds from southern Sweden, Finland, central

    Russian and central (?) Siberia southward to Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Turkes–

    tan, Kashmir, northern India, and Japan ( Check-List ). Throughout the southern

    part of this area it probably is nonmigratory; but in the northern part it

    must move definitely southward in order to find open water in which there is

    an adequate food supply.

            In its full breeding plumage the great crested grebe is one of the most

    oddly shaped birds imaginable — not because it is apparently tail-less, nor

    merely because its neck is so slender, but because the depth of its crown,

    neck, and cheek plumage makes its head appear about twice too large. With

    crests and ruff lifted in full display it looks, especially when facing the

    observer, like a sort of artifact, half-mammal, half-bird; or like an or–

    dinary grebe which has had a huge hood, with “horns” or “ears” attached,

    pulled loosely down over its head. Its bill is dark at the tip, pinkish

    031      |      Vol_IV-0088                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Great Crested Grebe

    flesh-color at the base. The crown and head-ruff are deep chestnut, the

    horns black, the sides of the face white. The hind-neck and upper part of

    the body are dark brownish gray while the foreneck and under parts are silky

    white. The white of the secondaries show plainly in flight, but not when the

    bird is at rest. In winter the ornamental head plumage is replaced by much

    shorter and less spectacular plumage and the dark and light parts of the color

    pattern contrast less sharply.

            The great crested grebe sometimes breeds in small companies, though it

    is much less colonial than the little grebe or dabchick ( Colymbus ruficollis ).

    It is said to have a harsh, grating cry and an alrm note resembling the sylla–

    bles “ kek-kek ” in the breeding season. It lays three or four eggs (rarely up

    to 8 or 9) which are very pale blue at first, but soon become nest-stained,

    the shells having a chalky and highly absorptive outermost layer.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Huxley, J.S. “Courtship of the Great Crested Grebe,” Zool. Soc. Lond.

    Proc . 1914, pp.491-562. 2. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World . Cambridge, Mass.,

    Harvard Univ. Press, 1931. Vol.1, p.39. 3. Rankin, Niall. Haunts of British Divers . N.Y., Collins, 1947. Pt.1,

    pp.1-46, with many photographs.

    032      |      Vol_IV-0089                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Grebe

            22. Grebe . Any of several (about 18 species) apparently tail-less diving

    birds belonging to the family Colymbidae and order Colymbiformes. Grebes rise

    from the water with difficulty, but fly directly and rapidly once under way.

    In alighting they strike the water first with their breasts and not with their

    feet as ducks and geese do.

            Grebes’ nests are floating masses of decaying vegetation more or less

    hidden among water plants. Both sexes incubate. When an incubating bird

    leaves the nest it covers the eggs with loose material from the nest rim.

    Newly hatched grebes are down-covered and in most species striped. They take

    to the water almost immediately and swim and dive well. Since animal food ob–

    tainable by diving, and vegetation for nest material and shelter are requisite

    to nesting, grebes tend to breed semicolonially in ponds or marshes which suit

    their needs. That some subarctic ponds meet their requirements is evident,

    because four widely ranging species breed well to the northward — the large

    red-necked grebe and the small horned (or Slavonian) grebe to latitudes beyond

    the Arctic Circle in both the Old World and the New; the great crested grebe

    and little grebe (or dabchick) almost to the Arctic Circle in the Old World.

            Grebes often swallow their own feathers. The stomachs of some specimens

    examined have been literally packed with short body feathers. The reasons for

    this strange habit are not known.

            Grebes are almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The family (order) is so

    well represented in the Old World and the New, and in both the Northern and

    Southern Hemisphere, that most ornithologists despair of deciding upon a place

    of origin. For additional information concerning grebes see Colymbiformes,

    Colymbus, Black-necked Grebe, Great Crested Grebe, Horned Grebe, Little Grebe

    and Red-necked Grebe.



    033      |      Vol_IV-0090                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Horned Grebe

            25. Horned Grebe . A small diving bird, Colymbus auritus , sometimes known

    as the Slavonian (Sclavonian) grebe, which nests northward to and somewhat

    beyond the Arctic Circle, and which is called “horned” because of the two tufts

    of long, silky feathers worn on the head during the breeding season. The

    horned grebe and the much larger red-necked grebe ( C. grisegena ) are the only

    grebes found both in the New World and the Old as well as wholly (the year

    round) in the Northern Hemisphere. Their range is similar to that of the

    loons (Gaviiformes), though they do not breed northward to such high latitudes.

            The horned grebe of the Old World does not differ from that of the New in

    size or color, and no geographical races are currently recognized. The species

    breeds in the Old World from northern Sweden, northern Norway, northern Fin–

    land, Iceland, northern Russia (about lat. 65°30′ N.), and Siber i a (precise

    limits not known) southward to Scotland, the Baltic States, and probably

    southern Asia (at least as far south as the Altai Mountains and Semipalatinsk).

    In the New World it breeds from central Alaska, northern Yukon, northern Mac–

    kenzie, Nueltin Lake (rarely), the mouth of the Churchill River on Hudson Bay,

    and the Gulf of St. Lawrence southward to the northern United States. It is

    migratory presumably throughout its range, though there may be comparatively

    sedentary breeding populations where there is open water the year round. It

    winters southward to the Mediterranean Sea, Turkistan, China, California,

    Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. Like the red-necked grebe, it is less common

    in the interior than along the coast in winter. It has been reported from Green–

    land, Jan Maye r n , the Komandorski Islands, and the arctic coast of Alaska.

            In breeding dress the horned grebe is among the most colorful of the grebes.

    Its fluffy head, which appears abnormally large even when the long, velvety

    plumage is pressed down firmly, is brownish black, marked with a conspicuous

    034      |      Vol_IV-0091                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Horned Grebe

    tuft or “horn” of buffy yellow which rises above and behind each eye. The

    foreneck, upper breast, and sides are rich chestnut. The hindneck, back, and

    wings are blackish brown, each feather being margined with a somewhat warmer

    shade of brown. The white wing speculum is conce la al ed save when the bird

    preens, stretches, stands up in the water and flaps its wings, or flies. The

    breast and belly are gleaming, satiny white. The eye is incredibly beautiful,

    reminding one of a superbly cut gem in a velvet setting. The tiny pupil is

    surrounded by a narrow, brilliant, yellowish-white ring which is, in turn,

    surrounded by the orange-scarlet iris. In winter the bird is different in

    color and shape, though its eye is the same. The head plumage is much shorter

    and there are no horns. All the silken yellows and browns of the breeding

    attire are replaced by gray and white — the upper parts in general being dark

    gray, the under parts white, the most conspicuous field mark being the white

    of the cheeks and throat which almost forms a collar just below the head. In

    winter the horned grebe and black-necked grebe are similar in appearance, but

    the bill of the horned grebe is stoutish and straight, while that of the black–

    necked grebe is slightly upturned and slender.

            The breeding habits of the horned grebe do not differ markedly from those

    of the other grebes. Several pairs often nest together, though apparently the

    species is not colonial at the northern edge of its range. It is believed to

    rear but one brood a season even in southern latitudes. On its nesting ground

    it is sometimes quite bold in the presence of a human being, in this respect

    being very different from the red-necked grebe. The eggs usually number 4 or 5

    and are white or bluish white when first laid but soon become nest-stained.

    Large sets (up to 10 eggs have been recorded) may possibly be laid by two

    females.



    035      |      Vol_IV-0092                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Horned Grebe

            Most g[?]rebes swallow feathers occasionally, presumably during the

    course of preening, but the horned grebe’s stomach is sometimes so filled

    with feathers as to suggest that the bird may deliberately pluck and eat

    them for reasons not understood at present.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. BuBois, A.D. “Notes on the breeding habits of the Slavonian Grebe,”

    British Birds , vo.14, pp.2-10, 1930.

    036      |      Vol_IV-0093                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Little Grebe

            26. Little Grebe . A comparatively nonmigratory Old World diving bird,

    Colymbus ruficollis , which breeds northward in Europe to about latitude 62° N.

    It is sometimes called (as are certain other small grebes) the dabchick. Its

    scientific name has led some ornithologists to call it the red-necked grebe,

    but this name is almost always applied to the very much larger species, Colym

    bus grisegena . The little grebe is among the smallest of the Colymbiformes.

    It is represented by several subspecies — ruficollis in Europe (east to the

    Ural Mountains) and in northwest Africa; poggei in China; japonicus in Korea

    and Japan; kunikyonis in the middle Ryukyu Islands; iraquensis in Mesopotamia;

    philippensis in Formosa, Borneo, and the Philippines; vulcanorum and tricolor

    in the East Indies; novaehollandiae in Australia, Tasmania, etc.; and capensis

    in eastern and southern Africa and Madagascar. Its range is somewhat discon [ ?]

    tinuous probably because of absence of suitable breeding places), but there

    may well be an undiscovered breeding population east of the Ural Mountains.

    At this writing the species is believed to range northward into the Subarctic

    only in Europe.

            The little grebe is not quite 10 inches long. The most conspicuous feature

    of its breeding dress is the dark reddish brown of the cheeks, throat, and

    foreneck, and the bright yellowish green of the gape and base of the bill. It

    has no bizarre head mark [ ?] i ngs such as crests of tufts, and, aside from the red–

    dish brown just mentioned, it is rather plain dark brown above and grayish

    white below, with some white on the secondaries which shows in flight. In

    winter it is less brightly colored throughout, the reddish brown of the throat

    and checks being replaced by brownish buff.

            On its breeding ground there is no more spirited and springtly sprightly creature

    than this little water bird. It [ ?] exhibits toward its fellows what must --

    037      |      Vol_IV-0094                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Little Grebe

    possibly for want of a better understanding — be called pugnacity, bobbing

    up to the surface lightly as a cork, squealing or whinnying in an angry (pos–

    sibly an immensely pleased) voice, and darting with open bill at any other male

    dabchick which happens to be close by, forcing the other bird either to fight

    back vigorously or take refuge by diving. It dives in two wholly different

    ways — with a graceful, curving leap forward; and with an amazingly fast

    flick which creates the impression that the bird has deliberately kicked up

    a veil of water in order to obscure its descent. It can, if it wishes, sink

    slowly without diving at all — as all grebes do.

            Its nest, which is a sodden mass of decaying vegetation, and which

    though floating is often half submerged, is anything but conspicuous when the

    bird is not on it, for before it leaves it covers the eggs with nest material.

    The eggs, which are bluish white when first laid, but soon become nest-stained,

    number 4 to 6 (occasionally up to 8 or 10). The incubation period is 20 to

    25 days.

            At the northernmost edge of its range the little grebe probably breeds

    in scattered pairs and rears but one brood a season. Farther south, however,

    two broods are reared, and a large colony is a lively place in midsummer,

    for the females proceed with second nestings while males care for the

    first broods. When the young are learning to fly they race back and forth

    across an open stretch, beating their wings frantically until at last they

    rise from the surface, flutter along a short way, and drop with a splash.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Bird, G.C. “Notes of the Little Grebe,” British Birds , vol.27, pp.34-37.

    1933.

    038      |      Vol_IV-0095                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Red-necked Grebe

            28. Red-necked Grebe . A diving bird, Colymbus Colymbus grisegena grisegena , sometimes known

    as the gray-cheeked grebe, which is probably the most northward ranging species

    of its genus, family (Colymbidae), and order (Colymbiformes). It is found in

    both the Old World and the New, and never leaves the Northern Hemisphere,

    though it probably winters as far south as the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

    occasionally. Records for S p itsbergen, Greenland, Iceland, and the mouth of

    the Kolyma River indicate that its breeding range may extend considerably

    farther north than has been realized. Two subspecies are currently recognized —

    grisegena , which breeds from northern Russia (about the White Sea), Sweden,

    Finland, and western Siberia southward to France (casually), Holland (rarely),

    Denmark, Germany, the Kirghiz Steppe, and the Caspian Sea; and holböllii, a

    linger-billed and longer-winged but otherwise very similar form, which breeds

    in eastern Siberia (Kamchatka birds are believed by some taxonomists to belong

    to a third subspecies), the Komandorski Islands, the Kurils, Hokkaido, and

    from northwestern Alaska eastward to the Mackenzie delta, northern Saskatchewan,

    south central Manitoba, Hudson Strait, Labrador (probably), and southward to

    the northern United States. The species probably breeds well to the northward

    across the whole of Siberia, though it has apparently not been reported from

    the Gulf of Ob or the Taimyr Peninsula. Buturlin recorded holböllii at the

    mouth of the Kolyma River, though the bird may not have been breeding there;

    and a specimen of holböllii in breeding plumage recorded by Artobolevskii

    probably came from the “mouth of the Kolyma or … the north coast of the

    Chuckche Peninsula” (see Pleske). The species is definitely migratory,

    though it is occasionally recorded in winter along the southern edge of its

    breeding range. In the Old World it winters south to the Mediterranean Sea,

    039      |      Vol_IV-0096                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Red-necked Grebe

    northern Africa, Persia, Turkistan, northern Iran, China, and Japan. In the

    New World it winters principally along the coasts from southeastern Alaska to

    California and from the Maritime Provinces to Georgia, but also, less commonly,

    in the interior. It has been reported once from Southampton Island.

            In summer the red-necked grebe is rather a striking bird. Its heavy,

    straight, dark bill has a noticeably yellow base. Its head and neck are

    boldly marked, the forehead, crown (including a tuft of long feathers, or

    “horn,” at each side), and hindneck being black; the lower part (the cheeks,

    chin, and throat) clear ashy gray, bordered above the white; the entire fore

    neck and upper breast rich rufous . What shows of its body above water line

    when it is swimming is dark gray, the white patch along the front of the wing

    and that on the secondaries being concealed when the wing is folded. The belly

    is light silvery gray, irregularly mottled with darker gray. The irides are

    not red (though so colored in some illustrations) but are rich brown, with a

    narrow, light-yellow peripheral ring. In winter the rufous of the foreneck

    is replaced by white; the head-tufts or “horns” are lost; and the black plumage

    of the crown, hindneck and upper part of the body is replaced by dark gray.

    At this season the red-necked and great crested grebes are much alike, though

    the red-necked is shorter-necked, stouter in build, and has no white superciliary

    streak. Molting red-necked grebes sometimes present a curiously mixed appear–

    ance when the red of the foreneck is veiled with white.

            Along the northern edge of its breeding range the red-necked grebe is

    believed to the noncolonial; but farther south several pairs frequently breed

    together, the rather large and bulky nests being built up of such water plants

    as are available. The birds are very shy. At the first sign of danger an in–

    cubating bird hastily pulls part of the nest over the eggs, covering them as

    040      |      Vol_IV-0097                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Red-necked Grebe

    fully as possible in the time allowed; slips into the water headfirst; and

    disappears, leaving scarcely a ripple. If the coast is clear, it may rise to

    the surface and return with slow, sure strokes of its big feet and a forward

    and backward movement of its serpentine head; but waiting submerged, with only

    the head or part of the head above the surface, until all danger has passed,

    is a common practice.

            When first laid, the 3 to 6 (rarely 7 or 8) eggs are bluskh is bluish white, but

    they soon become nest-stained and turn buff or brown. The incubation period

    of eggs hatched in an incubator was 22 to 23 days (Bent). Both parents in–

    cubate. But one brood is reared, though if the first set of eggs is destroyed

    another is promptly laid. Unless the birds can find vegetation in which to

    hide the nest such enemy species as the jaegers and ravens have little trouble

    in finding the eggs, though nests are safe from most four-footed marauders.

            The cries of the red-necked grebe have been described as “loonlike” —

    which is adequate if the definition of loonlike is properly inclusive. A common

    cry of the red-necked grebe on its nesting ground is a loud, wailing ah-ooo ,

    repeated many times.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Artobolevskii, V.M. “Kornitofaune zemli Chukchei.” (Birds of the land of

    the Chuckches.) Kiev. Universitet. Obshchestvo Estestvoispytatelei.

    Zapiski…Mem. vol.27, no.1, p.37. 1926. 2. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American diving birds,” U.S.Nat.Mus.

    Bull . no.107, pp.9-20, and plate 44 (egg in color), 1919. 3. Buturlin, S.A. “Bemerkungen über die geographische Verbreitung der Vögel

    im nordöstlichen Sibirien,” J.für Ornithol . vol.56, no.2, p.289,

    Apr., 1908. 4. Pleske, Theodore. “Birds of the Eurasian tundra,” Boston Soc.Nat.Hist.

    Mem . vol.6, no.3, p.355, Apr., 1928. 5. White, F.B. “Manners of Holboell’s Grebe in captivity,” Auk , vol.48,

    pp.559-63, 1931.

    Procellariiformes (Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, Petrels)



    041      |      Vol_IV-0098                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Albatrosses

    ALBATROSSES, FULMARS, SHEARWATERS, PETRELS, AND THEIR ALLIES

           

    Order PROCELLARIIFORMES

           

    Family DIOMEDEIDEA, HYDROBATIDAE, PROCELLARIIDAE

            30. Albatross. See writeup.

            31. Atlantic Fulmar. A common name currently applied to Fulmarus glacialis

    glacialis , the subspecies of fulmar or fulmar petrel inhabiting the

    Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Sea north of the Atlantic. See Fulmar.

            32. Black-browed Albatross. See writeup.

            33. Black-footed Albatross. See writeup.

            34. Black Hagdon or Hagdown. A name used among sailors and fishermen for

    [ ?] the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus ) ( q.v. ).

            35. British Storm Petrel. A name sometimes used for the storm or stormy

    petrel ( Hydrobates pelagicus ) ( q.v. ).

            36. Bulweria . See writeup.

            37. Bulwer’s Petrel. See Writeup.

            38. Common Shearwater. A general species name for Puffinus puffinus , the

    best-known geographical race of which is called the Manx shearwater

    ( P. puffinus puffinus ) ( q.v. ).

            39. Diomedae. See writeup.

            40. DIOMEDEIDEA. See writeup.

            41. Fork-tailed Petrel. See writeup.

            42. Fulmar or Fulmar Petrel. See writeup.

            43. Fulmarus. See writeup.

            44. Goony. A name loosely applied by seamen and fishermen to certain large

    oceanic birds, among them such procellariiform birds as the

    042      |      Vol_IV-0099                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters

    albatrosses and larger shearwaters, and such pelecaniform birds as

    the boobies and gannets.

            45. Greater Shearwater. See writeup.

            46. Hag, Hagdon, Hagdown, Haglet. A name used among fisherfolk and sailors

    for various middle-sized procellariiform birds, especially the

    shearwaters.

            47. Hydrobates . See writeup.

            48. HYDROBATIDAE. See writeup.

            49. Leach’s Petrel. See writeup.

            50. Manx Shearwater. See writeup.

            51. Mallemuck. Variety of mollymauk ( q.v. ).

            52. Mollymauk, Mollymawk, Mollymoke. See writeup.

            53. Mother Carey’s Chicken. See writeup.

            54. Muttonbird. A name applied more or less locally to certain procellari–

    form birds which are used as food, especially to the sooty shearwater

    ( Puffinus griseus ) in New Zealand, and to the slender-billed or short–

    tailed shearwater ( Puffinus tenuirostris ) in Bass Strait.

            55. Oceanites . See writeup.

            56. Oceanodroma . See writeup.

            57. Pacific Fulmar. A common name currently applied to Fulmarus glacialis

    rodgersii , the race of fulmar or fulmar petrel inhabiting the North

    Pacific and Arctic oceans.

            58. Pet r el. See writeup.

            59. Pink-footed Shearwater. See writeup.

            60. PROCELLARIIDAE. See writeup.

            61. PROCELLARIIFORMES . See writeup.

            62. Pterodroma. See writeup.

            63. Puffinus . See writeup.

            64. Scaled Petrel. See writeup.



    043      |      Vol_IV-0100                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Albatrosses

            65. Shearwater. See writeup.

            66. Short-tailed Albatross. See writeup.

            67. Short-tailed Shearwater. A name sometimes applied to the slender-billed

    shearwater ( Puffinus tenuirostris ) ( q.v. ).

            68. Slender-billed Shearwater. See writeup.

            69. Sooty Shearwater. See writeup.

            70. Storm or Stormy Petrel. See writeup.

            71. Whalebird. A name applied primarily to gregarious sea birds belonging to

    the procellariiform genus Pachyptila (formerly known as Prion ) of

    southern oceans, and characterized by their peculiar, broad laminate

    [ ?] bill. But the name whalebird is applied more or less locally in arctic

    and subarctic regions to certain other water birds, especially the

    slender-billed or short-tailed shearwater ( Puffinus tenuirostris ) and

    sooty shearwater ( P. griseus ) in North Pacific waters; the ivory gull

    ( Pagophila eburnea ) in Greenland waters; the ruddy turnstone ( Arenaria

    interpres morinella ) in Hudson Bay; and the red phalarope ( Phalaropus

    fulicarius
    ) and northern phalarope ( Lobipes lobatus ) along the Labrador

    coast.

            72. Wilson’s Petrel. See writeup.



    044      |      Vol_IV-0101                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Albatross

            30. Albatross . Any of several large oceanic birds belonging to the order

    Procellariiformes and family Diomedeidae, and well known for their remarkable

    powers of flight. The most famous of all albatrosses are the wandering ( Dio

    medea exulans ) and royal ( D. epomophora ), both of which inhabit southern seas.

    They are the largest sea birds known, as well as the largest of all flying

    birds, providing largeness be considered a matter of wingspread rather than

    of weight. The condors are heavier, but the albatrosses have the greater

    wingspread.

            The wandering and royal albatrosses are considerably the largest of the

    albatrosses; but albatrosses in general are larger than their numerous allies,

    the shearwaters, petrels, and Mother Carey’s chickens, the only other member

    of the order approaching them in size being the giant petrel or giant fulmar

    ( Macronectes giganteus ). All albatrosses have strong, hooked bills; very long,

    narrow wings; strong, webbed feet; and an odd smell. The tubes which enclose

    the nostrils are widely separated by the ridge (culmen) of the bill. There are

    13 species, most of which nest in the southern Hemisphere. Since they are

    large they do not nest in burrows, as many of the shearwaters and petrels do,

    but lay their single large egg in the open. Many pairs nest toge t her as a

    rule. Male and female birds share the duties of incubation and of feeding

    the young. The period of incubation is very long — as much as 60 days in

    some species; and the fledging of the young requires several more weeks.

            No albatross nests in arctic or subarctic regions, but the short-tailed

    albatross )( Diomedea albatrus ), which is now a very rare bird, formerly ranged

    northward into the Bering Sea when not breeding; the black-footed albatross

    ( D. nigripes ), which breed on certain North Pacific islands (northward to

    about lat. 30° N.), is sometimes abundant off the Aleutians and the coast

    045      |      Vol_IV-0102                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Albatross

    of Alaska; and several other albatrosses — notably the black-browed ( D. mela

    nophris ), wandering ( D. exulans ), gray-headed ( D. chrysostoma ), and yellow–

    nosed ( D. chlororhynchos ), wander irregularly into northern seas.

            See Procellariiformes, Diomedeidae, Diomedea , Short-tailed Albatross,

    and Black-footed Albatross.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Alexander, W.B. Birds of the Ocean . N.Y., Lond., Putnam, 1938. 2. Knowlton, F.H., and Ridgway, Robert. Birds of the World . N.Y., Holt,

    1909, pp.107-10. 3. Murphy, R.C. “Birds of the high seas,” Nat.Geogr.Mag . vol.74, pp.226-51,

    1938. 4. - - - -. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of Natural

    History, 1936. Vol.1.

    046      |      Vol_IV-0103                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Black-browed Albatross.

            32. Black-browed Albatross . A large procellariiform bird, Diomedea

    melanophris , which breeds (egg dates from September to December) on South

    Georgia, the Falklands, Kerguelen, the Aucklands, Campbell, Ildefonso (off

    Chile), and other far-southern islands; has been called the commonest al–

    batross in the Southern Hemisphere; and wanders occasionally into northern

    seas. It has been recorded off Sukkertoppen, Greenland ( by Hørring and Salo–

    monsen), off Norway (Oslofjord), off England (Lynton), and at latitude

    80°11′ N. and longitude 4° E. in the ocean northwest of Spitsbergen (Hartert).

    For forty consecutive years a single black-browed albatross (presumably the

    same bird year after year) revisited the gannet colony on the Faeroes (see

    Andersen). In the opinion of Wynne-Edwards, this is the “longest survival

    record we have for the Procellariiformes.”

            The black-browed albatross is 32 to 34 inches long. Adults are white

    on the head, neck, rump, upper tail coverts and under parts (including all

    under wing coverts other than those at the edge), with a slaty streak through

    the eye; slaty-black back and tail; and dark-brown upper wing surface. The

    bill is yellow, with a black line around the base, and a rosy tip. The ffet

    are yellowish or pinkish white, washed with pale blue at the joints and on

    the webs (W. B. Alexander). In young birds the crown and back of the neck

    are suffused with slaty, the under-wing coverts are dark, and the bill is

    grayish black.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Alexander, W.B. Birds of the Ocean . N.Y., Lond., Putnam, 1928.

    047      |      Vol_IV-0104                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Black-browed Albatross

    2. Andersen, K. “ Diomedea melanophrys boende paa Faeroerne,” Vid. Medd .,

    pp.241-64, 1894. 3. Cobb, A.F. Birds of the Faulkland Islands . Lond., Witherby, 1933, pp.13-15. 4. Hartert, Ernst. Die Vögel der Paläarktischen Fauna . Berlin, Friedländer,

    1910-21. Vol.2, p.1442. 5. Hørring, Rich., and Finn Salomonsen. “Further records of rare or new Green–

    land birds,” Medd.Grønland , vol.131, pp.59-60, 1941. 6. Murphy, R.C. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of

    Natural History, 1936. Vol.2, pp.505-14. 7. Wynne-Edwards, V.C. “Intermittent breeding of the fulmar ( Fulmarus

    glacialis (L.)), with some general observations on non-breeding

    in sea-birds,” Zool.Soc.Lon. Proc . vol.109, ser. A, p.130, 1939.

    048      |      Vol_IV-0105                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Black-footed Albatross

            33. Black-footed Albatross . A large albatross, Di o medea nigripes , believed

    to inhabit the North Pacific exclusively. Among searing folk it is known as the

    goony. It breeds on several widely separated islands, the most northward of

    which are, apparently, Tori Shima in the Seven Islands of Izu (Izu Shichito)

    and certain islands of the Volcano and Bonin group. When not breeding, it

    ranges northward regularly as far as the Kurils and Aleutians, the southern

    part of the Bering Sea, and Bristol Bay, Alaska. The southern limits of its

    journeying have not been very well worked out. It may occasionally wander

    south of the equator.

            It is about the size of a barnyard goose (28 inches long). Adults are

    sooty brown, darkest on the wings, scapulars, and tail, with more or less ex–

    tensive white areas on the forehad and face, directly below the eyes, and on

    the lower belly and under tail coverts. Young birds are similar, but have more

    white on the crown and sides of the head, and the rump and upper tail coverts

    are white, or white mottled with brown (Alexander). Both adult and young are

    dark-billed and dark-footed. For differences between young black-footed and

    young short-tailed albatrosses, see Short-tailed Albatross.

            Various authors have discussed the black-footed albatross’ following of

    vessels for food, but little has been reported in detail concerning its

    “natural” food. Animal life is known to be exceedingly abundant in waters

    just off the Aleutians, and the squids and pelagic crabs which have been

    founds in black-footed albatross stomachs probably are among the food items

    commonly eaten there.

            On its breeding ground the black-footed albatross performs a strange court–

    ship dance which the sailors call a “cake walk.” The pairs fence with their

    bills, making thereby a whetting sound, bow, point their beaks straight upward,

    049      |      Vol_IV-0106                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Black-footed Albatross

    clap their mandibles loudly, groan, and sometimes life their wings as they

    prance about facing one another. The nest is a mere hollow in the sand,

    without even a rim. There is but one egg, which is white, “boldly and

    handsomely splasht with dark brownish red, in some forming a cap or wreath

    about one end, usually the larger” (Richards). Both sexes incubate. The

    incubation period is about six weeks. Fledging requires about six months.

            While flying, all the albatrosses are usually silent. While quarreling

    over food among themselves, however, black-footed albatrosses give a “whir–

    ring groan.” On their nesting grounds they are vociferous at times. A char–

    acteristic cry ends with “a sound like the stroke of a bell under water or

    deep within the bird’s stomach” (Dill).

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Alexand d e r, W.B. Birds of the Ocean . N.Y., Lond., Putnam, 1928, p.22. 2. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.1-5, 1922. 3. Dill, H.R., and Bryan, W.A. Report of an Expedition to Laysan Island

    in 1911 . Wash., G.P.O., 1912, p.17, U.S.Bur. of Biological

    Survey. Bull . no.42. 4. Richards, T.W. “Nesting of Diomedea nigripes and D. immutabilis on

    Midway Islands,” Condor , vol.11, pp.122-23, 1909. 5. Yocom, Charles. “Notes on behavior and abundance of the Black-footed

    Albatrosses in the Pacific waters off the continental North

    American shores,” Auk , vol.64, pp.507-23, 1947.

    050      |      Vol_IV-0107                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Bulweria

            36. Bulweria . A genus of the petrel family (Procellariidae), very

    closely related to Pterodroma , but considerably smaller than most species of

    that genus and with proportionately smaller (weaker) feet and longer tail. The

    nasal tubes are on top of the bill and the external openings of the nostrils

    are two distinct round holes. There are two species, Bulweria bulwerii ,

    which breeds on islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and wanders

    occasionally into subarctic waters; and B. macgillivrayi , which is known only

    from the type (from Ngau, Fiji Islands).

            Bulweria appears to be a sort of connecting link between the Mother Carey’s

    chickens or storm petrels (family Hydrobatidae) and the larger Petrels (family

    Procellariidae). Its brownish-black color is very much like that of most Mother

    Carey’s chickens, but it is larger than any species of that group and it differs

    from them in having a long, cuneiform tail, small (weak) feet, and definitely

    separated nostril openings.

            See Bulwer’s Petrel.

            37. Bulwer’s Petrel . A rather small species, Bulweria bulwerii , which

    bears a strong superficial resemblance to the storm petrels or Mother Carey’s

    chickens (family Hydrobatidae), but is somewhat larger than the largest of them

    and different in that the nostril openings are well separated; the tail is rather

    long and definitely cuneiform rather than square, slightly rounded, or forked;

    and the feet are small and weak, the tarsus being only about as long as the toes.

    It is 10 to 11 inches long and sooty black all over, somewhat paler and grayer

    on the chin and greater wing coverts, but without a definite ruptive marking of

    any sort. The bill is black, the feet flesh-colored, with black outer toe and

    webs (Alexander).



    051      |      Vol_IV-0108                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Diomedea

            Bulwer’s petrel is found in both the Atlantic and the Pacific. It breeds

    on numerous islands and island-groups including the Bonins, Volcano Islands,

    Marquesas and western Hawaiians, as well as the Azores, Cape Verdes, Canary

    Islands, Salvages, and Madeira. According to Alexander ( Birds of the Ocean ,

    1928, p. 43) it is rarely seen at sea. In its migrations it wanders occa–

    sionally into subarctic waters. A specimen from Greenland is in the Leiden

    Museum.

            39. Diomedea . A genus of the Diomedeidae, or albatross family, consist–

    ing of 11 species, several of which have from time to time been placed in other

    genera currently considered synonyms of Diomedea . Two species are extremely

    large (with winspread of 10 to 11 feet), the others being considerably smaller

    but large in comparison with all other procellariiform birds except the giant

    fulmar ( Macronectes giganteus ). The genus is characterized by squareness of

    tail, the only other genus of the family, Phoebetria (sooty albatrosses), having

    a wedge-shaped and proportionately much longer tail.

            Of the eleven specie of Diomedea, eight nest exclusively in the Southern

    Hemisphere, three in the Northern (North Pacific). No species inhabits the

    North Atlantic today, but a fossil form, D. anglica , has been reported from the

    lower Pliocene of Europe. No species migrates regularly into arctic waters,

    but two of the three species which nest in the North Pacific — the short-tailed

    ( D. albatrus ) and the black-footed ( D. nigripes ) — wander more or less regularly

    into the Bering Sea, possibly even beyond the Diomedes, when not breeding, and

    several other species, including the black-browed ( D. melanophris ), wandering

    ( D. exulans ), yellow-nosed ( D. chlororhynchos ), and gray-headed ( D. chrysostoma ),

    have been recorded from time to time in northern seas.

            References:

    1. Hartert, Ernst. “Types of birds in the Tring Museum. B. Types in general

    collection. VII. (Turbinares.),” Novitates Zool . vol.33, no.3, pp.344-46, 1926. 2. ----. Die Vögel der Paläarktischen Fauna. Berling, Friedländer, 1910-21.

    vol.2, pp.1438-43. 3. Murphy, R.D. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of Natural

    History, 1936. vol.1, p.491.

    052      |      Vol_IV-0109                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Diomedea and Diomedeidae

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

            1. Hartert, Ernst. “Types of birds in the Tring Museum. B. Types in general

    collection. VII. (Turbinares.),” Novitates Zool . vol.33, no.3,

    pp.344-46, 1926.

            2. ----. Die Vögel der Paläarktischen Fauna. Berling, Friedländer, 1910-21.

    vol.2, pp.1438-43.

            Murphy, R.D. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of

    Natural History, 1936. vol.1, p.491.

            40. Diomedeidae . The procellariiform family of birds to which all the

    albatrosses of the world belong. They are a comparatively uniform group of 13

    species, all of which are large (28 to 40 inches long from tip of bill to tip

    of tail), heavy billed (bill as long as head, or longer), very long winged, and

    strong legged (the feet are webbed and there are but three toes). They are

    unlike other procellariiform birds in that the nostril tubes are distinctly

    separated by the ridge (culmen) of the bill. The wings are very narrow. One

    of the largest albatrosses has a wingspread of 10 to 11 feet, yet the wing of

    that species is only about 9 inches deep. The great wingspread, which results

    from elongation of the inner wing bones (ulna and radius) demands an increase

    in the number of secondary feathers, there being about 40 of these in an alba–

    torss’ wing. All albatrosses stand upright and walk well, but they sometimes

    have difficulty in[?] rising in flight from land unless they can leap from [ ?] a ledge

    or run for some distance into the wind.

            Two general are currently recognized — Diomedea , with 11 species and

    Phoebetria , with 2 species. Diomedea has a proportionately short, squarish

    tail, and is found in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere; w h ile

    053      |      Vol_IV-0110                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Diomedeidae and Fork-tailed Petrel

    Phoebetria has a proportionately longer, wedge-shaped tail, and is found

    only in the Southern Hemisphere. The albatrosses are far from cosmopolitan

    today, though they wander widely. There is no species either with a tropical

    or with a North Atlantic habitat. A species of Diomedea has, however, been

    reported from the Unterpliozän (lower Pliocene) of Europe (Lambrecht, 1933,

    Handbuch der Palaeornithologie , Berlin, 1933, pp.273-274), so the range of

    the family may have been more extensive in earlier times.

            No albatross occurs regularly in arctic waters, though the short-tailed

    albatross ( Diomedea albatrus ), which is now extremely rare, once bred on cer–

    tain North Pacific islands (north to about lat. 30° N.), and when not nesting

    wandered as far northward as the Komandorski Islands, the Diomedes, and the

    coast of Alaska (Norton Sound); the black-footed albatross ( D. nigripes ),

    which breeds on certain Pacific islands, wanders northward when not breeding

    to Kamchatka, the Kurils and Aleutians, and the coast of Alaska; and the black–

    browed albatross ( D. melanophris ) and yellow-nosed albatross ( D. chlororhynchos )

    wander well northward occasionally, the former having been recorded off Green–

    land, England, Norway, and Spitsbergen and for 40 consecutive years on the

    Fareores; the latter off Maine and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. See PROCELLARII–

    FORMES, Albatross, Diomedea , Short-tailed Albatross, Black-footed Albatross, and

    Black-browed Albatross.

            41. Fork-tailed Petrel . A small procellariiform bird, Oceanodroma furcata ,

    of the North Pacific Ocean. It is one of the so-called Mother Carey’s chickens

    (family Hydrobatidae). On Copper Island, in the Komandorski group, it is known

    as the sturmofka . It is about 8 inches long, and is a beautiful pearl gray all

    over save for the whitish edgings of the wing coverts, a small black area below

    the eye, the white of the throat and under tail covers, [ ?] and the grayish black

    054      |      Vol_IV-0111                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fork-tailed Petrel

    of the under wing coverts and axillary feathers. The tail, which is deeply

    forked, is gray, darker toward the tip, and edged with white.

            The fork-tailed petrel ranges northward to, and slightly beyond, the

    Arctic Circle. It breeds on the Kuril, Komandorski, and Aleutian Islands

    (east as far as Sanak), and along the North American mainland from extreme

    southeastern Alaska to Washington, Oregon, and northern California. After

    breeding it wanders northward through the Bering Sea, occasionally past

    the Diomedes and into Kotzebue Sound, thus reaching latitudes much higher

    than those regularly attained by the Wilson’s petrel ( Oceanites oceanicus )

    in the North Atlantic (the northern limit for that species is about lat.

    50° N.), and a little higher than those attained by the Leach’s petrel ( Ocean

    odroma leucorhoa ) and storm petrel ( Hydrobates pelagicus ), both of which

    breed on Vestmannaeyjar, off southern Iceland. The Leach’s petrel also

    breeds in the North Pacific, almost side by side with the fork-tailed

    petrel, but so far as is known it does not visit Kotzebue Sound.

            The fork-tailed petrel nests in burrows on turfy, sloping ground on the

    treeless Aleutians; among rocks on Copper Island in the Komandorskis; and

    in the soil under huge firs and hemlocks on islands off southeastern Alaska.

    Off the Oregon coast it nests on Arch Rocks. It breeds in June and July.

    The single egg is white, sometimes wreathed with fine brown dots at the

    larger end. Both sexes incubate. At is nesting colonies it is never evi–

    dent by day unless dug from its burrow, but at night the air is filled with

    the “soft twittering notes” of the birds as they leave their nests or return

    from the sea.

            References:

    1. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American [ ?] petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.132-37, 1922. 2. Grinnell, Joseph. “Petrels of Alaska,” Nidologist, vol.4, p.76, 1897. 3. Stejneger, L.H. Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander

    Islands and in Kamtschatka . Wash., G.P.O., 1885, pp.98-99.

    U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.29.

    055      |      Vol_IV-0112                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Fork-tailed Petrel and Fulmar

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            1. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American [ ?] petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.132-37, 1922.

            2. Grinnell, Joseph. “Petrels of Alaska,” Nidologist, vol.4, p.76, 1897.

            3. Stejneger, L.H. Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander

    Islands and in Kamtschatka . Wash., G.P.O., 1885, pp.98-99.

    U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.29.

            42. Fulmar or Fulmar Petrel . A well-known procellariiform bird, Fulmarus

    glacialis , found only in the Northern Hemisphere. Collett and Nansen reported

    it from latitude 85°05′ N., “the most northerly point attained by any species

    of birds” (Pleske). Darwin, in his Origin of Species considered the fulmar the

    most abundant bird in the world. It is the only species of the entire order

    Procellariiformes which nests regularly and commonly northward to and far beyond

    the Arctic Circle. It is holarctic in distribution, but its breeding range is

    far from continous, since it nests only on cliffs and the tops of high, rocky

    islands or promontories close to the sea. It does not require borrows, deep fis–

    sures, or crevices for its nesting, hence has established itself on bold-faced

    headlands which are wholly without turf or vegetation It is well known to the

    Eskimos, who call it the kakoodlook or kakordluk . According to Hantzsch, this

    word means “poor (or dubious) white, on account of the soiled coloring.” On

    the Komandorski Islands the bird is called the glupisch (Stejneger). In Scan–

    dinavian countries it is known as the mallemuk , transfugl , stormfugl , and havhest ;

    in Germany as the eissturmvogel . Off the coast of Massachusetts the fishermen

    call it the Marbleheader, oilbird, noddy, and stinker. The last is a distant

    equaivalent of the word fulmar itself, which is said to be a contraction of

    foulmart (stinking marten, or pole cat).



    056      |      Vol_IV-0113                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fulmar

            The geographical races of the fulmar are currently recognized. The

    nominate race, which is known as the Atlantic fulmar, breeds in the North At–

    lantic and Arctic oceans from Devon Island, Baffin Island, [ ?] and Greenland east–

    ward to Iceland, the Faeroes and British Isles, the coast of Norway, Spits–

    bergen, Bear Island, Jan Mayen, the Franz Josef Archipelago, Novaya Zemlya,

    and Lonely Island ( u U edinenia) in the Kara Sea. Throughout this whole area

    it is a familiar bird even in waters far removed from the breeding cliffs

    proper. It has been seen irregularly at all seasons along the Murman coast

    and Kanin Peninsula, and about Kolguev and Jan Mayen. In the New World it

    has been seen in the Arctic Archipelago as far west as Banks Island (Nelson

    Head and Cape Kellett), but no breeding colony has been discovered in that

    area. Handley did not encounter it about Prince Patrick Island. The southern

    limits of its breeding range are somewhat doubtful. There is a large colony

    at Cape Searle on the east coast of Baffin Island, and the bird may nest on

    the Buttons, at the eastern entrance to Hudson Strait. It has been seen in

    summer well southward along the Labrador coast and off southern England. During

    the last century it has increased its breeding range widely. It established

    itself on the Faeroes between 1816 and 1839. Before 1878 it was not known to

    nest anywhere about the British Isles except on St. Kilda. In Norway it was

    first recorded as a breeding species in 1924 (see Fisher and Waterston). It

    winters from the northern limit of open water off northern Labrador, east–

    central Greenland, Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen, and northern Norway to the Grand

    Banks of Newfoundland, Georges Bank off Massachusetts, and the north coast

    of France.

            The Pacific fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii ) nests on the coasts

    057      |      Vol_IV-0114                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fulmar

    of Kamchatka and eastern Siberia; on the Kuril and Komandorski Islands; on

    Wrangel Island and Herald Island in the Arctic Sea; on St. Matthew, St. Law–

    rence, Hall, and the Pribilofs in the Bering Sea; on the Semidi and Seal

    Islands, respectively, to the south and north of the Alaska Peninsula; and

    on Chagulak in the Aleutian Chain. No race of fulmar nests on Preobnazhnie

    (now Begichev) Island or on the “gull rocks” of the New Siberian Archipelago

    (Pleske). The Pacific fulmar winters from the Aleutians south to Sakhalin,

    Japan, and Baja California.

            The fulmar is a good-sized, chunky, somewhat gull-like bird about 20

    inches long. It has two color phases, a light and a dark (or a “white” and

    a gray). Gray birds are not nearly so common as “white” ones as a rule. The

    incidence of gray birds is said to be much higher on the American side of the

    North Atlantic than on the European, but even where they are commonest they

    “probably make up not more than one in twenty of the whole population” ( [ ?] Murphy ).

    Light-phased birds are white on the head, neck and under parts (including the

    under-wing coverts), and pearl gray on the mantle, rump, upper-tail coverts

    and tail, with a small dusky spot in front of the eye, and a pale spot on the

    upper surface of the wing toward the tip. Dark-phased birds are ashy gray all

    over. Some gray birds are noticeably darker than others and between the dark–

    est gray birds and the palest “white” ones there is every conceivable stage of

    intermediacy. In dark birds the bill is dusky, sometimes tinged with bluish-,

    greenish-, or yellowish-gray. In light birds it is dull yellow, washed with

    blue at the base of the upper mandible and with black on the nostril tubes.

    The feet are pale flesh color or grayish flesh, the eyes dark brown, almost

    black.



    058      |      Vol_IV-0115                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fulmar

            In flight the fulmar is quite dinstinctive. When gliding, it holds its

    wings rather stiffly, almost exactly at right angles to the vertical axis of

    the body, and the wings, back, rump, and tail in almost exactly the same

    plane, with the top of the head definitely above that plane (see photographs

    in British Birds 8: 230 and 232). It moves forward steadily in a series of

    smooth glides which are punctuated with three to five slow wing beats. In

    high wind it may rise suddenly and shoot off to one side with amazing speed.

    At times it barely skims the waves, with one wing almost touching the water,

    the other well above it, as if the air pressure between the moving water and

    the moving bird actually held it in position without the slightest effort on

    the part of the bird. Its flight, even when the wings are flapping, seems to

    be quite noiseless. This is probably the result of the softness of the feather

    edges.

            The fulmar is, like most procellariiform birds aside from the albatrosses,

    plantigrade. In alighting at its nest it waddles and shuffles about until it

    reaches and covers the egg. Alighting on the ice, it promptly sinks to its

    belly, or shifts about until it finds a comfortable spot, and squats. In leav–

    ing the nest, it usually has but to rise and push itself from the ledge with

    wings spread; from the ice it rises momentarily to its toes and springs di–

    rectly, if a trible awkwardly, into flight. In some respects its behavior

    is very different from that of its relative at the opposite end of the world —

    the giant fulmar ( Macronectes giganteus ), which is not only much larger, but

    also very strong-legged and strictly digitigrade.

            Fulmars are famous for their voracity. William Macgillivray, in his

    History of British Birds (1852), gives a vivid account of the behavior of

    the gluttonous birds about a whaling vessel. I have myself watched great

    059      |      Vol_IV-0116                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fulmar

    numbers of them as they hungrily followed our ship along the Labrador coast

    and in Hudson Strait. In 1926, when returning from Cape Wolstenhome in a

    schooner which had lost its propeller, hence was proceeding wholly under

    sail, I made good use of my time in collecting and skinning fulmars. We

    picked the birds from the water with long-handled scoop-nets. The hold, in

    which I did my skinning, my stateroom (such as it was), my clothes, my com–

    panions, in fact the whole schooner, stank of fulmar for weeks the quiet

    beauty of the birds as they wheeled about the vessel never failed to impress

    me. Almost never did I hear a vocal sound from them, or a rustle from their

    wings.

            The fulmar is a silent bird much of the time, but the noise of a feeding

    flock can be “almost deafening” (Morris). Collins has described the note as

    a “chuckling sound somewhat resembling a low grunt.”

            The fulmar may make a slight nest out of moss or grass, but usually it

    lays its single egg on the bare rock or earth. The egg is white, often nest–

    stained, and rather rough-shelled. Nesting sometimes starts so early that the

    eggs are laid directly on the ice. Pleske states that in the Far North egg–

    laying probably takes place “about the end of May or in the first days of

    June.” Both the male and female incubate. The period of incubation has been

    estimated at 6 to 8 weeks or even 60 days (Witherby). The newly hatched young

    is covered with thick, long white down which clings to the incoming feathers

    in a sort of mat until the bird has reached almost full size. The young bird

    is fed on regurgitated food, at least part of which is an amber-colored,

    malodorous, oily fluid. Wynne-Edwards has expressed belief that the fulmar

    does not breed annually. On Jan Mayen, where the species breed in great num–

    bers and is comparatively nonmigratory, it feeds on shrimps ( Hymenodora ),

    060      |      Vol_IV-0117                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fulmar

    small cuttle fish, sand eels ( Ammodytes ), and a clupeoid fish. On this island

    the fulmar is the sole food of the arctic fox (see G. C. and E. G. Bird).

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.31-46, 1922. 2. Bird, G.C., and Bird, E.G. “The birds of Jan Mayen Island,” Ibis , ser.13,

    vol.5, p.846, 1935. 3. Collett, Robert, and Nansen, Fridtjof. “An account of the birds,” Nansen,

    Fridtjof, ed. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition 1893-1896 .

    Scientific Results . Lond., N.Y., Longmans, Green, 1900, vol.1,

    no.4, p.50. 4. Darling, F.F. Wild Country . Cambridge, Eng, University Press, 1938,

    pp.11-19. 5. Fisher, James, and Waterston, George. “The breeding distribution, history

    and population of the fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis ) in the British

    Isles,” J.Animal Ecol . vol.10 no.2, pp.204-72, Nov., 1941. 6. Hantzsch, Bernard. “Contribution to the knowledge of the avifauna of north–

    eastern Labrador,” Canad.Field Nat . vol.42, p.172, Oct., 1928. 7. Koenig, A.F. Avifauna Spitzbergensis . Bonn, Druck von W. Büxenstein, 1911,

    pp.204-206. 8. Kumlien, Ludwig. “Contributions to the natural history of arctic America,

    made in connection with the Howgate Polar Expedition, 1877-78,”

    U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.15, pp.101-102, 1879. 9. Macgillivray, William. History of British Birds . London, 1837-52. 5 vol. 10. Murphy, R.C. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of

    Natural History, 1936. 2 vol. 11. Pike, O.B. “Notes on the habits of the Fulmar Petrel,” British Birds , vol.8,

    pp.230, 232, June, 1914-May, 1915. 12. Pleske, Theodore. “Birds of the Eurasian tundra,” Boston Soc.Nat.Hist. Mem .

    vol.6, no.3, pp.107-485, Apr., 1928. 13. Stejneger, L.H. Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander

    Islands and in Kamtschatka. Wash., G.P.O., 1885, p.95. U.S.Nat.Mus.

    Bull . no.29. 14. Witherby, H.F. Handbook of British Birds . London, Witherby, 1942, vol.2, p.445. 15. Wynne-Edwards, V.C. “Intermittent breeding of the fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis

    (L.)), with some general observations on non-breeding in sea-birds,”

    Zool.Soc.Lond. Proc . vol.109, ser.A, pp.127-32, 1939.

    061      |      Vol_IV-0118                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fulmar

            43. Fulmarus . A monotypic genus of the family Procellariidae (petrels)

    found only in the Northern Hemisphere, yet morphologically similar to the mono–

    typic genera Macronectes (giant fulmar or giant petrel), Daption (Cape Pigeon

    or p [ ?] tado petrel), Priocella (silver-gray fulmar), and Halobaena (blue petrel) of the

    Southern Hemisphere. It is the only genus of the entire order Procellariiformes

    which is known to breed northward to and well beyond the Arctic Circle. A fossil

    Fulmarus has been reported from the Miocene of Maryland (Wetmore) and Fulmarus

    glacialis has been reported from the Pleistocene of California.

            Fulmarus is a rather large gull-like bird with slightly rounded tail of

    14 rectrices; a compressed, thin, short tarsus (shorter than the toes); and

    nostrils in a high tube on top of the bill, but divided at the opening by a thin

    membrane. The bill is short and wide at the base, much compressed at the tip,

    the upper mandible being strongly hooked, the lower rounded to fit along the cut–

    ting edge, but sharply angled below at the tip, possibly to add to the structure’s

    rigidity and pulling power.

            In coloration the genus is curiously variable — some adults being white

    throughout the head and under parts, gray otherwise; others being gray all over;

    others showing every possible stage of intermediacy between the two. Wholly

    white birds, which are rare, may be albinos.

            The genus is holarctic in distribution. It breeds on some of the most

    northern land, including north Greenland, Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen, the Franz Josef

    Archipelago, and Novaya Zemlya, but its breeding range is highly discontin u ous,

    for it does not nest along flat coa s ts. In winter it has been recorded in the

    Atlantic as far south as latitu t de 43° N., and in the Pacific as far south as

    about latitude 30° N. (see Peters).

            See Fulmar Petrel.

            References:

    1. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World . Cambridge, Mass., Harvard

    Univ. Press, 1931. Vol.1, p.47. 2. Wetmore, Alexander. “Observations on fossil birds described from the Miocene

    of Maryland,” Auk , vol.43, pp.464-65, Oct., 1926.

    062      |      Vol_IV-0119                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Fulmarus and Greater Shearwater

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

            1. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World . Cambridge, Mass., Harvard

    Univ. Press, 1931. Vol.1, p.47.

            2. Wetmore, Alexander. “Ob s ervations on fossil birds described from the Mio–

    cene of Maryland,” Auk , vol.43, pp.464-65, Oct., 1926.

            45. Greater Shearwater . A rather large procellariiform bird, Puffinus

    gravis
    , which breeds in the South Atlantic but migrates regularly to the North

    Atlantic during the northern summer. A l m ong Labrador “liveyers” it is commonly

    called the hag, hagdon, or hagdown. Although it does not wander north of the

    Arctic Circle, it is sometimes exceedingly common just south of the Circle,

    especially off the coast of south Greenland, along the Labrador coast, and on

    the Grand Banks off Newfoundland. Its abundance off the coast of South Caro–

    lina was dramatically attested during the hurricane of August 26-27, 1893, when

    “countless numbers” were found dead along the beach of Long Island, near Sulli–

    van’s Island (Wayne). The species was originally described from a specimen ob–

    tained not far from Cape Farewell, Greenland (O’Reilly). The sailors of

    O’Reilly’s vessel called the bird the Cape hen.

            In migrating from its South Atlantic breeding ground, the greater shear–

    water crosses the tropics with great rapidity, presumably because of the

    scarcity of food there. It moves northward through the western half of the

    North Atlantic, spreading out when it reaches the 45th parallel, reaching Davis

    Strait in early June, and appearing off the east coast of south Greenland at

    about the same time. It moves farther eastward as summer advances, at the same

    time becoming more and more common at high latitudes. In the first two weeks

    of August it passes east of a line between Ireland and the Azores (Wynne-Edwards).



    063      |      Vol_IV-0120                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Greater Shearwater

            The greater shearwater is 18 to 21 inches long with a bill about 2 to 2-1/2

    inches long (measuring base to tip diagonally along the clumen). It is brown

    above, darker on the wings and tail, and still darker on the top of the head.

    The white of the foreneck almost forms a collar, and the longer upper coverts

    are tipped with white, forming a patch or bar. The lower half of the head and

    the under parts are white, save for the lower belly and middle under-tail

    coverts, which are sooty brown. The under-wing coverts are white flecked with

    brown. The bill is dark horn color. The feet are dull bronish gray (lighter

    on the inner surface of the tarsus) with flesh-colored webs.

            In the water the greater shearwater is a rather sluggish bird, given to

    sleeping after it has eaten heavily. In rising from the surface it faces the

    wind, and if there is no wind it flaps rather ponderously while paddling alter–

    nately with its feet. In full flight it is the very embodiment of grace —

    especially in a storm when, soaring swiftly up the side of a mountainous

    wave, it barely misses the white, wind-torn crest, and slips effortlessly down

    into the yawning trough. It is possessed of a ravenous appetite and sometimes

    eats so much that it cannot rise from the water without vomiting. Occasionally,

    when a vessel bears down, it seeks escape through diving. It dives rather

    well, and even swims under water.

            It nests on certain islands of the Tristan da Cunha group, laying a single

    white egg in burrows which it digs on hillsides. The height of the egg-laying

    season is November. Both sexes incubate the egg and care for the young. On

    May 21, 1922 Sir Hubert Wilkins found this shearwater on Nightingale and In–

    accessible. Between 10 A.M. and 5 A.M. very few birds were in evidence, but

    at night they flocked in by the hundred. A few, which croaked as they lay in

    their burrows, were captured. The sex organs of these specimens were not

    064      |      Vol_IV-0121                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Greater Shearwater

    enlarged, and Wilkins found no eggs in the burrows. As Murphy points out,

    May 21 is close to the average date of arrival for the species off the At–

    lantic coast of the United States.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.65-71, 1922. 2. Brockhuysen, G.J. “Observations on the Great Shearwater in the breeding-season,

    British Birds , vol.41, pp.338-41, 1948. 3. Murphy, R.C. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of

    Natural History, 1936. Vol.2, pp.660-64. 4. O’Reilly, Bernard. Greenland, the Adjacent Seas, and the North-West

    Passage to the Pacific Ocean . Lond., Baldwin, Craddock and

    Joy, 1818, pp.140-41, and plate 12. 5. Wayne, A.T. “Effect of the great cyclone of August 26-27 upon certain

    [ ?] species of birds,” Auk , vol.11, p.85, Jan., 1894. 6. Wilk e i ns, G.H. “Report on the birds collected during the voyage of the

    ‘Quest’ (Shackleton-Rowett Expedition) to the southern

    Atlantic,” Ibis , ser.11, vol.5, no.3, p.499, July, 1923. 7. Wynne-Edwards, V.C. “On the habits and distribution of birds of the north

    Atlantic,” Boston Soc.Nat.Hist. Proc . vol.40, p.255, 1935.

           

    # # # # #

            47. Hydrobates . The monotypic procellariiform genus to which the true

    storm or stormy petrel ( H. pelagicus ) belongs. It is most closely related to

    Oceanodroma , but the tail is square or slightly rounded (rather than forked)

    and slightly less than half (rather than more than half) as long as the wing.

    The tarsus is only a little longer than the middle toe with its claw. Accord–

    ing to some authors, the tarsus is “divided into scutes” in front; but this

    probably is not a very strong character, for the scales, while proportionately

    065      |      Vol_IV-0122                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Hydrobates and Hydrobatidae

    (if not actually) larger than in Oceanodroma , are less distinct, and the gen–

    eral effect they create is, as in Oceanodroma , of reticulation rather than

    scutellation.

            The down-covered chick of Hydrobates has a bald spot on its crown. This

    may be a valid generic character. The genus ranges throughout the eastern

    North Atlantic, breeding locally from islands of the western Mediterranean

    northward to small islands off the British Isles, the coast of Norway (Lofo–

    ten), and southern Iceland (Vestmann Islands), and ranging, when not breeding,

    westward to waters off the coasts of Nova Scotia, Labrador, and (occasion–

    ally) Greenland; eastward to the Red Sea; and southward to the coasts of

    tropical western Africa.

            See Storm or Stormy Petrel, Mother Carey’s Chicken and Hydrobatidae.

            48. Hydrobatidae . The procellariiform family to which the storm petrels,

    or Mother Carey’s chickens, belong. They are a fairly uniform group of small,

    web-footed, long-winged oceanic birds with sooty black, balck-and white, or

    gray-and-white plumage. They differ from other members of the order Procellari–

    iformes (a) structurally, in that the external opening of the nostrils is in

    a single tube on top of the bill; and (b) in behavior, in that they have a

    swallow-like, fluttering flight. Almost invariably they feed awing, and

    they use their feet so much that they appear to be running on the water.

            The family Hydrobatidae (subfamily Hydrobatinae of some authors) is a

    group of about 25 species belonging to the general Oceanites, Pelagodroma ,

    Nesofregetta, Garrodia, Hydrobates, Oceanodroma , and Halocyptena . So diverse

    is the year-round distribution of these birds that the family as a whole

    cannot be called “southern,” or “northern,” or “tropical.” Some species

    seem to be restricted to ocean areas throughout which the physical

    066      |      Vol_IV-0123                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Hydrobatidae

    characteristics of the surface water are the same; but other range over

    waters which must vary greatly. Thus the Wilson’s petrel ( Oceanites oceani

    cus ) nests in the Antarctic — even on the Antarctic continent itself — and

    travels annually northward across the tropics to subarctic seas. Several

    species are confined to waters off the west coast of the New World. One

    species, the stormy petrel ( Hydrobates pelagicus ), is principal o l y an eastern

    North Atlantic bird, but when not nesting it wanders to the Red Sea and the

    coasts of tropical West Africa.

            The storm petrels have similar nesting habits. All of them lay their

    single egg in a burrow. Males and r f emales are believed to share the duties

    of incubation, but it has been pointed out (a) that males have been taken

    on the nest more frequently than females and (b) that the brood patch is

    larger or more definite in males than in females, so the male may assume

    most of these domestic duties. The period of incubation is very long —

    38 to 40 days in Hydrobates pelagicus (stormy petrel) and 39 to 48 days in

    Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson’s petrel) — and fledging of the young requires

    several weeks more. The newly hatched young is covered with extremely dense,

    soft down, some of which adheres to the tips of the incoming firm plumage

    until the very eve of departure from the burrow.

            No member of the Hydrobatidae is exclusively northern in distribution

    as is the fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis ), but four species are arctic in a

    limited sense — the stormy petrel, which nests in the eastern North Atlantic

    as far north as south Iceland; the Leach’s petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa ),

    which nests northward to the Kurils, Komandorskis, Aleutians, and coasts of

    Alaska in the Pacific, and to Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, southern Greenland,

    067      |      Vol_IV-0124                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Hydrobatidae and Leach’s Petrel

    south Iceland, and the Faeroes in the Atlantic; the wide-ranging Wilson’s

    petrel, which breeds in antarctic regions and migrates northward to subarctic

    waters; and the fork-tailed petrel ( Oceanodroma furcata ), which nests on the

    Komandorski and Aleutians Island and along the west coast of North America

    from southern Alaska to northern California and after breeding wanders north–

    ward, some individuals moving through Bering Strait into Kotzbue Sound.

            See Hydrobates , Oceanites , Oceanodroma , Stormy Petrel, Leach’s Petrel,

    Wilson’s Petrel, Fork-tailed Petrel, and Mother Carey’s Chicken.

            49. Leach’s Petrel . A small procellariiform bird, Oceanodroma leucorhoa ,

    belonging to the family Hydrobatidae (storm petrels or Mother Carey’s chickens).

    It [ ?] is about eight inches long, and is sooty brown all over save for the boldly

    white upper tail coverts, grayish brown wing coverts, and a few white feathers

    on the flanks. The tail is deeply forked . The wings are noticeably longer

    than those of the stormy petrel ( Hydrobates pelagicus ) and Wilson’s petrel

    ( Oceanites oceanicus ), and the white of the upper tail coverts does not form

    a triangular or square white patch, because the dark middle feathers almost

    divide it. The flight of these three Mother Carey’s chickens is quite differ–

    ent. That of the stormy petrel has been described as “batlike”; that of

    Wilson’s petrel as “swallow-like”; that of Leach’s petrel as “night jar-like.”

            Leach’s petrel has a very wide range. It breeds in the North Pacific

    and North Atlantic and migrates southward to the coasts of Japan, Mexico,

    Brazil, and Sierra Leone (occasionally to the Galapagos and the Cape of Good

    Hope). It breeds northward to the Kur i ls, Komandorskis, Aleutians, Newfound–

    land, southern Labrador, southern Greenland, southern Iceland, the Faeroes,

    and the British Isles. It nests from May to August (and probably later), lay–

    ing its single egg in a burrow in the turf. Murphy has called attention to

    068      |      Vol_IV-0125                                                                                                                  
    EA - Orn. Sutton: Leach’s Petrel

    the remarkable state of affairs which exists among the petrels of the Newfound–

    land and New England costs in June and July. There the nonbreeding Wilson’s

    petrel, whose nesting ground is thousands of miles to the south, flutters

    about in the bays and coves for all to see, while the Leach’s petrel, which

    is nesting by the thousands in the immediate vicinity, is never seen at all

    because it comes and goes wholly under cover of night!

            The nest burrow is excavated entirely by the male. It is about 3 feet

    long and may extend as much as 16 inches below ground. When the females come

    to the breeding ground at night the males call from the burrows, and the

    females answer from the air; the birds are attracted to each other, and copula–

    tion finally takes place. The egg is white, sometimes wreathed at the larger

    end with fine brown dots. Both sexes incubate. The incubation period is 42

    to perhaps 50 days, and fledging requires 6 to 7 weeks more (Gross). Several

    interesting accounts have been written of the noctural activities of the birds

    on their nesting grounds. Audubon described the call note of the incubating

    bird as a gentle peur-wit . Frank M. Chapman heard at Bird Rock “a distinctly

    enunciated call of eight notes with a certain crowing quality.” The cry o f

    the flying bird has been imitated as Got any terbacker ? or as Johnny get your

    hair cut . If a nest burrow is opened by day the incubating bird makes no at–

    tempt to fly off, but scrambles about trying to find a dark place in which to

    hide. It is gentle if handled, but may eject foul-smelling stomach oil from

    its mouth.

            Interesting experiments concerning the homing instincts have been per–

    formed on Leach’s petrels capture in their nest burrows on outer islands of

    the Bay of Fundy. “A large percentage of the birds returned from distances

    up to 360 miles from the nearest land and 470 miles from their nests” (Griffin).



    069      |      Vol_IV-0126                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Leach’s Petrel

            Five races of Leach’s petrel are currently recognized. The nominate

    race breeds in Japan (Hokkaido), the Kurils, Copper Island in the Komandor–

    skis, certain of the Aleutians, and in the North Atlantic north to southern

    Iceland and southern Greenland and south to Maine (Massachusetts possibly)

    and the British Isles. The other races, which differ from each other in

    minor details, nest on islands off the Pacific coast of North America —

    beali from southeastern Alaska south to the Farralon Islands off San Francisco

    Bay, California; willetti on the Los Coronados; chapmani on the San Benitos;

    and socorroensis on Guadalupe.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Ainslie, J.A., and Atkinson, Robert. “On the breeding habits of Leach’s

    Fork-tailed Petrel,” British Birds , vol.30, pp.234-48,

    276-77, 1937. 2. Brown, F.A. “Machias Seal Islands,” Bird-Lore , vol.13, p.239, 1911. 3. Chapman, F.M. Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America . N.Y., Apple–

    ton, 1912, p.177. 4. Griffin, D.R. “Homing experiments with Leach’s petrels,” Auk , vol.57,

    p.73, Jan., 1940. 5. Gross, W.A.O. “The life history cycle of Leach’s Petrel ( Oceanodroma

    leucorghoa leucorhoa ) on the outer islands of the Bay of

    Fundy,” Ibid . vol.52, pp.382-99, 1935. 6. Murphy, R.C. “Birds of the high seas,” Nat.Geogr.Mag . vol.74, p.228, 1938.

    070      |      Vol_IV-0127                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Manx Shearwater.

            50. Manx Shearwater . A middle-sized procellariiform bird, Puffinus

    puffinus , so called because it formerly bred on the Isle of Man. It is known

    also as the common shearwater. It is primarily a bird of the eastern North

    Atlantic and medi g t erranean Sea. The nominate race breeds on the Azores,

    Madeira, the Salvages, the Bermudas, the coast of Brittany, the British Isles,

    the Faeroes, and Vestmann Islands (just south of Iceland). An eastern Medit–

    erranean race ( P. puffinus yelkouan ) breeds on islands in the Aegean. A

    western Mediterranean race ( P. Puffinus mauretanicus ) breeds probably on the

    Balearic Isles and the coasts of Sardinia and Corsica (Peters).

            The Manx shearwater is smaller than the greater shearwater ( P. gravis P. gravis ),

    but rather like it in color and pattern. It is 14 to 15 inches long (with

    bill 1-1/2 to about 2 inches long), and is, generally speaking, blackish

    brown above and white below. The sides of the head and neck are mottled with

    brownish gray, the dividing line between the dark upper part of the head and

    the white of the checks and throat being less definite than in gravis . The

    outer under tail coverts are dark. The under wings are white, though the

    axillary feathers have dark tips. The bill is black, bluish gray at the base.

    The feet are pinkish flesh color on the inner surface (tarsus and toes),

    brownish black on the outer, and gray-blue on the webs (Alexander).

            This shearwater has been very carefully studied by R. M. Lockley on

    the little island of Skokholm, well off the coast of Pembrokeshire. Here

    more than 5,000 pairs nest, using burrows beneath the heather, bracken, and

    grass. The species is resident on the island about eight months of the year

    (mid-February to mid-October) and migrating at sea for the other four months.

    On returning in the spring, the birds, which evidently mate for life, make

    071      |      Vol_IV-0128                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Manx Shearwater

    their way directly to their own burrows. Since some burrows cave in during

    the winter and many young birds are in need of nesting places for the first

    time, there is sharp competition. Two pairs sometimes occupy a burrow to–

    gether for a time; but the pair which first produces an egg usually keeps

    the burrow for the season. The single egg is white and smooth shelled.

    The nest proper varies according to the material which is available close

    by the burrow’s entrance. Both sexes incubate and care for the young.

            Lockley found that the birds gathered at sea, some miles out from the

    island, in the afternoon well before their evening return. Here they

    preened, rested, and bathed. About two hours after sunset (earlier in

    rainy weather) they flew in, each going promptly to its own burrow. If,

    on alighting, it was not greeted by the cries of its mate, it waited until

    the other arrived, whereupon the two birds caressed each other, wrestled,

    called to each other, and entered the burrow. Incubating birds sometimes

    remained in the burrows for days at a stretch.

            The incubation period if 52 to 54 days. The chick is down-covered.

    When it is 16 days old a second down sprouts. This down reaches full growth

    on the 35th day. By the 42nd day the quills begin to project from their

    sheaths. When the young bird is about 60 days old it is full-feath e red but

    still more or less down-covered. At this time the parents, which have under–

    gone their own postnuptial molt during the long fledging period, desert the

    nest entirely. The young bird stays in the burrow for several days, living

    on stored fat, then makes its way out to sea by itself. If the wind is

    favorable and luck is with it, its first flight may carry it to water, where

    it is instantly at home. But many a young shearwater which has to scramble

    seaward by stages falls victim to a hawk, gull or crow.



    072      |      Vol_IV-0129                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Manx Shearwater and Mollymauk

            One of Lockley’s interesting findings was that the shearwaters were much

    more at ease, so to speak, during stormy weather than in calm weather. The

    wind permitted them to approach the burrows slowly and to make good landings.

            References:

    1. Alexander, W.B. Birds of the Ocean . N.Y., Lond., Putnam, 1928, pp.43-44. 2. Lockley, R.M. “Further notes on the breeding-habits of the Manx Shearwater,”

    British Birds , vol.24, pp.202-07, 1931. 3. - - - -. “On the breeding-habits of the Manx Shearwater, with special

    reference to its incubation- and fledging-periods,” Ibid ,

    vol.23, pp. 202-18, 1930. 4. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World . Cambridge, Mass., Harvard

    Univ. Press, 1931. Vol. 1, p. 57.

            52. Mollymauk . A name widely used among seamen for various procellarii–

    form birds, especially albatrosses in brown or piebald subadult plumage stages;

    shearwaters and larger petrels of various sorts; and the fulmar ( Fulmarus

    glacialis ) of northern seas. The word is often spelled (and pronounced)

    mollymoke. W.B. Alexander, in his Birds of the Ocean (1928, p. 5) states

    that mollymauk “is a corruption of the Dutch ‘Mallemuck,’ derived from ‘mal’

    (foolish) and ‘mok’ (gull).” Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary lists mallemuck

    (not mollymauk ), stating that the Dutch nouns mallemoke and malmoke (meaning

    “companion to a harpooner”) were derived from the Eskimo verb mallikpok ,

    meaning “to follow.” The Eskimo name for the fulmar, kakoodlook , or an

    equivalent, obviously bears no resemblance to the word mollymauk .



    073      |      Vol_IV-0130                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: [ ?] Mother Carey’s Chicken

            53. Mother Carey’s Chicken . A widely used common name for any of sev–

    eral small, web-footed oceanic birds belonging to the order Procellariiformes

    and family Hydrobatidae (or subfamily Hydrobatinae) and known in scientific

    circles as the storm petrels. They are fairly uniform as a group, being about

    6 to 10 inches long and sooty black, black-and-white, or gray-and-white in

    color. There are about 25 species, belonging to 8 genera. Their flight is

    graceful and swallowlike, and they customarily feed awing, using their feet

    a great deal as they flutter and pitter-patter along the surface. They are

    creatures of the high seas, and at times seem to be especially abundant in

    stormy weather, when their ability to keep out of the wind in the troughs

    between the waves, and their apparent enjoyment of the tempest, are truly

    amazing. One of the funniest sights in mid-ocean is the “embarrassment” of

    two Mother Carey’s chickens which, in passing over the crest of a wave from

    a trough at either side, happen to meet and collide.

            The term “Mother Carey’s Chicken” may, according to Robert C. Murphy,

    “have a medieval religious origin. The name of this vague demigoddess — no

    doubt the wife of Davy Jones — has been traced by some to prayers addressed

    by storm-tossed Mediterranean sailors to the Virgin, the mater cara , or ‘dear

    Mother’” (“Birds of the high seas,” Natl. Geog. Mag . 1938, 74: 234).

            See Hydrobatidae, Petrel, Storm Petrel, Leach’s Petrel, Wilson’s Petrel,

    Fork-tailed Petrel, Oceanites , Oceanodroma and Hydrobates .

            55. Oceanites . A procellariiform genus composed of two species of small

    storm petrels, or Mother Carey’s chickens. Oceanites is similar to Hydrobates

    and Oceanodroma in general appearance, but the legs are longer, the tarsus

    being much longer than the middle toe and its claw; and the webbing between

    the toes is yellow. The two species are: O. gracilis , Elliot’s petrel, one

    074      |      Vol_IV-0131                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Oceanites and Oceanodroma

    race of which breeds on the Galapagos Islands, the other presumably on

    islands off the coast of Chile, Peru, or Ecuador; and O. oceanicus , Wilson’s

    petrel, which breeds on South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shet–

    lands, Kerguelen, Tierra del Fuego, the Falklands, and various islands and

    coasts of Antarctica. The year-round wanderings of this bird take it to

    subarctic waters in the North Atlantic, but in other oceans it does not, so

    far as is known, wander north of the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, New Guinea,

    and littoral waters off northern Peru (Roberts).

            See Wilson’s Petrel.

            56. Oceanodroma . A genus of small petrels or Mother Carey’s chickens

    (family Hydrobatidae) characterized as follows: the tarsus is short (not

    longer than the middle toe and its claw); and the tail is forked and much

    more than half as long as the wing. Oceanodroma is similar to Hydrobates

    but larger, and fork-tailed rather than square-tailed. It also resembles

    Oceanites , which is comparatively square-tailed and has a much longer tarsus.

    There is considerable range of pattern within the genus, some forms being

    wholly black; others black and white; one a beautiful pearl gray; and one

    brownish gray above, white below, with a dark band across the breast and a

    white collar.

            Some twenty forms (11 species, the rest subspecies) are currently recog–

    nized, several of which breed wholly in the Northern Hemisphere, some both to

    the north and to the south of the equator; and at least one wholly in the

    Southern Hemisphere. The g G alapagos storm petrel ( O. tethys ) breeds on the

    Galapagos Islands and islands off the coast of Peru. The Madeira petrel

    ( O. castro ) breeds on several North Atlantic islands, as well as on St.

    Helena, the Hawaiians, and the Galapagos. The Guadalupe petrel, ( O. macro

    dactyla ), which formerly bred on Guadalupe Island, is now probably extinct.

    Hornby’s petrel ( O. hornbyi ) breeds in the Chilean Andes.



    075      |      Vol_IV-0132                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Oceanodroma and Petrel

            Only two of the 11 species breed in subarctic regions — the Leach’s

    petrel ( O. leucorhoa ) and the fork-tailed petrel ( O. furcata ). Several races

    of Leach’s petrel have been described, the northernmost of which, O. leucorhoa

    leucorhoa , breeds both in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, as far

    north as the Kurils, Komandorskis, Aleutians (Attu, Amchitka, and Kiska),

    southern Alaska, Newfoundland, southern Labrador, southern Greenland, southern

    Iceland, the Faeroes, and the British Isles, and winters southward to the

    coasts of Japan, Mexico, Brazil, Sierra Leone, and occasionally to the Galapagos

    and the Cape of Good Hope (Alexander, Birds of the Ocean , 1928, p.84).

            The fork-tailed petrel is a bird of the North Pacific. It nests as far

    north as the Kurils, Komandorskis, Aleutians, and southern Alaska, and ranges

    northward through the Bering Sea, past the Diomedes and into Kotzebue Sound.

    It is probably the only species of the genus which wanders regularly northward

    to the Arctic Circle and beyond.

            See Leach’s Petrel and Fork-tailed Petrel.

            58. Petrel . A small or middle-sized oceanic bird of the order Procellari–

    iformes, especially one of the several small black, black-and-white, or gray–

    and-white species belonging to the family Hydrobatidae and familiarly known

    as Mother Carey’s chickens. These birds customarily feed while flying, flut–

    tering along just above the water and using their feet a great deal as well

    as their wings.

            The word petrel may possibly be a diminutive of Peter — in allusion to

    St. Peter’s walking on the sea (Matthew XIV, 29). If one species deserves

    more than others to be called the petrel, it is probably Hydrobates pelagicus ,

    the stormy (or storm) petrel, a bird of the eastern North Atlantic and western

    Mediterranean which nests as far north as southern Iceland; but the term is

    076      |      Vol_IV-0133                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Oceanodroma and Petrel; Pink-footed Shearwater

    very loosely applied, several widely differin [ ?] g genera and species being known

    as petrels. Thus the fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis ) is frequently referred to

    as the fulmar petrel; the giant fulmar ( Macronectes giganteus ) is often re–

    ferred to as the giant petrel; birds of the small but uniform procellariiform

    family Pelecanoididae, of southern oceans, are almost always referred to as

    the diving petrels; the large family Procellariidae is known collectively as

    “the petrels”; and such species as Pterodroma hasitata and Pagodroma nivea

    are rarely called anything but, respectively, the black-ca p ped petrel and snow

    petrel. In general, the term is applied to all procellariiform birds with

    the exception of the albatrosses (family Diomedeidae).

            59. Pink-footed Shearwater . A rather large procellariiform bird, Puffinus

    creatopus
    , sometimes known as the red-footed, Coues’s, or Copper’s Shearwater.

    It is found in the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean in both the Northern and

    Southern Hemispheres. It breeds on Mas a Tierra and Santa Clara Islands of

    the Juan Fernandez group, and on Mocha Island (lat. 38° 25′ S.) off Chile

    (Murphy, 1936, Oceanic Birds of South America , 2: 64), and migrates northward

    along the American coast at least as far as southern Alaska.

            It is about 20 inches long and is quite variable in coloration. Generally

    speaking, it is brown above and white below, but some individuals are so heavily

    barred and freckled on the under parts as to appear gray-breasted at a distance.

    These dark-breasted birds are usually dark throughout the under wing coverts

    also. In all birds the bill is light yellowish-flesh color save along the

    culmen, where it is dark bro w n. The feet are not really pink or red, but are

    light flesh color, the outer toe and outer side of the tarsus being brown, the

    claws white with brown tips.

            The pink-footed shearwater appears to be closely related to the so-called

    077      |      Vol_IV-0134                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariidae

    cineraceous shearwater ( Puffinus kuhlii ), an Atlantic species represented by

    several races, among them the Mediterranean shearwater ( P. kuhlii kuhlii ),

    which breeds on islands in the Mediterranean, and the well-known Cory’s

    shearwater ( P. kuhlii borealis ), which breeds on the Azores, canaries, Sal–

    vages, and Madeira, and migrates northward in the Atlantic to about latitude

    44° N.

            See Puffinus.

            60. Procellariidae . A family of tube-nosed, long-winged oceanic birds,

    collectively known as petrels and belonging to the order Procellariiformes.

    Opinion differs as to whether the 8 genera (11 species) of storm petrels

    (Mother Carey’s chickens) should form a subfamily under the Procellariidae

    or stand as a full family (Hydrobatidae) by themselves. Since, on the basis

    of behavior, small size, and the position of the nostrils in a single tube

    on top of the bill, the storm petrels form a homogeneous unit which is quite

    different from all other procellariiform birds, full family rank for them seems

    warranted. This leaves the family Procellariidae with 13 genera which have

    been divided into 2 subfamilies (Fulmarinae and Puffininae) by some authors.

            The Procellariidae, as just defined, are smaller than the albatrosses

    (Di o medeidae), the single exception being the giant fulmar, which is about the

    size of the smaller albatrosses; and they differ also in having the nostril

    tubes more or less together on the top, rather than on the side, of the bill.

    They are larger than the Hydrobatidae, though Bulwer’s petrel ( Bulweria bul

    werii ) is small and rather like a Mother Carey’s chicken in general appearance.

    They are very dissimilar, of course, to the chunky, short-winged diving petrels

    (Pelecanoididae) of southern seas — birds whose flight is similar to that of

    078      |      Vol_IV-0135                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton:Procellariidae

    the auks and murres (Alcidae), and whose nostrils open upward and are pro–

    tected by a high, firm wall at either side.

            The Procellariidae are of special interest to us, since the only truly

    arctic procellariiform bird of the world, the fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis )

    belongs to it. The fulmar is found only in the Northern Hemisphere, nests

    northward to the Arctic Circle and well beyond, and in its wanderings flies

    to within a few degrees of the North Pole. It has been called the “world’s

    most northern bird.” Puzzlingly enough, the genera and species which appear

    to be most closely related to the fulmar are, however, far removed geograph–

    ically — the giant fulmar ( Macronectes ), Cape pigeon or pintado petrel ( Dap

    tion ), blue petrel ( Halobaena ) and silver-gray fulmar ( Priocella ) all being

    birds of remote southern seas.

            Of the 13 genera currently placed in the Procellariidae, at least eight

    arte monotypic ( Macronectes, Fulmarus, Daption, Ha n l obaena, Priocella, Thalas

    soica, Adamastor , [ ?] and Pagodroma ). Of the polytypic genera, those which

    have the greatest number of forms are Pterodroma (28 species) and Puffinus

    (19 species). Pachyptila has four species, Procellaria three, and Bulweria two.

    Of the just-named polytypic genera only one ( Puffinus ) ranges at all regu–

    larly northward to the Arctic Circle and beyond. The more or less arctic

    species of Puffinus are: P. puffinus , the common or Manx shearwater, which

    nests in the eastern North Atlantic as far north as Iceland; P. tenuirostris ,

    the slender-billed shearwater, which breeds in the Australian region and

    migrates regularly through the North Pacific and Bering Sea into the Arctic

    Sea; P. gravis , the greater shearwater, which nests on the Tristan da Cunha

    group and migrates northward through the Atlantic to the coasts of Labrador

    and southern Greenland; and P. griseus , the sooty shearwater, which nests in

    079      |      Vol_IV-0136                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariidae and Procellariiformes

    widely separated parts of the Southern Hemisphere and migrates northward in

    both the Atlantic and the Pacific almost to the Arctic Circle. The Cory’s

    Mediterranean shearwater ( P. kuhlii borealis ), which nests on the Azores

    and other Atlantic island groups, does not ordinarily migrate northward

    farther than about latitude 44° N. The scaled petrel ( Pterodroma inexpec

    tata ), which nests in New Zealand, migrates through the Pacific northward

    as far as the Aleutians. The Bulwer’s petrel ( Bulweria bulwerii ) is casual

    off the coasts of Labrador and Greenland. Several other species of the

    family have been recorded in northern seas, probably as a result of being

    g b lown off course by high winds.

            61. Procellariiformes . A large avian order, known also as the Tubinares,

    composed of upward of a hundred species belonging to the families Diomedeidae

    (albatrosses), Procellariidae (fulmar, shearwaters, and allies), Hydrobatidae

    (Storm Petrels or Mother Carey’s Chickens), and Pelecanoididae (diving petrels),

    all of which are oceanic birds with webbed feet, hooked beaks, and remarkable

    powers of flight. Only one member of the order breeds northward into the

    truly arctic regions — the fulmar petrel ( Fulmarus glacialis ) — but several

    others nest as far north as Iceland and the Kur i ls, Komandorskis, and Aleutians;

    or nest well south of the subarctic, and migrate northward in their winter

    (i.e., the northern summer) to the Arctic Circle or beyond it.

            The tubular structure of the external nostrils sets all procellariiform

    birds sharply apart from other present day birds. An almost equally important,

    though less striking, external anatomical feature is the plates of the bill and

    the grooves which separate them. An interesting ordinal character, which can–

    not be seen but which is no less valid on that account, is the strong musky

    smell which is noticeable not alone in the living bird and in very old museum

    080      |      Vol_IV-0137                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariiformes

    specimens, but also on the breeding ground, even in nest burrows which have

    been unoccupied for a year or more. So powerful is this scent that the hands

    of a man who has been skinning a shearwater or fulmar may reek of it even

    after several thorough washings in soap and water. This smell is that of the

    stomach oil which the birds eject from the mouth (and possibly also the

    nostrils) when caught in the nest burrow or picked up wounded. The ejection

    of the fluid appears to be a form of self-defense (see Matthews).

            Within the order the size range is great. The wandering albatross

    ( Diomedea exulans ) and royal albatross ( D. epomophora ) are the largest sea

    birds known, as well as the largest “of all flying birds if dimensions rather

    than weight form the standard of comparison; condors are heavier but have a

    lesser wingspread” (Murphy). The small petrels known as Mother Carey’s chickens

    are, on the other hand, little larger than swallows and are the smallest of

    web-footed birds. Members of the order which breed in or wander into the

    arctic regions are n[ei ?]either neither the smallest nor the largest, the fulmar and slender–

    billed shearwater being somewhat smaller than the herring gull ( Larus argentatus ),

    the most northward-ranging albatrosses being much smaller than the wandering

    and royal albatrosses, and the most northward-ranging Mother Carey’s chickens

    being about 6 to 8 inches long.

            Taxonomists agree that the albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and diving petrels

    (Pelecanoididae) are, within themselves, homogeneous groups. In the Diomedeidae

    there are two genera, Diomedea and Phoebetria . In the Pelecanoididae, which

    is the most aberrant but also the most uniform family, there is but one genus,

    Pelecanoides . As for the remaining 21 procellariiform genera, opinions, differ,

    some systematists believing that they should all be placed in one family, the

    Procellariidae (with two subfamilies, the Puffininae and Hydrobatinae); others

    081      |      Vol_IV-0138                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariiformes

    believing that the eight general collectively called the Mother Carey’s

    chickens should stand in a family by themselves, the Hydrobatidae, whereas

    the other 13 genera should compose the family Procellariidae (with two sub–

    families, the Fulmarinae and Puffininae). However close morphologically

    the Mother Carey’s chieckens may be to the other petrels, there is this to

    be said about them: their fluttering, swallow-like flight is very dissimilar

    to the “mechanical planing sweep” of the shearwaters, and the sustained sail–

    ing of the albatrosses. On the basis of their food-gathering behavior alone,

    if not on their proportions and color pattern, they form a fairly distinct

    and uniform group (see Lowe; Peters).

            Although the Procellariiformes are cosmomarine in distribution, about two–

    thirds of the species breed exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere; a few

    breed both to the north and the south of the equator; and several breed ex–

    clusively in the Northern Hemisphere, the fulmar being decidedly the most

    northern of all in year-round distribution (the monotypic genus Fulmarus is

    the only genus of the order which is exclusively northern). The closets rela–

    tives of the fulmar, curiously enough, are not birds of the Northern Hemisphere,

    but of the Southern. Among these are the giant fulmar or giant petrel ( Macro

    nectes ), Cape pigeon ( Daption ), silver-gray fulmar ( Priocella ), whalebird

    ( Pechyptila ), and blue petrel ( Halobaena ). The ranges of these more or less

    closely related genera do not even touch that of Fulmarus .

            The most northward ranging of the albatrosses (Diomedeidae) are the short–

    tailed albatross ( Diomedea albatrus ), which bred formerly on certain islands in

    the North Pacific Ocean and ranged, when not breeding, throughout the Bering Sea

    from the Komandorskis north to the Diomedes and Norton Sound on the Alaska

    coast; and the black-footed albatross ( D. nigripes ), which breeds on certain

    082      |      Vol_IV-0139                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariiformes

    mid-Pacific islands and wanders, when not breeding, as far north as the

    Kurils and Aleutians and the coast of southern Alaska (Bristol Bay). The

    short-tailed albatross is a very rare bird — possibly extinct. The black–

    footed albatross is sometimes abundant in North Pacific waters. The black–

    browed albatross ( D. melanophris ) of southern oceans has been recorded

    several times as a straggler in the North, and several other species of

    the genus Diomedea have been recorded from time to time in boreal seas.

            The most northward breeding of the shearwaters is the Manx shearwater

    ( Puffinus puffinus puffinus ), which breeds on islands and coasts of the

    eastern north Atlantic from Madeira and the Azores northward to Iceland,

    and which wanders occasionally to waters off Greenland and the coast of

    North America. Decidedly the most northward ranging of the shearwaters is,

    however, the slender-billed shearwater ( Puffinus tenuirostris ), which

    breeds off Australia but migrates widely throughout the Pacific Ocean north–

    ward through the Bering Sea into the Arctic Sea. Off Wainwright and Point

    Barrow, Alaska, it occurs regularly in great numbers in summer. The sooty

    shearwater ( Puffinus griseus ), which breeds in widely separated parts of

    the Southern Hemisphere, migrates north in summer throughout both the

    Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, reaching the Kurils and the Aleutians, the

    Labrador coast, and waters off southern Greenland. The greater shearwater

    ( Puffinus gravis ), which breeds in the Tristan da Cunha group, migrates

    northward through the Atlantic Ocean to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland,

    the coasts of southern Greenland, and the British Isles.

            Among the Mother Car ye ey ’s chickens, the most northward ranging are the

    storm petrel ( Hydrobates pelagicus ), which breeds as far north as southern

    Iceland; the Leach’s petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa ), which breeds northward

    083      |      Vol_IV-0140                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariiformes

    in the Atlantic as far as southern Iceland, the Faeroes, and southern Green–

    land, and in the Pacific as far as the Kuril[?] and certain of the Komandorski

    and Aleutian Islands; the beautiful fork-tailed petrel ( Oceanodroma furcata ),

    which breeds in the Kuril, Komandorski, and Aleutian Islands and migrates

    northward as far at least occasionally, as Kotzebue Sound; and the very widely

    ranging Wilson’s petrel ( Oceanites oceanicus ) which breeds only in the Far

    South (even on the Antarctic continent) but migrates northward in the Atlantic

    to about latitude 60° N.

            Since so many procellariiform species breed exclusively in the Southern

    Hemisphere, and especially since birds of this order are so conspicuous among

    the few forms which nest in the very Far South, it is natural to suspect that

    the group originated in that part of the world. The genus Fulmarus , which is

    now exclusively northern in distribution, may possibly have spread northward

    within recent times. Its closest relatives are all southern, as has been

    stated above; and its spread within the last century to the Faeroes and from

    St. Kilda to other localities about the British Isles (see Fisher and Water–

    ston), indicates either a considerable increase in the numbers of the bird or

    a shifting of breeding populations such as might have taken place when the

    species “became” northern centuries ago.

            Because their habitat (i.e., the high seas) is so much the same the world

    over, and because there are so few other birds which live in these vast

    stretches of water, the Procellariiformes have almost “a world to themselves”

    wholly away from land. As J. T. Nichols has pointed out, “the great range in

    size relieves pressures of competition. The small Wilson’s Petrel …, the

    medium-sized Cape Pigeon, and the large Albatross collect at one time to par–

    take of the scarps from a ship, and the smaller birds are satisfied with crumbs

    084      |      Vol_IV-0141                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariiformes

    left by the larger ones.” Even on their breeding grounds the variation in

    size reduces competition. The large species, which do not need protection,

    nest in the open. The smaller species seek holes and crevices in the rocks —

    nest sites which are, perforce, limited in number.

            About their island nesting grounds some procellariiform birds are strictly

    nocturnal, the return to the nest burrows being made wholly under cover of

    night. Most members of the tribe, save the albatrosses and fulmars, custom–

    arily hide their single egg in a burrow or fissure in the rocks, some forms

    digging burrows several feet long. Many species, such as the Laysan alba–

    tross ( Di o medea immutabilis ) and the fulmar, are colonial. The numerous pairs

    seem to lead rather independent lives; but, as Murphy points, out, “the noc–

    turnal whistling and sobbing and yowling of petrels and shearwaters at their

    nest is … a kind of community expression.” The duties of incubation are

    shared by the male and female. The incubation period and nestling period are

    extremely long.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Bannerman, D. C. “The distribution and nidification of the Tubinares in

    the Tubinares in the North Atlantic islands,” Ibis , ser.10,

    vol.2, pp.438-94, 1914. 2. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.1-181, 1922. 3. Fisher, James, and Waterston, George. “The breeding distribution, history

    xand population of the fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis ) in the

    British Isles,” J.Animal Ecol. vol.10, no.2, pp.204-72, Nov.,

    1941. 4. Lower, P.R. “On the classification of the Tubinares on Petrels,” Zool.

    Soc. Lond. Proc . 1925, pp.1433-43.

    085      |      Vol_IV-0142                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Procellariiformes and Pterodroma

    5. Matthews, L.H. “The origin of stomach oil in the petrels, with compara–

    tive observations on the avian proventriculus,” Ibis , vol.91

    pp.373-92, 1949. 6. Murphy, R.C. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of

    Natural History, 1936, pp.471-89. 7. Nichols, J.T. “Size in the avian order Tubinares,” Ibis , ser.10, vol.2,

    no.5, pp.315-16, Jan., 1914. 8. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World . Cambridge, Mass., Harvard

    Univ. Press, 1931. Vol.1, pp.68-75.

           

    #####

            62. Pterodroma . A genus of fairly large procellariiform birds collectively

    known as petrels, and differing from the rather closely related genus Puffinus

    (shearwaters) principally in having a proportionately deeper and shorter bill.

    The horny distal portion of the upper mandible is proportionately longer and

    the depressed middle part shorter (less than half the length measured along

    the culmen) than in Puffinus . The nostrils are on top of the culmen and are

    separated by a distinct membrane. The tarsus is not flattened, nor sharp-edged

    in front, as in Puffinus . The claws are sharp-pointed. The wings are propor–

    tionately longer than in Puffinus , the first developed primary being longest.

    The tail is rather short and more or less wedge-shaped. There are 12 rectrices.

            Peters lists 28 species in his Check-List of Birds of the World (1931,

    1: 61-67), of which several are unique, extinct, or hypothetical. The genus

    is represented by extant forms in most oceans, but only one species regularly

    migrates into subarctic regions — the scaled petrel ( P. inexpectata ), which

    breeds on New Zealand, the Chatham Islands, and Bounty Island. In its winter

    season (i.e., the northern summer), this species moves north in the Pacific

    as far as the Aleutian Islands and Alaska. No species of the genus regularly

    moves northward in the Atlantic to comparably high latitudes.

            See Scaled Petrel.



    086      |      Vol_IV-0143                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Puffinus

            63. Puffinus . A genus of oceanic birds commonly known as shearwaters.

    They are among the middle-sized procellariiform birds, the largest species

    being definitely smaller than the smallest of the albatrosses (family Dio–

    medeidae), and the smallest being perceptibly larger (heavier, longer, and

    with wider wingspread) than the largest of the Mother Carey’s chickens (family

    Hydrobatidae). They are recognizable by their long slender bills, which are

    sharply hooked at the very tip. The nostril tubes are on top of the culmen and

    are well separated, the nostril openings being visible from above but not from

    the side. The tarsus is flattened laterally and has rather a sharp ridge in

    front. The tail is graduated (wedge-shaped), and has 12 rectrices. The wings

    are pointed, the first or second developed primary (counting from the outside)

    being the longest. The genus most closely related to it is probably Pterodroma

    which has no common name aside from petrels), which is separable at a glance by

    its comparatively deeper and shorter bill, and its unflattened tarsus (no sharp

    ridge along the front).

            Puffinus is a large genus, 19 or 20 species currently being recognized.

    It is also an ancient one, fossil remains dating back to Oligocene and Miocene

    times having been reported from Europe and America, respectively (Lambrecht,

    1933, Handbuch der Palaeornithologie , p. 274). Several species, notably P .

    assimilis (Gould’s shearwater) and P. lherminieri (dusky shearwater) have been

    divided into many geographical races, most of them endemic to certain islands.

    The genus is found in all seas except the North Polar and Mediterranean; and

    there are species peculiar to the Northern Hemisphere as well as to the Southern.

            Morphologically, Puffinus is quite uniform, all the species having about

    the same proportions and being brown and white, gray and white, or solid gray

    or brown. Throughout the group males and females are colored alike and in no

    087      |      Vol_IV-0144                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Puffinus and Scaled Petrel

    species are birds in first winter plumage readily distinguishable from full

    adults. No species of Puffinus is distinctly two-phased as is the fulmar

    ( Fulmarus glacialis ).

            In behavior, too, Puffinus is a homogeneous group, only one species, P .

    reinholdi (fluttering shearwater) having conspicuously different flight from

    the others. All the species nest in burrows as a rule, a requirement which

    probably has prevented their spreading northward and southward to rocky

    islands and coasts. Throughout the genus one egg is laid; both sexes incubate;

    and the birds are in evidence about the nesting ground only at night. The

    young is covered with extremely thick, soft down, which clings for a long

    time to the incoming plumage, especially throughout the under parts, forming

    there a sort of mattress or cushion on which the bird rests.

            No species of the genus nests in the true Arctic; but the common or Manx

    shearwater ( Puffinus puffinus ), which is best [ ?] k nown as a bird of the British

    Isles, the Azores, and certain islands of the Mediterranean, breeds as far

    north as southern Iceland; the slender-billed or short-tailed shearwater

    ( )P. tenuirostris ), which breeds in Australian seas, migrates regularly to the

    Arctic Sea by way of Bering Strait; the greater shearwater ( P. gravis ), which

    breeds in the Tristan da Cunha group, migrates northward through the Atlantic

    as far as the coasts of Labrador and southern Greenland; the pink-footed shear–

    water ( P. creatopus ), which breeds on Mocha and the Juan Fernandez Islands,

    migrates to Alaskan waters; and the sooty shearwater ( P. griseus ), which nests

    in widely separated parts of the Southern Hemisphere, migrates to the Bering

    Sea as well as to the coasts of Labrador and southern Greenland.

            See Greater Shearwater, Manx Shearwater, Slender-billed Shearwater, Pink–

    footed Shearwater and Sooty Shearwater.



    087a      |      Vol_IV-0145                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Scaled Petrel and Shearwater

            64. Scaled Petrel . A middle-sized procellariiform bird, Pterodroma in

    expectata , sometimes called Peale’s petrel, and known in New Zealand as the

    rainbird. It breeds on and about New Zealand, the Chatham Islands and Bounty

    Island, and migrates in summer (i.e., the southern winter) through the Pacific

    Ocean northward as far as the Aleutian Islands and the southern coast of Alaska.

    It is about 14 inches long and is dark gray on the crown, hindneck, and upper

    part of the body (including the wings and tail). The forehead, throat, breast

    and under tail coverts are white. The face, sides of the chest, and flanks are

    mottled, having a slightly scaled appearance. The eye is surrounded with a dark

    gray patch. The abdomen is brownish gray. The species has never been recorded

    in the subarctic Atlantic; but has been reported once from the state of New York.

            65. Shearwater . Any of several long-winged, tube-nosed, web-footed oceanic

    birds belonging to the family Procellariidae (especially to the genus Puffinus )

    and characterized by their long slender bill which is strongly hooked at the

    tip. As a group they are larger than the Mother Carey’s chickens or storm

    petrels (family Hydrobatidae), although the well known and widely ranging [ ?]

    Puffinus lherminieri , the nominate race of which is called Audubon’s shearwater,

    is only 10 to 12 inches long. The are all decidedly smaller than the albatrosses

    (family Diomedeidae), although in some species the proportions of bill and head

    are somewhat like those of the albatrosses. Throughout the group, which bears

    the general common name of “petrels,” the nostril tubes are on top of the bill

    and more or less adjacent, but the external nostril openings are definitely

    separated by more than a mere membrane or septum. The flight of shearwaters

    has been described as a “mechanical planning sweep.” Except in one species, it

    is not fluttering or swallow-like as is that of the Mother Carey’s chickens;

    088      |      Vol_IV-0146                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Shearwater

    nor does it resemble the protracted and majestic sailing of the albatrosses.

    It is a series of swift glides, with the wings held stiffly at right angles

    to the body’s vertical axis, though not by any means parallel to the horizon

    itself, for the glides describe arcs above the waves which only fleetingly

    parallel the earth’s curvature.

            The best known of the shearwaters belong to the genus Puffinus , and all

    species of the genus Puffinus are called shearwaters, but the two words are

    not quite synonymous, for certain petrels of other genera are sometimes called

    shearwaters. Among the many common named given shearwaters are the following:

    hag, haglet, hagdon, hagdown, and muttonbird.

            Only a few shearwaters regularly visit arctic or subarctic waters, but

    these are sometimes very abundant and well known among seamen and natives. The

    common or Manx shearwater ( Puffinus puffinus ) breeds northward as far as southern

    Iceland and westward as far as the Bermudas, although it is best known as a

    bird of the British Isles, the Azores, and certain islands of the Mediterranean.

    The slender-billed or short-tailed shearwater ( Puffinus tenuirostris ) breeds on

    islands near Australia, but migrates regularly to the North Pacific, passing

    through Bering Strait into the Arctic Sea in great numbers. How far it travels

    northward is not known, but it has been seen in summer at Wainwright and Point

    Barrow, Alaska, by the tho [ ?] u sand. The greater shearwater ( Puffinus gravis ),

    which nests in the Tristan da Cunha group, migrates to the North Atlantic, some–

    times being very abundant off the coasts of Labrador and south Greenland. The

    sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus ), which breeds in widely separated parts of

    the Southern Hemisphere (New Zealand; Chatham, Auckland, and Snares Islands; the

    Falklands and certain islands off southern Chile, migrates northward to Kamchatka,

    Alaska, Labrador, Greenland, and the Azores.



    089      |      Vol_IV-0147                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Shearwater and Short-tailed Albatross

            See Procellariidae, Puffinus , Manx Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty

    Shearwater, Pink-footed Shearwater, and Slender-billed Shearwater.

            Reference:

    Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat. Mus. Bull . no. 121, pp. 54-106, 1922.

            66. Short-tailed Albatross . A large procellariiform bird, Diomedea

    albatrus , the adult of which has been called “the only white albatross of

    the North Pacific” (Alexander). It breeds (or bred formerly) on the Bonins,

    Wake, and various small islands off Formosa and Japan. When not breeding, it

    ranges (or once ranged) along the coasts of China and Japan, in the Sea of

    Okhotsk; in the Bering Sea from the Komandorski Islands northward to the Dio–

    medes and Norton Sound, Alaska; and along the west coast of North America

    southward as far as Baja California. The southern limits of its range are

    open to question because of possible misidentification of birds seen at a

    distance. Since 1900 it has become steadily rarer, probably chiefly as a

    result of the depredations of plumage hunters. Many ornithologists fear that

    it is extinct.

            The fully adult short-tailed albatross is “mostly white, washed with

    buff on the head and neck; primaries and tip of tail dark brown; bill pinkish

    flesh-color, feet bluish white” (Alexander). This plumage is not attained

    until the third or fourth year. A painting by Allan Brooks, reproduced in the

    National Geographic Magazine, shows the bird with white head, neck, and body,

    but wholly dark primaries and secondaries . A specimen which I handled recently

    was dark brown above (including the whole hindneck, back, and upper surface of)

    090      |      Vol_IV-0148                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Short-tailed Albatross

    of the wings), and white on the under parts, forehead and rump, the young bird

    in first winter plumage is dark brown all over, palest on the chin, and W. B.

    Alexander says that it has “pinkish bill and flesh-coloured feet.” Cassin

    quotes Peale, however, to the effect that “until the second year … the bird

    has black feet and a dirty flesh-colored bill.” The short-tailed albatross is

    36 to 37 inches long, the black-footed albatross only 28 inches long, so there

    is a considerable difference in size and wingspread. Some young short-tailed

    albatrosses must, however, look very much like some young black-footed alba–

    trosses, especially at a distance, though the latter, regardless of age, usually

    has some white at the base of the bill . A young short-tailed albatross in a

    company of black-footed albatrosses would probably stand out as appreciably

    larger.

            Titian Peale found the short-tailed albatross breeding on Wake Island in

    mid-December. He reported that both sexes took turns in incubating the single

    egg, and that “neither the male nor the female abandoned the nest at our ap–

    proach, but walked around us in a very dignified manner, and made but few

    demonstrations of defense with their bills when taken up in our arms” (fide

    Cassin).

            The egg has been described as dull white, blothed and spotted with red

    and dull purplish brown at the larger end. The newly hatched young apparently has

    not been described — if indeed it has ever been seen by an ornithologist.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Alexander, W.B. Birds of the Ocean . N.Y., Lond., Putnam, 1928. 2. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.6-9, 1922. 3. Stejneger, L.H. Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander

    Islands and in Kamtschatka . Wash., G.P.O., 1885, pp.89-91.

    U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.29.

    091      |      Vol_IV-0149                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Slender-billed Shearwater.

            68. Slender-billed Shearwater . A fairly large procellariiform bird,

    Puffinus tenuirostris , which closely resembles the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus

    griseus ), but is considerably smaller, and is wholly without grayish white in

    the under wing coverts. It is the only species of the wide-ranging genus Puf

    finus which regularly migrates northward to the Arctic Circle and well beyond.

    It breeds on islands in Australian seas (in Bass Strait; off the coasts of Vic–

    toria, South Australia, and Tasmania; and on Bounty Island), eggs having been

    found from November to March. It migrates into the North Pacific, apparently

    moving northward along the Asiatic side and southward on the American side.

    It has been seen near the Komandorski Islands as early as May 29 (Bent) and

    along the Alaska coast (Bering Strait, Wainwright, and Point Barrow) in late

    summer and fall. At Point Barrow, Charles Brower saw it “by thousands from

    September to October, 1929” (Bailey). It is sometimes called the short-tailed

    shearwater. In Bass Strait, where it is known as the muttonbird, it is an

    important source of human food. In the North Pacific it is amost universally

    known as the whalebird.

            It is about 13 inches long, and sooty brown, much paler on the under parts.

    Its bill is very dark brown, tinged with olive, its feet grayish flesh color

    “with webs sometimes yellowish flesh-color” (Alexander). It is somewhat two–

    phased individuals being light gray on the under surface of the wings, and on

    the chin and forethroat. Birds of this phase are difficult to distinguish from

    sooty shearwaters, despite their being smaller and proportionately shorter–

    billed than that species.

            The slender-billed shearwater nests in burrows. The paired birds take

    about six weeks in digging or renovating a burrow, then the whole population

    leaves the nesting ground for about a month. When they return, the sky is

    092      |      Vol_IV-0150                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Slender-billed Shearwater

    darkened by the incoming birds for four or five days. So abundant are they

    that many of them are forced to lay their eggs on the ground under bushes.

    In well-populated parts of the colony as many as nine burrow entrances have

    been reported for each square meter of ground [ ?] surface. Egg-laying begins

    in November and the young hatch about January 15 (incubation period about 50

    days). Both sexes incubate and care for the young. They return from the

    sea under cover of darkness. After a period of great activity and noise while

    the young are being fed, the colony settles down for some sleeping. At about

    2:30 A.M. the birds waken, and the adults scramble up the slopes to the higher

    ridges where they spread their wings, are lifted by the wind, and make for the

    sea.

            References:

    1. Alexander, W.B. Birds of the Ocean . N.Y., Lond., Putnam, 1928, P. 38. 2. Bailey, A.M., Brower. C.D., and Bishop, L.B. “Birds of the region of

    Point Barrow, Alaska,” Chicago Academy of Sciences. Program

    of Activities , vol. 4, no. 2, p.18. Apr., 1933. 3. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . vol. 121, p. 96, 1922. 4. Montgomery, H.H. “On the habits of the Mutton-bird of Bass Strait,

    Australia ( Puffinus tenuirostris ),” Ibis , pp. 209-16, 1898.

            69. Sooty Shearwater. A rather large, sooty-black procellariiform bird,

    Puffinus griseus , which is unique among shearwaters in that it is found in both

    the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from water off Cape Horn and New Zealand to

    the subarctic regions. Among the Labrador it is known as the black hagdown

    (or hagdon). In parts of its breeding range it is known as the muttonbird.

    093      |      Vol_IV-0151                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Sooty Shearwater

    It is an important source of food among the Maoris of New Zeland.

            It breeds is widely separated parts of the Southern Hemisphere — on

    numerous islands in the subantarctic region of New Zealand; on certain islands

    off Cape Horn and bordering Tierra del Fuego; on the Falklands; and on Mocha

    Island, off Chile, not far south of Concepcion. For some years ornithologists

    have believed that it nested also on the eastern slope of the Cerro de Colupito,

    inland from Cobija, northern Chile (see Murphy); but A. W. Johnson, one of the

    authors of Los Aves de Chile , currently being published, informs me that the

    young “shearwaters” found by the “party of prospectors” in that “plantless

    pampa” were actually young gulls, not procellariiform birds at all.

            The sooty shearwater’s migrations take it northward almost to the Arctic

    Circle along the coasts of Kamchatka, Alaska, Labrador, Greenland, and Europe.

    In moving northward through the [ ?]Atlantic it passes swiftly across the tropics,

    reaching waters off North Carolina in late May (Bent); the high seas well off

    northern Newfoundland early in June; and Cape Farewell, Greenland, in mid-June

    (Wynne-Edwards). It appears in the North Atlantic a little later in the spring

    than the greater shearwater ( P. gravis ), perhaps because of its greater journey,

    from Cape Horn as opposed to Tristan da Cunha. It lingers in northern waters

    until November (occasionally later). Its movements in the North Pacific are

    not very well known, partly because of confusion in identification resulting

    from its similarity to the slender-billed shearwater ( P. tenuirostris ).

            The sooty shearwater is 18 to 20 inches long and is blackish brown through–

    out the upper parts and grayish brown on the under parts save for the chin,

    which is paler, and the under wing coverts, which are grayish white. The bill

    094      |      Vol_IV-0152                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Sooty Shearwater and Strom Petrel

    is black or nearly so. The feet are slaty gray, sometimes with flesh-colored

    webs. It resembles the slender-billed or short-tailed shearwater quite closely,

    but that species has wholly dark under wing coverts. It is proportionately a

    narrower-winged bird than the greater shearwater, hence appears to be somewhat

    heavier bodies. In the North Atlantic it is considerably less common that that

    species, with which it sometimes associates in summer, though Wynne-Edwards

    believes it to be “better represented in the offshore zone, i.e., on the fish–

    ing banks, and less well in the pelagic, than is the Greater Shearwater.”

            In New Zealand the sooty shearwater digs its nest-burrows in hard ground —

    a custom which seems in keeping with its aggressive nature. Various authors

    agree that sooty shearwaters caught in their burrows are anything but mild–

    natured in their behavior; and many a comment has been made on the biting,

    squawking, and general pugnacity of wounded birds. One egg (white) is laid.

    Both sexes assist in the incubation.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Bent, A.C. “Life Histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.85-90, 1922. 2. Johnson, A.W., and others. Los Aves de Chile . In press. 3. Murphy, R.C. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of

    Natural History, 1936. Vol.2, pp.666-73. 4. Richdale, L.E. “The sooty shearwater in New Zealand,” Condor , vol.46,

    pp.93-107, 1944. 5. Wynne-Edwards, V.C. “On the habits and distribution of birds of the north

    Atlantic,” Boston Soc.Nat.Hist. Proc . vol.40, pp.261, 263, 1935.

    095      |      Vol_IV-0153                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn Sutton: Storm Petrel or Stormy Petrel

            70. Storm Petrel or Stormy Petrel . Any of several small, sooty black,

    black-and-white, or gray-and-white procellariiform birds known among seamen

    as Mother Carey’s chickens. They all belong to the family Hydrobatidae ( q.v. ).

            Hydrobates pelagicus , one of the best known of the Mother Carey’s chickens,

    a species sometimes called the British storm petrel. It is very similar to the

    Wilson’s petrel ( Oceanites oceanicus ) and Leach’s petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa ),

    with which it associates in North Atlantic waters. It is about 6 inches long

    and is, generally speaking, sooty black with boldly white upper tail coverts

    (the longest of which have black tips); some white feathers among the flanks

    and under tail coverts; a narrow line of grayish white (formed by the tips of

    the greater coverts) on the upper surface of the wing; and a small whitish

    patch on the under coverts of the manus. From the species with which it is

    most likely to be confused, it can be distinguished thus: it is square-tailed

    rather than forked-tailed as is the Leach’s petrel. Its legs are shorter than

    those of the Wilson’s petrel, and its feet are wholly black (rather than yellow

    on the webs). Of the three species it has the weakest, most fluttering flight.

            The stormy petrel inhabits the eastern North Atlantic, breeding locally

    from islands of the western Mediterranean northward on small islands off the

    British Isles, the coast of Norway (Lofoten), and southern Iceland; and ranging,

    when not breeding, westward to waters off the coasts of Nova Scotia, Labrador,

    and (occasionally) Greenland; eastward to the Red Sea; and southward to the

    coasts of tropical western Africa.

            The species usually breeds in colonies. It places its single egg (which

    is white, with a wreath of brown spots about the larger end) at the end of a

    burrow in peaty soil or in a cranny among rocks. The nest proper, if there is

    any, is a slight affair of dry grasses. Both the male and female incubate.

    096      |      Vol_IV-0154                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Storm Petrel and Wilson’s Petrel

    The period of incubation is 38 to 40 days, and fledging requires 61 days more.

    The newly hatched chick has a bald spot on its crown. Egg-laying begins in

    late May. Young have been found in the nest as late as October or even Novem–

    ber.

            At sea the stormy petrel is a comparatively silent bird; but on its nest–

    ing grounds is apparently is quite vociferous. It flies to and from its nest

    only under cover of night. A cry given at its nest has been described as a

    “harsh, purring ‘urr’, long sustained, and abruptly ended with ‘chikka’.”

            For facts about storm petrels in general see Hydrobatidae, Petrel, and

    Mother Carey’s Chicken.

            References:

    1. Gordon, S.P. “Some breeding-habits of the Storm-Petrel,” British Birds,

    vol. 24, pp. 245-48, 1931. 2. Lockley, R.M. “On the breeding habits of the Storm-Petrel, with special

    reference to its incubation and fledging periods,” ibid .,

    vol. 25, pp. 206-11, 1932.

            72. Wilson’s Petrel . A well-known maritime bird, Oceanites oceanicus,

    which breeds in South Georgia, the south Shetlands, the South Orkneys, the

    Falklands, Kerguelen, Tierra del Fuego, South Victoria Land, Adelie Land,

    Queen Mary Land, MacRobertson Land, Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, Enderby Land,

    and Graham Land and migrates regularly to subarctic waters of the North At–

    lantic (to the latitudes of Newfoundland and the British Isles), to the Red

    Sea and the Persian Gulf in the Indian Ocean; and to New Guinea and northern

    Peru in the Pacific (Roberts). It is said to be the “most widespread and

    097      |      Vol_IV-0155                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Wilson’s Petrel

    common of the Storm-Petrels” (Alexander). Roberts calls its migration “one

    of the longest and perhaps the most remarkable of any bird known.” Explain–

    ing this statement he says: “For the greater part of 8 months most of them

    probably never come within sight of a landmark, yet they return at almost the

    same date each year to the same burrow and mate.”

            Wilson’s petrel is about 7 inches long, and is sooty black above (darkest

    on the wings and tail) save for the wing coverts, which are gray, margined

    with whitish, and the longer upper tail coverts, which are white (the shorter

    ones are marked with sooty black). The under parts are somewhat lighter than

    the back, and the flanks and under tail coverts are partly white. The tail

    is square-tipped. In protracted flight, when the legs are extended backwards,

    the feet project beyond the middle tail feathers. The square-tipped tail, pale

    gr[?]ay band in the wing, very long lges, and yellow webs of the feet all are

    distinctive. R. C. Murphy, who saw Wilson’s petrels almost daily while en

    route from New York to South Geo r gia, found that he could distinguish the species

    from the other Morther Carey’s chickens by the “peculiar style of flight, which

    consists of an alternate gliding and fluttering, producing a forward movement

    of very different appearance from the ‘leaping’ strokes of Leach’s Petrel.”

            Wunne-Edwards states that Wilson’s petrel rarely journeys northward of

    latitude 50° N. in the Atlantic. Roberts place [ ?] s the northern limit in American

    waters at latitude 52°30' N. In its northward journey it reaches Cape Hatteras

    in the latter half of April and about that time appears all along the Atlantic

    coast of the United States. Two other procellariiform birds which nest far to

    the south of the equator appear at about that same time — the grater shear–

    water ( Puffinus gravis ) and sooty shearwater ( P. griseus ).

            Wilson’s petrel “prefers to nest in colonies” (Bent). W. Eagle Clarke

    098      |      Vol_IV-0156                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Wilson’s Petrel

    and Robert Hall have described immense breeding populations respectively

    on the South Orkneys and on Kerguelen. The birds nest in a burrow, and but

    one egg is laid. The incubation period of eggs at nine nests observed by

    Brian Roberts ranged from 39 to 48 days. The sexes share the duties of in–

    cubation equally. Fledging requires a minimum of 52 days. In Graham Land

    the young birds are fed exclusively on the Krill, Euphasia superba (Roberts).

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Alexander, W. B. Birds of the Ocean. N.Y., Lond., Putnam, 1928, p.86. 2. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American pet r els and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.121, p.166, 1922. 3. Clarke, W.E. “Ornithological results of the Scottish National Antarctic

    Expedition. — II. On the birds of the South Orkney Islands,”

    Ibis , ser.8, vol.6. no.21, p.145, Jan., 1906. 4. Hall, Robert. “Field-notes on the birds of Kerguelen Island,” Ibid .

    ser.7, vol.6, no.21, p.1, Jan., 1900. 5. Murphy, R.C. Oceanic Birds of South America . N.Y., American Museum of

    Natural History, 1936. Vol.2, p.751. 6. Wynne-Edwards, V.C. “On the habits and distribution of birds of the

    north Atlantic,” Boston Soc.Nat.Hist. Proc . vol.40, pp.233-46,

    1935.

    Pelecaniformes (Gannets, Cormorants)



    099      |      Vol_IV-0157                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Cormorants, Gannets, and their Allies

    CORMORANTS, GANNETS, AND THEIR ALLIES

           

    Order PELECANIFORMES

           

    Family PHALACROCORACIDAE, SULIDAE

            73. Common Cormorant. See writeup.

            74. Cormorant. See writeup.

            75. Double-crested Cormorant. See writeup.

            76. Gannet. See writeup.

            77. Green Cormorant. See writeup.

            78. Morus (or Moris ). See writeup.

            79 Pallas’s Cormorant. See writeup.

            80. Pelagic Cormorant. See writeup.

            81. PELECANIFORMES . See writeup.

            82. PHALACROCORACIDAE. See writeup.

            83. Phalacrocorax . See writeup.

            84. Red-faced Cormorant. See writeup.

            85. Shag. See writeup.

            86. Solan Goose. A widely used common name for the gannet ( Morus bassanus ),

    ( q.v. ).

            87. Spectacled Cormorant. A name sometimes used for the extinct Pallas’s

    cormorant ( Phalacrocorax perspicillatus ) ( q.v. ).

            88. SULIDAE. See writeup.

            89. Violet-green Cormorant. A name frequently used for the northernmost race

    of the pelagic cormorant ( Phalacrocorax pelagicus ) ( q.v. ).

            90. White-crested Cormorant. A name frequently used for Phalacrocorax auritus

    cincinatus , a race of the double-crested cormorant which breeds from

    southern Alaska southward along the coast to Washington.



    100      |      Vol_IV-0158                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Common Cormorant

            73. Common Cormorant . A large, well-known pelicaniform bird, Phalacro–

    corax carbo
    , found in widely separated areas from the Arctic Circle southward

    to Tasmania New Zealand. It is among the largest species of the family

    Phalacrocoracidae. At the northernmost edge of its range it breeds wholly

    along the seacoast, but farther south it is also a bird of the interior, its

    distribution depending on availability of food and of cliffs and rocky islets

    on which it may nest. Birds which breed on the coast apparently migrate but

    little, since the waters near their breeding places stay open the year round;

    but birds which nest on lakes in the North Temperate interior move either south–

    ward or seaward to open water in winter.

            The common cormorant has established itself so widely and has remained

    nonmigratory at these breeding centers so long that at least eight well-defined

    geographical races have evolved, the best known being P. carbo carbo , which is

    the only one ranging northward to the Arctic Circle and beyond. This form is

    abundant locally in Europe — in Iceland, the Faeroes, the British Isles (where

    it is known as the cormorant, in contradistinction to the smaller shag, Phala–

    crocorax aristotelis
    ), the coast of Norway, and the Murman Coast, and it may

    breed as far east as the Kara Sea, from which region it was reported by the

    Duc d’Orleans. In North America it is anything but “common,” though there are

    well-established colonies along the North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on

    Anticosti Island, on the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edwards Island, along the

    Nova Scotia coast, and in southern Greenland. Kumlien (1879) reported the

    species “a regular breeder” in Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island, but neither

    Hantzsch nor Soper encountered it there in recent years.

            A subspecies of common cormorant found in the North Pacific, hanedac ,

    breeds on the coast of Japan and probably also on Sakhalin, and Kurils, Korea,

    101      |      Vol_IV-0159                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Common Cormorant

    and Quelpart Island. At no point does the range of this form reach the Arctic

    Circle, a possible explanation being that competition with several other species

    of cormorants in that region has prevented its spread. The other races of the

    common cormorant ( sinensis of central and southern Europe and southern Asia;

    maroccanus of the coast of Morocco; lugubris of northeastern Africa; lucidus

    of the Cape Verdes and southern Africa; novaehollandiae of Australia, Tasmania,

    and southern New Guinea; and steadi of New Zealand and the Chathams) are widely

    scattered. The species is represented in most parts of the world save South

    America, the Pacific coast of North America, and the islands of the central

    Pacific. An interesting fact about the coloration of the species is this: all

    the races are largely black save lucidus , which is white-breated. This may re–

    flect — however inexplicably — a general trend toward white-breatedness among

    cormorants of the Southern Hemisphere.

            The common cormorant is 30 to 40 inches long. Adults in winter are

    glossy greenish or bluish black, with an area of brownish white on the chin and

    face. The back feathers, scapulars, and wing coverts are bronzy gray, edged

    with black; the primaries, secondaries, and tail feathers grayish black. In

    full nuptial plumage a conspicuous crest adorns and back of the head; the lower

    part of the face and the upper throat are white; the glossy black neck plumage

    is liberally sprinkled with fine, hairlike, grayish-white filoplumes; and a

    large white patch of soft feathers appears on each flank. The bill is pale

    horn color, darker along the culmen, and rich brownish yellow at the base of

    the lower mandible as well as on the gape, lores, and gular sac. In fully adult

    Gulf of St. Lawrence birds, which I handled alive, the iris was a beautiful

    aquamarine blue. Birds from the British Isles are said to have “blue-green to

    dark emerald green” irides. Young birds in first flight plumage are dark brown

    102      |      Vol_IV-0160                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Common Cormorant

    on the top of the head, back of the neck, and upper part of the body; light

    brown on the sides of the head and on the neck, upper chest, and flanks; and

    white on the middle of the breast and belly. A postjuvenal molt results in a

    first winter plumage which is more colorful than the juvenal plumage, but very

    brown as compared with the plumage of the full adult. Even three-year-old

    birds show signs of immaturity, the filoplumes of the neck being scrawnier

    and the white flank patches less showy.

            The common cormorant is a noticeable bird as it perches erect, often with

    wings spread, on a rock or sandbar. Its flight is strong, direct, and rather

    heavy. Flying, it usually stays low over water, but high over land. It rises

    from the water with difficulty, especially in calm weather, being obliged to

    propel itself with its feet as well as its wings, and sometimes striking the

    tops of small waves as it makes a getaway. It swims with bill pointed well up–

    ward. It dives with great ease, slipping under without a splash. Usually it

    does not stay below the surface very long, and it may rise just enough to reveal

    its head and neck, keeping the body below the surface.

            It nests on cliff faces and small offshore islands, and occasionally in

    trees. At the northern edge of its range it chooses precipitous headlands,

    placing its nest on a broad ledge or rocktop sometimes at some distance above

    the water. The nest is usually of seaweed. The eggs number 3 to 6, and have

    a pale blue ground color, which is almost concealed with a chalky-white covering.

    Both sexes incubate. The incubation period is said to be 28 days. The newly

    hatched young are naked, blind, and brown-skinned. Presently a thick, short

    brown down develops. A cry of the well-grown nestling has been described as

    go-back , go-back . For a discussion of the nest-site requirements of this species

    and the shag, see Green Cormorant.



    103      |      Vol_IV-0161                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Cormorant

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Kumlien, Ludwig. Contributions to the Natural History of Arctic America ,

    Made in Connection with the Howgate Polar Expedition, 1877-78 .

    Wash., G.P.O., 1879, U.S.Nat.Mus. Bull . no.15. 2. Peters, H.S. “European Cormorants nesting in Nova Scotia,” Canad. Field

    Nat . Vol.54, pp.59-60, 1940. 3. Stuart, L.D. “Vital statistics of the Mochrum Cormorant colony,” British

    Birds , vol.41, pp.194-99, 1948. 4. Turner, H.L. “Cormorants in Norfolk,” British Birds , vol.8, pp.130-42,

    1914.

           

    # # # # #

            74. Cormorant . Any of several species of fish-eating pelecaniform birds

    having rather long and sharply hooked bill; no external nostril openings; rudi–

    mentary tongue; rather short wings; tail composed of 12 or 14 very stiff feathers;

    compact, almost uninterrupted plunge; green or blue eyes (usually) when adult;

    a well-developed but not always conspicuous gular sac; and a well-developed oc–

    cipital bone, sometimes called a style, which protrudes at the base of the skull.

            Present-day cormorants are currently placed in one family (Phalacrocoracidae)

    and three genera — Phalacrocorax , Haliëtor , and Nannoptorum — the last (flight–

    less or Harris’s cormorant) being monotypic and confined to the Galapagos Archi–

    pelage. The parts of the world in which cormorants breed northward to the Arctic

    Circle and beyond are ( 1 ) northern Europe, where the common cormorant ( P. carbo )

    and shag ( P. aristotelis ) occur on Iceland and along the coast of Norway and the

    Murman Coast; ( 2 ) extreme northeastern Siberia, where the red-faced cormorant

    ( P. urile ) and the pelagic cormorant ( P. pelagicus ) range westward an undetermined

    distance from East Cape (Dezhneva); and ( 3 ) Greenland (the common cormorant

    breeds in southern Greenland, possibly northward to and even beyond the Arctic

    104      |      Vol_IV-0162                                                                                                                  
    EA-ORn. Sutton: Cormorant

    Circle). The extinct Pallas’s cormorant ( P. perspicillatus ) inhabited Bering

    Island and may well have bred even farther north. The double-crested cor–

    morant ( P. auritus ), a North American species, is both a coastal bird and a

    bird of the interior. It ranges northward along the Pacific coast as far as

    southwestern Alaska; in the interior to central Alberta, central Manitoba, and

    James Bay; and along the Atlantic coast to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and New–

    foundland. The Japanese cormorant ( P. capillatus ) ranges northward to Korea,

    Japan, and Quelpart Island.

            Wherever cormorants nest in arctic or subarctic regions they do so along

    the coast, not in the interior. Their breeding places are cliffs or rocking

    offshore islets. The arctic and subarctic forms are relatively nonmigratory.

    The ocean waters near their breeding grounds stay open the year round, so a

    constant food supply (fish) is available.

            For further information concerning cormorants, see Phalacrocoracidae,

    Phalacrocorax , Common Cormorant, Green Cormorant or Shag, Red-faced Cormorant,

    Pallas’s Cormorant, Pelagic Cormorant, and Double-crested Cormorant.

            75. Double-crested Cormorant . A well-known North American pelecaniform

    bird, Phalacrocorax auritus, which breeds not only along the seacoast but on

    fresh water in the interior. There are four geographical races, the most

    northward-ranging of which is cincinatus , the so-called White-crested Cormorant,

    which breeds on the Pacific coast from Washington to St. Lazaria and Forrester

    Islands, Alaska; Kodiak Island; and Carlisle Island of the eastern Aleutians;

    and which appear to be wholly coastal. The race inhabiting interior Canada

    and northeastern North America is auritus , which breeds northward to central

    Alberta, central Saskatchewan, central Manitoba, the southeast coast of James

    Bay, the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Newfoundland. Formerly

    105      |      Vol_IV-0163                                                                                                                  
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    it ranged northward down the Labrador at least as far as Hamilton Inlet,

    and possibly even farther, though it is absent from that coast today (Austin).

    Since it nests on bare cliffs and rocky islets as well as in trees, there

    would seem to be no reason for its not ranging much farther north along the

    Atlantic coast than it does. The coast of southern Alaska is, of course,

    warmer than that of Labrador, so in a sense the present-day Atlantic population

    of the species is more boreal than that of the Pacific, despite the discrep–

    ancy in latitude. The two other races of double-crested cormorant are the

    Florida cormorant ( floridanus ) of the southeastern United States, Cuba, the

    Isle of Pines, and the Behamas; and the Farallon cormorant ( albociliatus ) of

    the western United States, Baja California, and the Revilla Gigedo Islands.

            The double-created Cormorant is 30 to 35 inches long and is glossy green–

    ish black on the head neck, and under parts, and bronzy gray on the upper

    part of the body. Each of the back feathers scapulars, and wing coverts is

    edged with black. In nuptial plumage there is a conspicuous tuft of curly

    black and white feathers on each side of the head. The bill is gray, and the

    naked skin of the face and gular pouch is orange or orange-yellow. The mouth–

    lining is more or less blue. The eyes are green, the feet black. Young birds

    are grayish brown above, darker on the rump, grayish white on the breast,

    blackish brown on the abdomen, and the gular pouch is dull yellow.

            Many pairs of double-crested cormorants usually nest together, the nests

    sometimes being only a few feet apart. Some colonies establish themselves on

    low islands in salt water, placing the nests on rocks well above the high-water

    mark. Nests frequently are placed in trees. The eggs, like those of most

    Cormorants, are pale bluish green in ground color, with a chalky covering.

    Both sexes incubate. The incubation period is about 25 days (Lewis). The

    106      |      Vol_IV-0164                                                                                                                  
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    young are completely naked, blind, and purplish black at the time of hatching.

    When about 10 days old a short black down covers them. They remain in their

    nests until they are well grown. When their wing and tail feathers reach

    considerable length they leave the nests and gather in companies along the

    shore. When the thickset body plumage has grown in, they take to the water

    and learn to capture their own food. They do not fly until they are about 8

    weeks old.

            References:

    1. Austin, O.L. The Birds of Newfoundland Labrador . Cambridge, Mass., Nuttall

    Ornithological Club, Sept. 1932, p.33. The Club Mem . Vol.17. 2. Gross, O. “The present status of the Double-crested Cormorant on the coast

    of Main,” Auk. Vol.61, pp.513-37, 1944. 3. Lewis, H.F. The Natural History of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacro

    corax auritus auritus (Lesson)) . Ottawa, Quebec Society for the

    Protection of Birds, 1929.

            76. Gannet . A large pelecaniform bird, Morus bassanus, found on both

    sides of the North Atlantic and frequently referred to as the solan goose. It

    is the largest, and probably the best known, species of the family Sulidae

    (gannets and boobies). Several detailed studies of its anatomy and behavior

    have been made. In North America it now breeds at the following places:

    Bon [ ?]venture Island; Gull Cliff Bay, Anticosti; the Bird Rocks in the Megdalens;

    and Cape Saint Mary, Bacalieu Island, and Funk Island, Newfoundland. Formerly

    it nested also on Gannet Rock, Grand Manan, New Brunswick, and on the Perroquet

    Islands, near Mingan, Quebec. In the Old World it nests at numerous localities

    from the British Isles northward to the Outer Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands,

    Faeroes, and Iceland. The northernmost colony in the world is on the islet of

    Grimsey off the north coast of Iceland.



    107      |      Vol_IV-0165                                                                                                                  
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            In 1939, during one breeding season, 27 experienced observers made a

    census of all known gannet breeding colonies except for a small number con–

    taining about 2.5% of the world population. The 22 breeding colonies, of

    which 13 were in Britain and the Faeroes, 3 in Iceland, and 6 in the Gulf of

    St. Lawrence, contained 165,000 ± 9,500 breeding individuals. Fisher and

    Vevers (1944), in reporting on this census, estimated that in 1834 the world

    population of gannets was about 334,000 breeding individuals. So widely were

    the birds and their eggs used for food that the population dwindled to about

    106,000 breeding individuals by 1894, but since that time most colonies have

    been protected and there has been a steady up-climb, especially in southwest

    Britain.

            For nesting the gannet requires cliffs which are close to good fishing

    grounds. In b B ritain its good consists of herring, mackerel, coalfish or

    saithe (family Gadidae), Pollack of lythe, codling, whiting, haddock, power

    cod, sand eel (family Ammodytidae), salmon smolt, sea trout, gurnard, garfish

    (family Belonidae), spart, pilchard, and anchovy (Gurney).

            In winter the species ranges southward to Morocco, the Azores, the Can–

    aries, and the Gulf of Mexico. It has been reported in winter from the Medit–

    terranean and Baltic seas, the coast of Norway, Finland, southern Greenland

    (Julianehaab, Kaersok, Nanortalik), East Greenland (Syd Kap, Scoresby Sound),

    Jan Mayen, and Bear Island. Most birds which wander north of their breeding

    grounds in winter probably are young.

            The gannet is a heavy-bodies bird 3 feet long, with a wingspread of about

    6 feet. When adult it is white with black primaries and a pale buffy-yellow

    wash on the back of the head and beck. The bill is light bluish gray; the

    feet black, darkest on the webs; the eyes yellowish white. Young birds are

    108      |      Vol_IV-0166                                                                                                                  
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    brownish gray, speckled finely all over, especially on the head and neck,

    with white. The fully adult plumage is not attained until the third year,

    subadult birds being piebald.

            The gannet’s diving from the air is truly spectacular. Checking its

    flight over a shoal of fish, it plunges obliquely (sometimes vertically) 40

    feet or more headfirst, with wings half closed, then shuts its wings as, with

    a resounding whack, it strikes the surface, splashing the water upward 10 feet

    or more. It is usually called a “surface feeder,” yet it has been taken in

    nets at depths as great as 80 feet. Sometimes large companies of gannets

    fish together, forming a line which moves gradually upwin g d , each bird reach–

    ing a position above the fish, diving, reappearing, shaking the water from

    its plumage as it rises in flight, then coursing round to the rear of the line,

    and moving forward into position for another dive.

            The nest is a mass of seaweed, grass, campion ( Silene ) and the like,

    place on a ledge or the top of a rocky islet. Usually there is but one egg,

    sets of two probably being the product of two females. The egg has a chalky

    surface layer, which usually obscures the blue ground color, and which quickly

    becomes nest-stained. The yolk is said to be unusually small. The period of

    incubation is 42 to 45 days. Both sexes assist in the incubation. Nesting

    usually starts in April (exceptionally in late March) and continues all sum–

    mer, partly because predation delays the process. One brood is reared per

    year. Complete fledging of the young requires four months or more. The 12–

    to 13-weeks-old bird, which weighs more than its parents, is deserted by them

    (as is the case among most if not all procellariiform birds) and left to live

    upon its own stored fat for ten days or more. Eventually is makes its way to

    the sea, where for some time it devotes its energy to swimming and diving

    rather than flying.



    109      |      Vol_IV-0167                                                                                                                  
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            The gannet is a silent bird save on its nesting ground, where it produces

    a babel of guttural and discordant noises, among them a strident urrah , urrah ;

    a long-drawn-out, wailing yee-orrrr , and the hunger cry of the young bird, a

    high-pitched uk (Kirkman).

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Fisher, James and Vevers, H.G. “The breeding distribution, history and

    population of the North Atlantic Gannet ( Sula bassana ),”

    J. Animal Ecol . Vol.13, pp.49-62, 1944. 2. Gurney, J.H. The Gannet, a Bird with a History . London, witherby, 1913. 3. Vevers, H.G. and Evans, F.C. “A census of breeding Gannets ( Sula bassana )

    on Myggenaes Holm, Faeroes,” J. Animal Ecol . Vol.7, pp.298-302,

    1938.

           

    # # #

            77. Green Cormorant ( Shag ). A well-known pelecaniform bird, Phalacrocorax

    aristotelis ( P. graculus of many reference works), found along the coasts of

    Europe and northern Africa. Three races currently are recognized — ( 1 ) arist o–

    telis, which breeds in Iceland and the Faeroes, from the coast of Norway northward

    and eastward through the western part of the Murman Coast, and on the British

    Isles, the Channel Islands, and the west coast of France, Spain, and Portugal;

    ( 2 ) desmarestii , which breeds on islands and rocky coasts of the Mediterranean

    from the Balearic Islands of Greece (including the Adriatic Sea), and ( 3 ) riggen

    bachi , which breeds on the “west coast of Morocco from Mogador to Cape Blanco

    north” (Peters). It is strictly a coastal (i.e., a salt water) bird. It ap–

    parently migrates but little, since the ocean waters near its breeding grounds

    stay more or less open the year round. In the British Isles, where it is

    110      |      Vol_IV-0168                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Green Cormorant

    called the shag, it is said to be a “scarce visitor inland.” Its distribution

    probably depends largely on two factors — the availability of cliffs or rocky

    islets on which to place its nests, and the abundance of such salt water fish

    as plaice, sillock, wrasse, herring, sprat, and sand eels ( Ammod v y tes ). Of

    188 green cormorant specimens collected off Cornwall, 37% had eaten nothing

    but sand eels (Steven.).

            David Lack has pointed out that although the green cormorant and common

    cormorant “appear to overlap widely in ecology” along thesouthwest, west, and

    north coasts of Britain, they actually “differ widely in both nesting and feed–

    ing requirements.” Both species nest on rocky places overlooking the sea,

    but the green cormorant selects caves, holes, hollows among boulders and narrow

    cliff ledges, while the common cormorant nests on broad ledges or the flat tops

    of stacks and islets. The green cormorant feeds mainly out at sea, seeking

    sheltered waters only during stormy weather, while the common cormorant feeds

    regularly in the shallow waters of estuaries and harbors as well as inland

    on large rivers and reservoirs.

            The green cormorant is about 2 1/2 feet long. The adult is glossy green–

    ish black all over, the back feathers and scapulars each being narrowly bor–

    dered by velvety black. In full nuptial plumage there is an elongate, foreward–

    curled crest in the middle of the crown, and a scattering of fine, cured white

    filoplumes all over the neck. The bill is black, with pale orange-yellow base.

    The naked skin about the eyes is of about the same shade of orange-yellow,

    and the gular sac is black, thickly spotted with yellow. The eyes are sea

    green. Young birds in their first flight plumage are dark brown above and

    brownish white below. A more or less complete molt gives them their first

    winter plumage, which is like the juvenal plumage, but more colorful, the

    111      |      Vol_IV-0169                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Green Cormorant

    feathers of the back being edged with velvety black. This plumage is molted

    when the bird is 12 to 18 months old. The second winter plumage is much like

    that of the adult in winter, but the chin is brownish white and the rest of

    the under parts are brown mixed with dark glossy green. When the bird is

    about 2 1/3 years old at assumes the fully adult plumage.

            The green cormorant’s nest is a pile of seaweed mixed with other vege–

    tation and debris. The eggs, which number 2 to 6, are pale blue in ground

    color, with a chalky-white outer layer. Early eggs frequently are destroyed

    by heavy seas, so fresh eggs have been found as late as May, June, and even

    later (British Isles). Both sexes incubate. The incubation period is 24 to

    27 days The young, when hatched, are brown-skinned, completely naked, and

    blind. The down, which comes in presently, in very thick and brown, whitish

    at the base. This is shed as the juvenal feathers develop.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Lack. David. “The econolgy of closely related species with special ref–

    erence to Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo ) and Shag ( P. aris

    totelis ),” J. Animal Ecol ., vol.14, pp.12-16, 1945. 2. Peters, J.L. Check-List of Birds of the World , Cambridge, Mass. Harvard

    Univ. Press, 1931, vol.1, p.89. 3. Steven, G.A. “The food consumed by shags and cormorants around the

    shores of Cornwall (England),” Marine Biol. Ass. U.K. J . vol.19,

    n.s., pp.277-92, 1933.

    112      |      Vol_IV-0170                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Morus and Pallas’s Cormorant

            78. Morus ( Moris ). A genus of the family Sulidae (gannets and boobies)

    composed of three very similar species — the common gannet or solan goose

    ( M. bassanus ) of the North Atlantic; the Cape Gannet or malagash ( M. capensis )

    of South African coasts; and the Australian gannet ( M. serrator ) of Australia,

    Tasmania, and New Zealand. The genus is closely related to, the doubtfully

    distinct from, Sula , the only other genus of the Sulidae. Morus has 12 tail

    feathers (rather than 14 to 18); a thin median line of bare skin on the thr [ ?] oat;

    and a line of narrow transverse scutes on the tope of each toe and three rows

    of such scutes leading up the front of the tarsus (rather than reticulate scales

    on the tops of the toes and front of the tarsus). Birds of this genus are in–

    habitants of cool waters, whereas all species of the genus Sula live in more or

    less tropical oceans. The only species of the genus Morus which ranges into

    arctic or subarctic waters is the common gannet, which breeds as far north as

    the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Grims e y, off the north coast of Iceland, and which

    wanders northward casually in winter as far as the coast of Norway, southern

    Greenland, Bear Island, and Jan Mayen.

            See Gannet.

            79. Pallas’s Cormorant . An extinct pelecaniform bird, Phalacrocorax

    perspicillatus , whose only known habitat was Bering Island of the Komandorski

    group. It inhabited this island (specifically an off-shore islet known as

    Arii Kamen or Are-Kamen) until about 1850. It was the largest living cormorant

    of its time. It weight, according to Pallas, was 12 to 14 pounds. The

    largest present-day species — the common cormorant ( P. carbo and the flightless

    cormorant ( Nannopterum harrisi ) — are considerably less heavy. It probably

    was nonmigratory, as is the red-faced cormorant ( P. urile ), which has a similar,

    though far less restricted, range.



    113      |      Vol_IV-0171                                                                                                                  
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            In winter it was glossy black all over, without markings or decorative

    feathers of any kind. In full nuptial plumage it was adorned with two prom–

    inent crests — one coronal, the other occipital; a large white patch on

    either flank; and some thinly dispersed, long, narrow, hairlike, straw–

    colored (or white) filoplumes on the face and upper part of the neck. The

    bill probably was dark brown. Pallas described the naked skin at the base

    of the bill as “varied with vermilion, blue, and white as in the Turkey,”

    though Gould described it as “apparently rich orange.” The eyes were sur–

    rounded by a featherless area which was white according to Pallas, but orange

    according to Gould. In any event, this naked space was responsible for the

    name “Spectacled Cormorant” by which the species was sometimes known.

            When Steller was wrecked on Bering Island in 1741, he found Pallas’s

    cormorant numerous there. According to Stejneger, the inhabitants of the

    Komandorskis affirmed that the reason for the species’ extinction was that

    “it was killed in great numbers for food.” This was probably true, although

    what Stejneger himself reported concerning an “epidemic disease” which struck

    the pelagic cormorants of Cooper and Bering Islands in the winter of 1876-77

    leads us to suspect that some such malady may have been partly responsible

    for the disappearance of Pallas’s cormorant.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Baird, S.F., Brewer, T.M. and Ridgway, R. “The water birds of North Amer–

    ica. Vol.2,” Harvard Univ. Mus. Comp. Zool. Mem . Vol.13, pp.

    164-66, 1884. 2. Stejneger, Leonhard. “Results of ornithological explorations in the Com–

    mander Islands and in Kamtschatka,” U.S.Nat. Mus. Bull . no.29,

    pp.180, 190, 1885.

    114      |      Vol_IV-0172                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Pelagic Cormorant

            80. Pelagic Cormorant . A slender, not very large pelecaniform bird,

    Phalacrocorax pelagicus , of the North Pacific. It is not pelagic in the

    sense that many procellariiform birds are, for its inhabits coasts and littoral

    islands rather than the high seas, but it never breeds in the interior on

    freshwater as do the common cormorant ( P. carbo ) and double-crested cormorant

    ( P. auritus ). Two races of the pelagic cormorant are recognized. The northern

    race, P. pelagicus pelagicus , which is usually called the violet-green cor–

    morant, and which is known in Siberia as the Ijurgui and the Oorely (the same

    word as Urile), breeds from Wrangel Island and the arctic coast of northeastern

    Siberia (Cape Irkaipij, now Cape Schmidt; Koliuchin Island; East Cape, now

    Cape Dezhnev), scattered islands in the Bering Sea (the Diomedes, St. Lawrence,

    St. Matthew, Nunivak, and St. Paul), Sledge Island in Norton Sound, the Koman–

    dorskis, and many of the Aleutians, southward on the Asiatic side to the Kurils

    and Japan (Honshu), and on the American side to Cook Inlet, the Alexander

    Archipelago, and the coastal islands of British Columbia. This form may winter

    more or less regularly throughout its breeding range (whe re ver there is open

    water) but it also moves southward as far as China and Puget Sound. The

    southern race, P. pelagicus resplendens (Baird’s cormorant), which is probably

    nonmigratory, breeds along the Pacific coast of North America from the southern–

    most coastal islands of British Columbia south to Los Coronados Islands, Baja

    California.

            The pelagic cormorant is 22 to 28 inches long. Statements which emphasize

    a size-difference between it and the red-faced cormorant ( P. urile ) are apt to

    be misleading. The red-faced cormorant is a heavier, coarser-billed bird, to

    be sure, but the two species are not greatly dissimilar in over-all length,

    despite repeated reference to the pelagic cormoant as a “small, slender” bird.



    115      |      Vol_IV-0173                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton:Pelagic cormorant

            In winter the pelagic cormorant is glossy greenish black all over, without

    conspicuous crests or markings of any sort. In nuptial plumage, however, it

    wears two noticeable crests, one of the crown, the other on the nape; a white

    patch of soft feathers on each flank; and a scattering of delicate white filo–

    plumes on the neck and sometimes the back. As the breeding season advances,

    the papillae on the facial skin brighten, becoming a deep red. A fine Fuertes

    painting, made direct from a freshly captured bird, shows the head and neck of

    the species at the height of the breeding season. The legend on the plate re–

    producing this drawing is, however, erroneous. The lower figure (No. 2)shows

    Phalacrocorax pelagicus . The upper figure (No. 1) is of Phalacrocorax auritus

    cincinatus , the white-crested cormorant (Dall et al .).

            Stejneger has expressed a belief that the pelagic cormorant rears two

    broods of young a summer on the Komandorski Islands. He observed small young in

    many nests in May and again in “the first days of August,” to be sure; but in

    basing his belief in the species’ two-broodedness on such observations, he may

    have failed to allow for the heavy predation which must force many pairs to nest

    late if they are to rear a brood at all. The rearing of a brood requires a long

    time — at least 26 days for incubation and 6 weeks more for fledging, not to men–

    tion nest-building and egg-laying. This late nesting should be studied further.

    Young birds which are breeding for the first time may regularly nest late. Or,

    pairs which have failed to bring out a brood early in the season may delay their

    second attempt until a food supply to exactly the right sort is assured.

            Many authors have described the breeding of this species on “the highest,

    steepest and most inaccessible rocky cliffs” where the nests are “safe from

    the depredations of foxes and men...” Great numbers of the birds usually

    116      |      Vol_IV-0174                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Pelagic Cormorant and Pelecaniformes

    nest together, and the stench from a colony is said to be terrific. Nests

    are used year after year, merely being added to before the 3 to 5 (sometimes

    more) eggs are laid. The ground color of the eggs is pale greenish blue,

    but a chalky surface-layer almost obscures this color. Both sexes incubate.

            When gulls discover a school of fish in the Bering Sea the cormorants

    for miles around are wont to gather promptly and, since the cormorants are

    able to dive for the fish, the gulls have a difficult time obtaining anything

    for themselves. Various species of gulls, notably the ring-billed ( Larus

    delawarensis ), have repreatedly been observed to steal fish [ ?] f rom brown pelicans

    ( Pelecanus occidentalis ) which rise to the surface after a successful dive, but

    when a cormorant comes up with a fish, it holds its prey so firmly or swallows

    it so quickly that no gull can steal it.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull . no.121, pp.271-78, 1922. 2. Dall, V W .H., and others. Alaska; History, Geography, Resources.

    N. Y., Doubleday, 1901, plate opp. p.212 Harriman Alaska

    Expedition , vol.2. 3. Stejneger, Leonhard. “Results of ornithological explorations in the

    Commander Islands and in Kamtschatka,” U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull .

    no.29, pp. 187-88, 1885.

    117      |      Vol_IV-0175                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Pelecaniformes

            81. Pelecaniform e s. Pelecaniform e s. An avian order of large aquatic birds sometimes

    known as the Steganopodes or totipalmate swimmers, which includes such well

    known forms as the pelicans, cormorants, water turkeys or anhingas, tropic

    birds, and man-of-war birds. Diverse as these are in some respects, they

    are alike in possessing four toes which are joined with three webs. The

    hallux (first or hind toe) is webbed to the second or inner toe (not to the

    fourth, or outer) so the bird stands and swims with the webs pointed somewhat

    inward. Throughout the order the tarsus is short and the tongue rather rudi–

    mentary.

            However opinion may differ as to the number of suborders needed for a

    clear understanding of this group, taxonomists agree that living pelecaniform

    birds belong to six families — the Phaëthontidae (tropic birds), Pelecanidae

    (Pelicans), Sulidae (boobies and gannets), Phalacrocoracidae (cormorants),

    Anhingidae (snakebirds, anhingas, or water turkeys), and Fregatidae (frigate

    birds or man-or-war birds). In the Phaëthontidae there are 3 species all be–

    longing to 1 genus ( Phaëthon ); in the Pelecanidae, 8 species belonging to 1

    genus ( Pelecanus ); in the Sulidae, 9 species belonging to 2 genera l ( Sula and

    Morus ); in the Phalacrocoracidae, 30 species belonging to 3 genera ( Phalacro

    corax , Haliëtor and Nannopterum ); in the Anhingidae, 4 species belonging to 1

    genus ( Anhinga ); and the Fregatidae, 5 species belonging to 1 genus ( Fregata ).

    There are, in addition to these living forms, about 50 fossil forms belonging

    to all the above-named families except the Fregatidae, as well as to three fam–

    ilies composed wholly of fossil forms, the Cyphornithidae, Pelagornithidae,

    and Odontopterygidae. Most of these fossil forms have been found in temperate

    parts of Europe or North America, but a few have been found in Australia, and

    118      |      Vol_IV-0176                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Pelecaniformes

    a still smaller number in Asia. Fossils ascribed to the Pelecanidae, Anhingidae,

    and Phaëthontidae date back to lower Eocene times.

            Many extant pelecaniform birds are oceanic and many are more or less trop–

    ical. Since they are all piscivorous, their distribution coincides to a large

    extent with that of certain fishes, a limiting factor in the breeding season

    being the availability of nesting places. The most northward-ranging forms of

    the order place their nests on cliffs or rocky islets, and do not depend on

    vegetation either for protection against the wind and sun or as a means of

    elevating the nest above ground.

            No genus of the order is holarctic in distribution to the extent that the

    procellariiform fulmar ( Fulmarus ) is. The most exclusively northern [ ?] pelecani–

    form bird probably is the red-faced cormorant ( Phalacrocorax urile ), which

    breeds on the arctic coast of extreme northeastern Siberia and on various islands

    in the Bering Sea, and does not range farther south in winter than the Komandor–

    skis, Pribilofs, Aleutians, Kurils and Japan. This species is found only in

    the North Pacific. Certain other cormorants breed to some extent in arctic

    and subarctic regions but also along coasts much farther south. Thus the common

    cormorant ( P. carbo ), which breeds as far north as Japan (and probably Sakhalin

    and the Kurils) in the Pacific, and southern Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and the

    Murman Coast in the Atlantic, breeds also in China, India, Africa, Australia,

    and even New Zealand. The pelagic cormorant ( P. pelagius ), which is found only

    in the North Atlantic, breed northward into the subarctic and arctic, but also

    far to the southward of the Arctic Circle, respectively as far south as Lower

    California and west coast of Morocco. The other three living cormorants

    ( Phalacrocorax capillatus , Heliëtor africanus , and H. pygneus ), discussed by

    119      |      Vol_IV-0177                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Pelecaniformes

    Hartert do not range northward into subarctic regions.

            The only species of the family Sulidae which ranges into the arctic or

    subarctic is the gannet ( Morus bassanus ). This is a North Atlantic bird which

    breeds locally on certain islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Near Newfound–

    land and in Europe northward to Grimsey, off the north coast of Iceland, and

    moves southward as far as the Gulf of Mexico and northern Africa in winter.

            Pelecaniform birds are usually colonial in their nesting. The young of

    most forms are blind and naked at hatching and remain long in the nest. The

    eggs are a [ ?] r ule are unspotted and covered with a chalky layer. The eggs of

    tropic birds, however, are spotted and have no chalky covering; and newly

    hatched gannets and tropic birds are down-covered. Some ornithologists believe

    that the tropic birds are not pelecaniform, but charadriiform. Their spotted

    eggs, downy young, body proportions, bill shape, and satiny plumage to suggest

    close relationship with the terns (family Laridae), and it can be argued that

    their totipalmate condition is a comparatively superficial character.

           

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

            References:

    1. Hartert, Ernest. Vögel der Paläsrktischen Fauna Vögel der Paläsrktischen Fauna. Berlin, Frieländer,

    1910-21. 2 vol. 2. Lanham, U.N. “Notes on the phylogeny of the Pelecaniformes,” Auk , vol.64,

    pp.65-70, 1947.

    120      |      Vol_IV-0178                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Phalacrocoracidae.

            82. Phalacrocoracidae. A family of aquatic, fish-eating birds ranging in size from the common

    cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo ) and flightless cormorant ( Nannopterum har–

    risi
    ), which are about 30 to 40 inches long, down to the pygmy cormorant

    ( Haliëtor pygmeus ), which is just under two feet long. It is the largest

    family of the order Pelicaniformes, and contains 3 genera ( Phalacrocorax,

    Haliëtor , and Nannopterum ) and 30 species — more species than in all the other

    5 pelecaniform families combined. It is an ancient family, too, fossil

    remains of several forms having been found in the New World and the Old dating

    as far back as Eocene times.

            A very special interest attaches to the family because an exclusively

    boreal species, the Pallas’s cormorant ( Phalacrocorax Perspicillatus ), whose

    sole known habitat was Bering Island, has become extinct within the past cen–

    tury. This bird, which was the largest cormorant of its time, probably was

    nonmigratory. The waters about Bering Island never froze and fish were always

    available. Only five specimens of this bird are now in existence.

            Another interesting fact about the family Phalacrocoracidae is that it has

    been in existence long enough for one form to establish itself, and even to

    become flightless, on certain islands of the Galapagos Archipelago. This bird,

    which is known as the flightless (or Harris’s) cormorant, was discovered in

    1898.

            The closest relatives [ ?] of the cormorants are the snakebirds or anhingas

    (family Anhingidae), which by some [ ?] systematists have been placed in the Phala–

    crocoracidae and given subfamily ranking. The two groups to have certain im–

    potant characters in common. Both have dense, almost uninterrupted, feather

    covering; very short legs, placed far back in the body; more or less conspicuous

    gular pouch and loose neck skin which accomodates itself to the swallowing of

    121      |      Vol_IV-0179                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Phalacrocoracidae

    astonishingly large fish; and rather long, very stiff tail feathers. Points

    of difference are these: 1 . The cormorants have a powerful, strongly hooked

    bill with smooth cutting edge, the snakebirds a long, straight, very slender

    bill with finely serrated cutting edge. 2 . The cormorants have a well–

    developed occipital style. In the snakebirds this bone is very poorly devel–

    oped. 3 . The tail of the snakebirds is proportionately longer than that of

    the cormorants, and the middle rectrices are transversely corrugated or ribbed.

    4 . The snakebirds’ wings are proportionately longer than the cormorants’,

    permitting the bird to soar gracefully. Cormorants to not soar. 5 . The neck

    of the snakebird can be doubled back upon itself in such a way as to assist

    the bird in capturing fish, and also in streamlining its body for soaring

    flight. The mechanism probably involves a modification of bones, muscles,

    and tendons.

            Cormorants are long and powerful of body and stand upright, sometimes

    using their tails as props. Their tail bones and muscles are well developed.

    They swim and dive expertly, using their wings a great deal when maneuvering

    under water. In most species the throat and fact are naked and the eyes green

    or blue. The plumage is usually compact, dark colored, and glossy. Several

    species are boldly marked with white in adult plumage, but dull brownish gray

    (lighter below) in their first winter plumage. Others are dull olive gray all

    over at all seasons. The head is often crested in the breeding season, and the

    head and neck are sometimes decorated with soft, white, filamentous feathers

    which drop off when breeeding is over. The pelagic cormorant ( P. pelagicus )

    of the North Pacific is a gorgeous creature at the height of its breeding sea–

    son. Its black plumage is highly iridescent, and the two crests, the white

    patch on each flank, the snowy filoplumes on the neck, and the rich red of the

    122      |      Vol_IV-0180                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Phalacrocoracidae

    naked face are very showy.

            The cormorants are almost cosmopolitan in distribution (save for the

    central Pacific Ocean), ranging from the arctic coast of Siberia, southern

    Greenland, Iceland, northern Norway and the Murman coast southward almost (if

    not quite) to the Antarctic Circle, and being most abundant in the southern

    Hemisphere. They are gregarious birds, sometimes nesting together in huge

    colonies either by themselves or with other species. The distribution of these

    colonies probably depends to a large extent on the food supply. Many species

    nest only along the ocean shore, but others, such as the double-crested cor–

    morant ( P. auritus ) of North America nest on inland lakes where food is abundant.

    The nest is usually crudely built of twigs, debris or seaweed, placed on the

    ground on an islet far out from shore, on the face of a cliff, or in a tree.

    The eggs, which number 3 to 5 or more, have a pale bluish-green ground color,

    but this is obscured by a rough and dirty surface layer of calcareous matter.

    The young, which are utterly naked and helpless at the time of hatching, stay

    in the nest for several weeks. They obtain food by reaching their heads into

    the well-filled gular sacs of their parents.

            The family p P halacrocoracidae is not heavily represented in boreal regions.

    The red-faced cormorant ( P. urile ) is exclusively arctic and subarctic, being

    found only in the Bering Sea and along the coast of extreme northeastern Siberia

    (Cape Schmidt). The extinct Pallas’s cormorant, above referred to, may once

    have had a somewhat similar distribution. The common cormorant ( P. carbo )

    ranges farther northward in the Atlantic than in the Pacific, being found well

    beyond the Arctic Circle (Norway and Murman coast) in Europe, and almost as

    far north as the Arctic Circle in Greenland, but only as far as Japan, Sakhalin,

    and the Kurls in Asia. The shag ( P. aristotelis ) is found only in the eastern

    123      |      Vol_IV-0181                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Phalacrocoracidae

    North Atlantic. Its distribution along arctic and subarctic coasts is much

    the same as that of P. carbo in north Europe, but it does not breed anywhere

    in North America or Greenland. The pelagic cormorant ( P. pelagicus ) is found

    only in the North Pacific. It ranges northward from southern China and Baja

    California to the Bering Sea, being found on the arctic coast of eastern

    Siberia, but not, apparently, on the arctic coast of Alaska, the shore there

    presumably being too flat, or too free of offshore rocky islets

            83. Phalacrocorax . A genus composed of 25 species of cormorants (family

    Phalacrocoracidae), most of them rather large. In 11 species geographical

    variation is so great that recognizable subspecies or races have evolved.

    Thus the common cormorant ( P. carbo ), which is almost cosmopolitan in distri–

    bution except for South America, is represented by no fewer than 8 subspecies,

    two of which ( carbo and hanadae ) range into arctic or subarctic waters; the

    double-crested cormorant ( P. auritus ) is represented by four races, one of

    which ( P. auritus cincinatus ) ranges northward along the Pacific coast of

    North America as far as Kodiak Island and the coast of the Alaska Peninsula;

    the shag ( P. aristotelis ) is represented by three races, one of which ( aristo

    telis ) nests northward beyond the Arctic Circle in Europe; and the pelagic

    cormorant ( P. pelagicus ) is represented by 2 races, one of which ( pelagicus )

    breeds northward in the Pacific Ocean to the Bering Sea and the arctic coast

    of eastern Siberia. Two species, the red-faced cormorant ( P. urile ) and the

    Pallas’s cormorant ( P. perspicillatus ) have had a limited range in the North

    Pacific and have not varied geographically. The red-faced cormorant now breeds

    on islands in the Bering Sea and northward to beyond the Arctic Circle on the

    arctic coast of extreme northeastern Siberia, wintering no farther south than

    the Kurils, Aleutians, Komandorskis, and Japan. Pallas’s cormorant has been

    124      |      Vol_IV-0182                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Phalacrocorax

    extinct since 1852. Its sole known habitat was Bering Island.

            Murphy (1936. Oceanic Birds of South America , 2: 870), commenting on

    the distribution of cormorants, says: “In the northern hemisphere there

    are many cormorants of a common type which have taken to the interiors of

    the great continents and have thus become inland no less than coastal birds.

    Some of these have also penetrated southward into Africa and Australia.

    South America, however, has but one species of this stamp, namely Phalacrocorax

    olivaceus , which is … equally at home in either salt water or fresh.” It

    is true that some cormorants of the Northern Hemisphere are “inland as well

    as coastal birds” (e.g., the double-crested cormorant of North America); but

    the cormorants which breed in arctic and subarctic regions are all primarily

    coastal, i.e., salt-water species, insofar as the arctic parts of their ranges

    are concerned. An interesting fact about these boreal species is that they

    are all relatively nonmigratory. Their nesting places are close to oceanic

    waters which are open the year round, hence a supply of food is always avail–

    able.

            The genus Phalacrocorax is an ancient one, fossil species dating back to

    the lower Miocene having been found in North America (Montana) and to the

    lower Pliocene in Europe. Concerning certain Oligocene cormorants there is a

    difference of opinion, some authors placing them in the genus Phalacrocorax ,

    others in a separate genus, Oligocorax . One present-day species, P. auritus ,

    has been reported from the Pleistocene of Florida and California. The genus

    is now almost cosmopolitan, being found as far south as Tierra del Fuego, the

    Falklands, South Georgia, New Zealand, and the scattered islands of that area,

    and even the South Shetlands and South Ork [ ?] neys . The most southward ranging of

    125      |      Vol_IV-0183                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Phalacrocorax and red-faced cormorant

    all is the Antarctic blue-eyed shag ( P. atriceps subspecies), which inhabits

    “the southerly islands of the Scotia Arc, including the South Sandwich, South

    Orkney, and South Shetland groups; and the islands of the Antarctic Archipelago

    southward to latitude 65° S., or beyond” (Murphy, op. cit., p.889).

            84. Red-faced Cormorant . A large pelecaniform (steganopod) bird, [ ?]

    Phalacrocorax urile , found only in the North Pacific and adjacent waters of

    the Arctic Sea. It breeds on the arctic coast of eastern Siberia (at Cape

    Schmidt and perhaps at other points); on Bering (Arii Kamen) and Copper Islands

    in the Komandorskis; and on the Bogoslofs, the Pribilofs (St. Paul, St. George,

    Otter, and Walrus islands), and certain of the eastern Aleutians (Adak, Akun,

    and Amak). Reports of its breeding on the coast of Kamchatka and on the Kurils

    have not been confirmed. It is apparently [ ?] somewhat migratory, for it has been

    seen in winter from the Komandorskis, Aleutians, and Pribilofs southward to

    Kamchatka, the Kurils, and Japan, but it probably winters wherever there is

    open water and a good fish supply. Early works, such as Kraschenninnikov’s

    The History of Kamtschatka , referred to this bird as the ouril or urile (whence

    the scientific name) but this native name was (and is) applied to cormorants

    in general. In ornithological writing there has been such confusion concerning

    the descriptions of, hence the correct names for, the three cormorants of the

    Bering Sea, some descriptions seeming to apply almost equally well to the red–

    faced species, the pelagic cormorant ( P. pelagicus ), and the now extinct

    Pallas’s cormorant ( P. perspicillatus ).

            The red-faced cormorant is about 30 inches long. Adults in winter are

    glossy greenish black all over and without conspicuous crests. In nuptial

    plumage, however, two glossy bronze crests appear on the head — one on the

    126      |      Vol_IV-0184                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Red-faced Cormorant

    nape, the other on the crown; and a bold, snow-white patch appears on each

    flank. The forehead is not feathered. The bill is bluish horn color (darker

    along the culmen and at the tip); the naked skin of the forehead and face is

    bright orange; and the gular sac is blue bordered at the near with purplish

    red. The ey e s are said to be brown, but so many cormorants are normally green–

    or blue-eyed that this report needs confirmation. Young birds in their first

    flight plumage are dark brown and not easy to distinguish from young pelagic

    cormorants, especially since the forehead is equally well feathered in the

    two species at this stage. Red-faced cormorants do not assume fully adult

    plumage until they are three or more years old.

            The breeding season of the Red-faced Cormorant begins two or three weeks

    earlier than that of most Bering Sea birds, the exceptions being the glaucous

    and glaucous-winged gulls. Well incubated eggs have been found as early as

    June 1, and young about a week old in mid-June. Since the gulls rob a great

    many cormorant nests, some sets of eggs are laid late (probably as late as

    July). The eggs number 3 to 5 and are pale bluish white in ground color, with

    a rough chalklike covering. Stejneger tells us that the ground color of the

    eggs is perceptibly bluer than that of pelagic cormorant eggs; that the newly

    hatched young of urile can be distinguished from that of pelagicus by the

    greater width of the bill at the base and the definitely white gular pouch;

    and that somewhat older young are recognizable from the down (which is dusky,

    tipped with brownish gray) and the large spot on each thigh which is dotted

    with white ( [ ?]1885. Bull. U. S. Natl. 29: 185).

            References:

    1. Bent, A.C. “Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and

    their allies,” U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull . no.21, pp.279-82, 1922. 2. Krasheninnikov, S.P. Opisanie Zemli Kemchatki . St. Petersburg, Akad.

    Nauk, 18 1755.

    127      |      Vol_IV-0185                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Shag and Sulidae

    3. Palmer, Williams. “The avifauna of the Pribilof Islands,” Jordan, D.S.

    The Fur Seals and Fur-Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean .

    Wash. G.P.O. 1899, pt. 3, pp.373, 378. 4. Stejneger, L.H. “Results of the ornithological explorations — the Com–

    mander Islands and in Kamtschatka,” U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull . no.29,

    p. 185, 1885.

            85. Shag. 1 . The only common name in general use in Great Britain for

    the green cormorant ( Phalacrocorax aristotelis ), q.v.

            2 . A common name widely used among sailors and fishermen for

    cormorants of any sort. The word is used in Australia, New Zealand, the Falkland

    Islands, along the Labrador, in Newfoundland — in short, wherever English is

    spoken. Except in Great Britain, the words cormorant and shag may be considered

    interchangeable. In Great Britain the cormorant is the large common cormorant,

    Phalacrocorax carbo; the shag is the considerably smaller green cormorant,

    P. aristotelis ( P. graculus of many authors).

            88. Sulidae . A family of large pelecaniform (Steganopod) sea birds, com–

    monly known as the gannets and boobies. They range from about 28 to 36 inches

    in length. They subsist wholly on fish, which they usually capture with a spec–

    tacular plunge from the air. Their plumage is compace and rather hard, and under

    the skin there is a thick layer of air cells which absorbs part of the shock in

    diving. Their bill is stout, straight, pointed, and gradually tapering toward

    the en[d?]. It is slightly curved at the tip, but never hooked as in the Phalacro–

    coracidae (cormorants). Its cutting edges are finely serrated, as in the Angingidae

    128      |      Vol_IV-0186                                                                                                                  
    EA-Orn. Sutton: Sulidae

    (snakebirds or darters). The upper mandible is angled in front of the lores

    and there is a deep groove along the side of the culmen. In adults the

    nostrils are completely closed, as in the cormorants. The lores, chin, and

    part of the throat are more or less bare, but there is no well-defined gular

    sac. The wings are long and pointed, the outermost primary being the longest.

    The tail is long and wedge-shaped, and composed of 12 to 18 rectrices. The

    scales of the tarsus and tops of the toes are reticulate in most species,

    but in the gannet ( Morus bassanus ) there is a line of narrow transverse scales

    on each toe which continues separately up the front of the tarsus. The tarsus

    is shorter than the foot. The claw of the middle toe is pectinate along the

    inner edge. Most species of the family nest on ledges on cliffs, or on the

    ground on islands. Only one species — the red-footed booby ( Sula sula ) —

    nests regularly in trees. Some species lay one egg, others two; one brood a

    year is reared.

            The Sulidae do not have syringeal muscles. Murphy has described in detail

    the voice and vocal apparatus of the camanay or blue-footed booby ( Sula

    nebouxii ). The cires of adult females and young birds of both sexes are

    “strident, raucous trumpetings,” those of adult males mild and plaintive

    whistles. “The change in the voice of the males comes with maturity, when the

    delicate vibrating membrane of the vocal organ grows out to form a hard, egg–

    shaped chamber, thus converting a trumpet into a whistle! The same mechanism,